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John Haworth PhD Visiting Research Fellow. Manchester Metropolitan University. websites

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1 John Haworth PhD Visiting Research Fellow. Manchester Metropolitan University. websites Creativity in Digital Fine Art Creativity in Digital Fine Art Fragmenting Square Post As is well known, the square has been an important element in the work of modernist artists searching for pure form and beauty, and absolute truth and meaning. The post-modern age questioned the viability of this. September 11 saw further crumbling of the certainties. But perhaps the print contains delicate potentials for growth and relationships. Vibrant Transience.

2 New Square Tahrir Square Creativity and innovation are increasingly important areas of endeavour and research (Haworth, J.T (In press) Creativity, Freedom and Constraint. In (ed) E.G. Carayannis. Encyclopaedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship. Heidelberg: Springer- Verlag).

3 Towards the Future 2012 A picture of the Large Hadron Collider, at which the Higgs Bosun was found, was superimposed on New Square, and the print given a spin. The theory of Supersymmetry to explain the fabric of reality is not yet verified. Research into mind, matter and creativity has similar optimistic challenges.

4 MIND, MATTER AND CREATIVITY Perspectives in psychiatry, and research into mirror neurons are informative Vitorio Gallese has emphasised the importance of his research into mirror neurons for both psychoanalysis, providing a biological grounding for therapy, and for aesthetics. The art work becomes the mediator of the sensory-motor and emotional resonance that establishes between the artist and the observer, thus allowing beholders to feel the artwork in an embodied manner Gallese (2011) Seeing art….beyond vision. Liberated embodied simulation in aesthetic experience.

5 The previous pictures resulted from interdisciplinary practice-led research by the author into creativity and embodied mind in digital fine art; which has been funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council (www.creativity-embodiedmind.com)www.creativity-embodiedmind.com The Arts and Humanities Research Council project used the theories of Merleau-Ponty on perception, creativity and embodied mind. In Phenomenology of Perception Merleau-Ponty (1962) argues thatconsciousness is in the first place not a matter of 'I think that', but of 'I can (p 137). The critical reflections of artists were used by, Merleau-Ponty, in an Embodiment Theory of Art (Haworth 1990, 1997) which views the artwork as enriched being in its own right, as distinct from an analogue for an external truth or essence, as traditional aesthetic theory claims. The Embodiment Theory of Art proposes that art is not produced primarily by intentional acts, the traditional view, but by the reciprocal influence of consciousness, the body, techniques and materials. It emphasises the importance of both reflexive and pre-reflexive thought in creativity, knowing and understanding. InSense and Nonsensep 59 Merleau-Ponty (1964) claimed that modes of thought correspond to technical methods, and that to use Goethes phrase what is inside is also outside.

6 Merleau-Ponty offers us a route to follow in bringing understanding of creativity and embodied mind into increased visibility (e.g. interviews with artists, plus workshops and exhibitions, and practice-led research, Haworth, J.T. Creativity in Digital Fine Art. In (ed) A. Scarinzi Aesthetics and the Embodied Mind: Beyond Art Theory and the Cartesian Mind-Body Dichotomy. Heidelberg: Springer- Verlag. Book submitted to publisher. In the posthumous publication The Visible and the Invisible edited by C. LeFort (1968) Merleau-Ponty viewed his theories as incomplete, and indicated that one of the areas destined for review was the study of the imaginary which is not simply the production of mental images, but the baroque proliferation of generating axes for visibility in the duplicity of the real p. lii. The illustrated talk will use the perspectives of Merleau-Ponty in a discussion of the production of digital prints based on a log of the creative process, first used in interdisciplinary practice-led research on explorations in Creativity and embodied mind in digital fine art funded by the AHRC (Haworth 2010, 2013). The talk will also illustrate the development of an innovative project, on A day in the life of---, which crosses the borders of visual research methods, printmaking, and subjective well- being. See Pointers towards the nature of imagination will be made.

7 My printmaking practice uses both traditional and digital methods. During the making of the prints, a log is kept of both the technical and thought processes involved. Notes are made on the interaction with the medium, and on the development of the work and emergent meanings, and reflections on the creative process. These support the theories of Meleau-Ponty. The process of exploration with the print and the computer, including random happenings, generates and reveals possibilities and visual experiences, as well as speaking to initial expectations. The process of exploration becomes a vehicle for seeing which is influenced by the technology. Technology influences perception and thinking; while at the same time concepts, ideas, and feelings influence the use of technology. Protest 2013Protest Square 2013

8 NEW PROTEST An ink pen drawing, as a potential collagraph, was made of protests in Tahrir square in the spring of 2013 shown on TV. It was scanned into the computer, inverted and auto adjustments and equalise functions used in Adobe Photoshop. It was printed at 19cmx19cm on matt heavy weight digital paper for further trial printing with a lino cut for a 25 print series 20cmx20cm for a collective boxed edition- exhibition organised by Neo Studios and Hot Bed Press. I had been requested to combine techniques. An exhibition Exploring Boundaries and including comments on the creative process, is proposed.

9 After printing with a previous lino cut which resulted in an interesting image, but which was not central to the concept of Protest, a small existing piece of lino was cut with the image of laser lines used at the demonstrations in mind. However, it was printed in blood red rather than laser green.

10 The initial drawn paper image was crushed and scanned into the computer and printed. Inadvertently, the crushed drawn lines appeared to create a giraff in the centre of the image. A different crushing was scanned. However, the original image was printed with the lino. The original crushed image was modified using the auto functions and equalise in Photoshop, and also printed with the lino cut.

11 Earlier, it was thought that it could be interesting if the cuttings of the linocut were scanned along with the original crushed paper image. They might also hide the giraff. To enable this a portion of transparent acetate was cut and glued over the crushed image and lino cuttings. They were crushed again at considerable pressure. The printed scanned image was overprinted with the lino cut CRUSHED

12 The second crushed image had been manipulated with Adobe Photoshop. It was overprinted with the lino cut. The series of images are facillitated by the interaction with materials and technology; influenced by concepts, feelings, vision and random happenings.

13 It was initially used to study slices of time and produce a visual political-poetic statement on The Way We are Now for an international printmaking conference (Impact 5) ( )www.creativity-embodiedmind.com and an article: Haworth, J.T.(2010)The Way We are Now Leisure Studies, 29, 1, This is an Innovative Project which crosses the borders of visual research methods, printmaking and subjective well-being, using a mobile phone-camera with an experience sampling method. The project also draws on research into subjective well-being ( Haworth 2007), funded by the Economic and Social Research Council in the UK A day in the life of with colour codings, and instructions for participation are exhibited. A day in the life of

14 The Way We are Now A day in the life of-- Colour codings

15 The project uses a mobile phone/camera/recorder with an innovative Experience Sampling Method (ESM) to measure subjective well-being, extended to include images of daily life, which had not been done before. The project uses a mobile phone/camera/recorder with an innovative Experience Sampling Method (ESM) to measure subjective well-being, extended to include images of daily life, which had not been done before. The ESM involves a series of short questions on activity and subjective well-being, answered on a card or the mobile phone, and a photograph of the surroundings taken, at a signal from the mobile phone, eight times a day at randomly selected times between 9.30 am and 9.30 pm, pre-programmed in the phone, for seven consecutive days. The ESM involves a series of short questions on activity and subjective well-being, answered on a card or the mobile phone, and a photograph of the surroundings taken, at a signal from the mobile phone, eight times a day at randomly selected times between 9.30 am and 9.30 pm, pre-programmed in the phone, for seven consecutive days. The ESM has been used successfully for some time. Delle Fave (2007) notes that the ESM can be used to capture emotions, motivations and cognitive processes as they occur, and that it reduces the problem of distortion of memories occurring in retrospective methods, though the ESM is seen as complementing and not replacing other research methods. The ESM has been used successfully for some time. Delle Fave (2007) notes that the ESM can be used to capture emotions, motivations and cognitive processes as they occur, and that it reduces the problem of distortion of memories occurring in retrospective methods, though the ESM is seen as complementing and not replacing other research methods. Each day photographs are also taken of aspects of the social world, such as headings and images in a newspaper. Each day photographs are also taken of aspects of the social world, such as headings and images in a newspaper.

16 The images from the mobile phone and from the newspapers are used to produce large format innovative digital prints, documenting The Way We are Now, and A day in the life of---- Prints are being produced which include colour bar codes to the answers on subjective well-being 3D prints could be made to produce an innovative sculptural portrait (Drawings are shown in the exhibition) Written analysis can accompany the prints. The prints can be indicative of personal identity and life styles. The method can stimulate reflection and change in perceptions. It can break the mould of looking/ perceiving and open up opportunities/possibilities for new ways of seeing things and introduce a new train of imagination, supporting the links postulated by Merleau-Ponty (1964) between thought and technologyThe images from the mobile phone and from the newspapers are used to produce large format innovative digital prints, documenting The Way We are Now, and A day in the life of---- Prints are being produced which include colour bar codes to the answers on subjective well-being 3D prints could be made to produce an innovative sculptural portrait (Drawings are shown in the exhibition) Written analysis can accompany the prints. The prints can be indicative of personal identity and life styles. The method can stimulate reflection and change in perceptions. It can break the mould of looking/ perceiving and open up opportunities/possibilities for new ways of seeing things and introduce a new train of imagination, supporting the links postulated by Merleau-Ponty (1964) between thought and technology Rose (2007) notes that photographic images, whether moving or still are currently the most popular sort of image being created by social scientists because they can carry or evoke 3 things-information, affect and reflection-particularly well. Rose (2007 also notes that research ethics are particularly important in this type of research.

17 ESM. The questions used in the Experience Sampling Method are on activity, enjoyment, interest, challenge, skills, visual interest and happiness. The questions on activity and subjective well-being have been used previously in my research with the ESM. ESM. The questions used in the Experience Sampling Method are on activity, enjoyment, interest, challenge, skills, visual interest and happiness. The questions on activity and subjective well-being have been used previously in my research with the ESM. With the exception of the question on the activity being undertaken, answers are chosen from pre-coded alternatives, making recording on a card simple: for example: With the exception of the question on the activity being undertaken, answers are chosen from pre-coded alternatives, making recording on a card simple: for example: Q2 How much were you enjoying the activity Q2 How much were you enjoying the activity low enjoyment moderate enjoyment high enjoyment low enjoyment moderate enjoyment high enjoyment Full details of the time sampling and questions are available. They can be seen in the paper on The Way We are Now on the websites and Full details of the time sampling and questions are available. They can be seen in the paper on The Way We are Now on the websites and

18 A similar project, based on The Way We are Now, has been undertaken by several members of staff at Manchester Metropolitan University. A similar project, based on The Way We are Now, has been undertaken by several members of staff at Manchester Metropolitan University. Prints for each person were exhibited, along with one for the author, at a National Conference on Health and Social Change: Challenges and Controversy organised by the Research Institute for Health and Social Change at Manchester Metropolitan University. Prints for each person were exhibited, along with one for the author, at a National Conference on Health and Social Change: Challenges and Controversy organised by the Research Institute for Health and Social Change at Manchester Metropolitan University. They generated considerable interest, as an example of innovative visual research. ( See next 2 figures, which also show prints produced as part of my AHRB funded practice led research into creativity, They generated considerable interest, as an example of innovative visual research. ( See next 2 figures, which also show prints produced as part of my AHRB funded practice led research into creativity, We have published chapters on the research for books on visual research methods. We have published chapters on the research for books on visual research methods.

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21 It would be very useful to undertake new studies, using the methods described in this paper using the mobile phone and ESM, with different samples of people in different circumstances, and also undertake longitudinal studies to assess change. The method could be used to investigate a day in the life of individuals in different countries across the world. They could be posted on a website, form an exhibition, be available on a CD. The method could be used to create a global mirror of consciousness. Group data could be analysed by theme, such as the incidence of enjoyment and enjoyable flow where challenge and skill are equal and high, and the pursuits involved, and the relationship between work, leisure and well-being. Enjoyment has been shown to play an important role in subjective (personal) well-being. Haworth, J.T. (2007) Work, Leisure and Well-Being in Changing Social Conditions. In: J.T Haworth, & G. Hart,. (eds) (2007/12) Well-Being: Individual, Community and Social Perspectives. Basingstoke UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

22 IMAGINATION Merleau-Ponty viewed his theories as incomplete, and indicated that one of the areas destined for review was the study of the imaginary which is not simply the production of mental images, but the baroque proliferation of generating axes for visibility in the duplicity of the real The practice-led research cited in this chapter indicates the importance for imagination of technology used innovatively, which can be enhanced by an interdisciplinary approach, fuelled by life-long embodied knowing and potential for action operating in a diverse world. Future research into creativity could usefully document a range of explorations by visual artists, with in some cases artists keeping notes or a log investigating the nature of their interactions with materials, and bringing into visibility their insights into the creative process and the nature of imagination. Haworth, J.T. Creativity in Digital Fine Art. In (ed) A. ScarinziAesthetics and the Embodied Mind: Beyond Art Theory and the Cartesian Mind-Body Dichotomy. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. Book submitted to publisher.

23 Flowers: the indescribable lightness of being. Acknowledgements to Milan Kundera Photograph of Sweet Peas taken on an iPad and manipulated using Art Studio

24 Studio


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