Presentation on theme: "GREEN CHEMISTRY CURRICULUM IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS"— Presentation transcript:
1GREEN CHEMISTRY CURRICULUM IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS ByKunle Oke OloruntegbeMathematics & Science Education,University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur,Malaysia.
2TO START WITH‘’The term green chemistry describes an area of research arising from scientific discoveries about pollution and public perception in much the same way as the identification and understanding of a deadly disease stimulate the call for a cure’’"Green chemistry represents the pillars that hold up our sustainable future. It is imperative to teach the value of green chemistry to tomorrow's chemists”“We believe that it is very important that university students be exposed to real-world, state-of-art examples of green chemistry (environmentally benign chemistry) in the mainstream courses that they encounter in a typical college chemistry curriculum”. Many industries are now practicing green chemical principles. Those students who are versed in green chemistry will be most attractive to these industries, and will be able to foster the practice of green chemistryin these industries, and initiate the practice and discussion of green chemistry throughout industry and academia.Busch, D. (2000). Greening Across the Chemistry Curriculum. US Scranton Green Chemistry
3Green chemistry is taking an independent form as an amalgam of other chemical disciplines, especially organic, inorganic and biological chemistry. The genesis of green chemistry as a mission-oriented scientific field in the modern sense might be traced o the official launch by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1991 of the Alternative Synthetic pathway for Pollution Prevention Grants solicitation. Prior to this time concern for the environment had helped to generate a large amount of research in specific areas, especially energy
4OBJECTIVES OF THE SYMPOSIUM Reasons for green chemistry curriculum Developing green chemistry curriculumImplementing green chemistry curriculum
5Experts gather to discuss why green chemistry The path that the field of chemistry has taken over the course of the past 200years is one of creativity, innovation, and discovery. It is also a path that we as chemists have followed without fully considering the consequences of either what we have created or the methods and processes we have used to do so. Thisis largely due to the fact that historically we have had little understanding of the impact of chemicals on human health and the environment. In recent decades, science has dramatically increased our knowledge of the various types of adverse consequences of chemicals. More importantly, it has begun to provide us with a molecular-level understanding of these consequences, thereby allowing us to design our chemical products and transformation processes in order to minimize these adverse consequences. This is the basis of the green chemistry movement, which has been bringing about a wide range of innovations throughout the chemical enterprise. It is generally accepted that if the still-nascent field of green chemistry is going to have the impact required to allow chemists to play their central role in designing a safer, healthier, and more sustainable world, we must teach the nextgeneration of scientists and educated citizens the fundamental framework of green chemistry. (In Green Chemistry Education; Anastas, P., et al.; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2009)./
6Biggest health dangers behind oil spill Gas flaring constitutes problem to the living environment causing health hazards both to flora and faunaBiggest health dangers behind oil spillHow should education change to better promote a sustainable future? In most universities the requirements of understanding for new chemists in thefundamentals of sustainability ethics, toxicity and ecotoxicity asymptotically approachzero. When, where, and how will this knowledge that is pivotal for producing chemistswho can competently advance towards a sustainable future through their work beintroduced into the curriculum? (GUEST EDITORIAL: Green Chemistry. The RoyalSociety of Chemistry 2003)
7Human and animals are equally affected as well as plants Pollution comes from many sources. The effects are diverse and graveHuman and animals are equally affected as well as plants
8SEA OF FLOATSThousands of Chinese pack Asia’s biggest floating swimming pool to cool off from the summer heat in Suining, Southwest China’s Sichuan Province on Tuesday Jul 22, The temperature had reached 40oC. Many also resorted to jumping into the polluted Yangtze river to cool off. China is undergoing severe conditions, with the southern region experiencing deadly floods
9Climate change and the integrity of science Climate change represents a real threat to the existence of humanity, of living beings and our Mother Earth. Noting the serious danger that exists to islands, coastal areas, glaciers in the Himalayas, the Andes and mountains of the world, poles of the Earth, warm regions like Africa, water sources, populations affected by increasing natural disasters, plants and animals, and ecosystems in general;World's People Conference on Climate ChangeClimate change and the integrity of science
10GLOBAL EFFORTS IN TEACHING GREEN CHEMISTRY Figure 1. Growth in global green chemistry research and education, (top) In the early 1990s, greenchemistry efforts were focused mainly in the United States, Italy, and the United Kingdom,(middle) The late 1990s and early 2000s saw green chemistry networks and GCI chapters makeinroads in South America, Asia, and Oceania, (bottom) As of2008, green chemistry initiativesare underway in Africa, and gains on virtually every continent have been made. (In Green Chemistry Education; Anastas, P., et al.; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2009).
11GLOBAL EFFORTS IN TEACHING GREEN CHEMISTRY From Postgraduate Summer School on Green Chemistry, initiated by INCA in 1998 through Los Alamos National Laboratory’s two-week workshop in 2001 for 40 young scientists from developing countries to Italy's INCA consortium organized Italian-North African Workshop on Sustainable Chemistry in 2002 to promote green chemistry education in Italy, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, and Egypt, the effort is spreading. Ethiopia has recently emerged as a significant green chemistry center: as of 2007, three annual workshops have already been held there.Topics such as catalysis, alternative solvents, green reagents, and research policy form the central themes of discussion in these workshops. Green catalysis, biocatalysts, selective activation, renewable sources of chemicals are others.INCA – Interuniversity National Consortium
12OBJECTIVES OF FIRST COLLEGE-LEVEL COURSE IN GREEN CHEMISTRY taught by Professor Terry Collins at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)To understand sustainability ethics as they apply to chemistry and establish the arguments for recognizing "green" criteria.To reflect on motives and forces that have entrenched technologies that are obviously or potentially harmful to the environment (7).To define "green chemistry", place its development in a historical context, introduce the 12 Principles, and study successful examples of green technologies.To identify the key challenges facing green chemistry and consider what will be required to solve them (8).To identify reagents, reactions, and technologies that should be and realistically could be targeted for replacement by green alternatives.To understand the history, meaning, and importance of persistent and bioaccumulative pollutants and endocrine disruptors which present major environmental and health threats.To become familiar with leading research in green chemistry and the related fields of public health and sustainability science
13Developing Curriculum in Green Chemistry Objectives of the Curriculum To understand the importance of Green chemistry for sustainabilityTo design and interpret greener route to the traditional chemical reactionsTo learn how to apply green chemistry in the laboratoryTo learn how to apply green chemistry daily in our environment
14Raplh Tyler, Hilda Taba, Wheeler or Lawton? Consensus of ideas What model to use?Raplh Tyler, Hilda Taba, Wheeler or Lawton? Consensus of ideasSelection of objectivesSelection of learning experiencesOrganization of learning experiencesEvaluation of outcomesDerive objectives from:(i) The learners(ii) The society(iii) The subject specialistsFilter them through psychological and philosophical screen (Urebvu, 1987)
15Primary sources of objectives and learning experiences What constitutes the environmentThe environment – of what important it isChanges in the environmentOur contributions to these changesHow do these changes affect the learners and the societyPreventing undesirable changes from taking placeCombating the effects
16Contributions from subject specialists What green chemistry isThe 12 principles of green chemistryThe 9 green engineering green principlesApplication of the principles in chemical processes and practicesAdvantages of green chemistrySources, distribution and impacts of atmospheric pollutants
17What green chemistry is? Definition: the use of chemistry techniques and methodologies that reduce or eliminate the use or generation of feedstocks, products, byproducts, solvents, reagents, etc. that are hazardous to human health or the environmentTwelve Principles of Green Chemistry provide a framework for scientists and engineers to use when designing new materials, products, processes and systems.They focus thinking in terms of sustainable design criteriaPrevention - It is better to prevent waste than to treat or clean up waste after it has been created.Safer Solvents and Auxiliaries - The use of auxiliary substances (e.g., solvents, separation agents, etc.) should be made unnecessary wherever possible and innocuous when used.Design for Energy Efficiency - Energy requirements of chemical processes should be recognized for their environmental and economic impacts and should be minimized. If possible, synthetic methods should be conducted at ambient temperature and pressure.Reduce Derivatives - Unnecessary derivatization (use of blocking groups, protection/ deprotection, temporary modification of physical/chemical processes) should be minimized or avoided if possible, because such steps require additional reagents and can generate waste.Real-time analysis for Pollution Prevention - Analytical methodologies need to be further developed to allow for real-time, in-process monitoring and control prior to the formation of hazardousInherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention - Substances and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should be chosen to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases, explosions, and fires.
18Six are applicable to green analytical methodology Prevention of wasteUse safer solventsDesign for energy efficiencyReduce use of derivativesUse real-time analysisSelect safe substances to useSimply stated, “Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry techniques and methodologies that reduce or eliminate the use or generation of feedstocks, products, byproducts, solvents, reagents, etc. that are hazardous to human health or the environment.” [Anastas, P. T., Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1999, 29(3): ]Thus, an important goal of green chemistry is to reduce hazards associated with products and processes that are essential to the world economy and to sustain the high quality of living that we enjoy through chemistry.Green chemistry seeks to achieve this goal by reducing or eliminating as much risk as possible associated with chemical processes. If chemical hazards can be reduced then risks from using or being exposed to chemicals is also reduced.Hazards from chemicals go beyond toxicity (acute and chronic) to include carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, explosivity, flammability, and corrosivity as well as include environmental impacts such as atmospheric damage and global climate change. [Anastas, P. T., Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1999, 29(3): ]
19Waste Materials Hazard Risks Energy Cost GREEN CHEMISTRY IS ABOUT REDUCINGMaterialsHazardRisksEnergyCost
20Topics Sourced from subject specialists could include Ozone hole and troposheric air pollution: carbon dioxide as areplacement for CFCs and hydrocarbon blowing agents;surfactants for carbon dioxide so that carbon dioxide can beused to replace VOCs.Pesticides: readily biodegradable marine antifoulant asreplacement for tributyltin oxide; selective pesticides asreplacements for broad spectrum pesticides.Toxic organic chemicals (e.g. dioxins): activators of hydrogenperoxide to replace chlorine bleaching agents.Polluted water and sewage treatment: biodegradable scaleinhibitors and dispersing agents as a replacement forpolyacrylate polymer.Solid waste, landfills and closed loop recycling: Petretecprocess for conversion of PET back into its monomers andreformation into virgin PET.Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry provide a framework for scientists and engineers to use when designing new materials, products, processes and systems. [Anastas, P. T. and Warner, J. C. Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice, Oxford University Press: New York, 1998.]The principles focus thinking in terms of sustainable design criteria and have proven to be the source of innovative solutions to a wide range of problems. About half of these principles apply to green analytical chemistry.Those that are most relevant to, or most commonly encountered in, analytical chemistry are listed in the next slide.
21Specific industrial processes from chemistry Haber process- production of ammoniaContact process – of tetraoxosulphate(VI) acidProduction of industrial chemicalsUse of catalysts in green chemistry – teaching the basic structures and uses of zeolites and other catalystsTeaching green chemistry as a tool to sustainability and industrial ecology
22Organization of learning experiences, and Implementation The learning experiences itemized above (not exhaustive) can be organized sequentially on interdisciplinary basis and implemented (taught) through different modes such asLectureClassroom discussionLaboratory exercisesOutdoor activities and projectsSeminar presentationThe golden rule is that teaching must be in harmony with practice (Wardencki et al, 2004)
23Evaluation of learning outcomes Three levels of learning outcomes need be evaluated. These are:Concept formationSkill developmentDevelopment of appropriate attitude(Green chemistry is a course meant to develop more of skills and appropriate green attitude)Assessment could be throughPerformance assessmentPractical exercises and observationJournal keeping and seminar presentationProject design and project work
24CONCLUSIONStudents of today and the scientific community of tomorrow would benefit from the introduction of green chemistry curriculum in the secondary schools. Increasing communication and awareness among chemists, engineers, policy makers and the general public will lead to a greater responsibility for environment al and global issues. Students will enter the professional world with knowledge of the weaknesses of current industrial processes, coupled with motivation for the development of solutions based on green chemistry principles. Green chemistry can provide the required knowledge and awareness to develop the technologies that are necessary to achieve the ultimate goal of a sustainable world. Green Chemistry in the Curriculum (Birgit Braun et, 2006)..
25BibliographyAdvanstar Communication Inc (2010). Green Chemistry. E-Separation Solutions, Sept. 14, 2009Anastas, P.T. & Beach, E.S. Changing the Course of Chemistry. Center for Green Chemistry and Engineering, Chemistry, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Chemical Engineering Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520Cann, M. C. (2009). Greening the chemistry lecture curriculum: Now is the time to infuse existing mainstream textbooks with green chemistry. ACS Symposium Series 1011Collins, T. (2003). The importance of ethics, toxicity and ecotoxicity in chemical education and research. Green Chemistry, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2003Gron, L.U. (2009). Green analytical chemistry: application and education. ACS Symposium Series, 1011.Keith, L.H. Environmental and Chemical Safety Institute.Kitchens, C., Charney, R. Naistat, D., Farrugia, J., Clarens, A., O’Neil, A. Lisowski, C.& Braun, B. (2006). Completing our education. green chemistry in the curriculum. Journal of Chemical Education, 83, 8, 1126.Stephen, K. R. & En Waashington (2001). Green Chemistry. Chemical & Engineering News, 79, 29, 27-34Wardencki, W., Curylo, J. & Nameisnik, J. Green chemistry - future and current issues. Polish journal of Environmental Studies, 14, 4,Green Chemistry in the High School: Featuring Curriculum “”for Teachers and by Teachers” Beyond benign: green chemistry curriculum.mhtGreen Chemistry with Zeolite Catalysts. Chemical Engineering tools and Information cheresources.com.Green It: Taking the Green Path. Environmental Development in Malaysia.mht
26THANK YOU FOR LISTENING STAY GREEN WITH GREEN CHEMISTRY