3 Hmmmmm?!Top geneticist Steve Jones blurs the issue by saying that the idea that black people are good at sport is meaningless - "I've never seen a pygmy win anything and they're black, too..." - in an effort to dismiss the concept of racial purity.Meanwhile, "race scientist" Jean-Phillipe Rushton posits a view which caused riots on his Canadian campus. He says that black people have a narrow pelvis which helps them run fast but that the downside means they are born with smaller heads and, therefore, smaller brains.
4 Sport CentralityThe closer you get to the central/thinking/leading positions in sport, the whiter the athletes get.
5 Stacking TheoryCertain positions in sport, and sports themselves, are dominated by athletes of a particular race.
6 DefinitionsRace: Categories of people (genetically transmitted traits) ... concept of mutual exclusivity (you're either one or the other - can't be both).Ethnicity: Cultural heritage, not based on genetics.Ethnic group: Group of people who share a common cultural background and are therefore socially distinct.Bigotry: A set of attitudes and beliefs which defines a group of people as being different, and inferior to oneself.
7 Implications of the Concept of Race Contrasting explanations of success:White success - character, dedication, work ethic, intelligence, etc.Black success - natural physical abilityTraditional cultural definitions:All-white = white"not" all-white = blackRule of "hypo-descent"If someone had even "one drop of black blood" they were considered black
8 Con’td Legacy of this rule carries over to today: e.g. Tiger Woods: Thai, Chinese, African American, Native American, white EuropeanYet he is classified as black
9 Race Logic in Euro-American History Social Darwinism belief that white people are favored by evolution, and deserved to be in power (race logic)Eventually led to institutionalized set of beliefs about relationship between skin color and IQ, character and physical characteristicsUnderlying belief did not changeJoe Louis example (depiction as an animal in published news stories)
10 Racial Stacking in Sport “Players from a certain racial or ethnic group being either over- or under-represented at certain positions in team sports”
11 Stacking Patterns in Sports Can you think of any examples?
12 Stacking Patterns in Team Sports Allocation to playing position is strongly related to the perception of the abilities of the athlete:“thinking positions" have gone to white playersMLB: black players concentrated in outfield positions, white players on all infield positions except first baseFootball: black players: safety, cornerback, end; white players: quarterback, guard, middle linebacker
13 BB: black players - forward; white players - guard and center Women's VB: black players - spiker; white players - setter and bumberHockey: French Canadians - goalie, English Canadians - defenseBritish Soccer: black West Indians/Africans - forward positions; withes - goalie and midfielder
14 Swiss skiers are very successful, but are not successful because of biology Skiing learned earlySkiing valued in Swiss cultureOther examples:Weight-lifting success of Bulgarian menCross-country skiing success of SkandanaviansHockey success of CanadiansWestern racial ideology: explanation of non-white sport success in terms of racial differences
15 Why does racial stacking exist? Intelligence, leadership and decision-making - white strengthsRunning and jumping - black strengthsSelf-stacking: belief that opportunities exist only in certain positions - self-fulfilling prophecyRiders:Sports change, and so does stackingComplex causal chains: history, ethnic backgrounds of coaches, change in positional responsibilities, etc.
16 But… Why is NBA and NFL predominently dominated by ‘blacks’ Why is NHL and skiing dominated by ‘whites’Genetics or Environment?Is racism blatantly evident in North American sports? Ex?
17 Racism in SportHave you ever witnessed racism in sport?