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Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry

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1 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry
Patterns in the Periodic Table

2 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry
Patterns in the Periodic Table

3 What is the periodic table?
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Patterns in the Periodic Table Mendeleev created the first modern periodic table. What does it show and why is it always in the same order?

4 What is an element? Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry
Patterns in the Periodic Table

5 Where were the elements made?
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Patterns in the Periodic Table There are 92 naturally-occurring elements and about 15 artificially-produced elements. Elements were originally made in stars. In the early stages of a star’s life, light elements, such as hydrogen and helium, are formed. These fused together to make heavier elements such as carbon. Some of the even heavier elements were produced deep within stars and were sent out into the Universe when the stars exploded. Photo credit: NASA Headquarters - Greatest Images of NASA (NASA-HQ-GRIN) The Ring Nebula as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope. The nebula is around one light year in diameter and is 2,000 light years from Earth. The blue areas of the nebula show the presence of superheated helium gas clouds, and the red and green areas show ionized oxygen and nitrogen. Most of the artificially-produced elements have only been made in nuclear reactors or particle accelerators.

6 What are elements made of?
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Patterns in the Periodic Table Each element is made up of one type of atom, which is different to the atoms in any other element. Gold is an element made up of only gold atoms. Carbon is an element made up of only carbon atoms. Photo credit (top): Marja Flick-Buijs Gold wedding rings. Photo credit (bottom): Gaston Thauvin Charcoal used for drawing. Oxygen is an element made up of only oxygen atoms.

7 What are atoms made of? Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry
Patterns in the Periodic Table Teacher notes This interactive zoom activity shows students the structure of diamond down to the nuclear level. It also shows the relative sizes of each stage.

8 What is the atomic number?
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Patterns in the Periodic Table Every element has a unique atomic number. This is the number of protons in the nucleus of each atom. What is the atomic number of this helium atom? electron Helium has 2 protons, so its atomic number is 2. proton neutron Atoms are neutrally charged, so what links atomic number and the number of electrons? A neutral atom must have equal numbers of protons and electrons, so the atomic number of an element also gives the number of electrons.

9 What are the properties of elements?
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Patterns in the Periodic Table A property is any characteristic feature of a substance. A property is any characteristic feature of a substance. Can you name any properties of the element sodium? Properties of sodium include: highly reactive solid but melts easily feels light (low density). Photo credit: Dr John Mileham The chemical properties of an element are determined by its atomic number. Are there any patterns in the properties of the elements?

10 Elements and atoms – true or false?
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Patterns in the Periodic Table Teacher notes This true-or-false activity could be used as a plenary or revision exercise on atomic structure, or at the start of the lesson to gauge students’ existing knowledge of the subject matter. Coloured traffic light cards (red = false, yellow = don’t know, green = true) could be used to make this a whole-class exercise.

11 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry
Patterns in the Periodic Table

12 How was the periodic table developed?
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Patterns in the Periodic Table Teacher notes This six-stage animation shows how the order among the elements was discovered, and the modern periodic table was developed.

13 How are the elements arranged?
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Patterns in the Periodic Table Teacher notes This five-stage sequence shows how the elements are arranged into the periodic table. Pupils could have a go at arranging the elements themselves before the whole sequence is shown. They could do this by writing out the elements in a line as in the first stage and then cutting them up and arranging them how they think appropriate, before being shown the rest of the sequence. Appropriate prompts, if carrying out this exercise, would be: Where are elements with similar properties found? Where are the unreactive gases found? Where are the reactive gases found? Where are the reactive metals found? Think about how the elements might be best arranged, with these similar elements in mind.

14 The periodic table …the periodic table
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Patterns in the Periodic Table Arranging all the elements by their atomic number and their properties led to the creation of… …the periodic table H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg ?

15 Missing elements! Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Patterns in the Periodic Table In this periodic table the symbols are replaced by atomic numbers. Some of the numbers are missing – where? Two more rows of elements fit here. 87 88 89 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 55 56 57 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 49 50 51 52 53 54 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 They are called the lanthanides and actinides. Teacher notes Lanthanides and actinides do not have the same pattern of repeated properties like the other elements, so they are usually written separately. It also keeps the periodic table to a sensible width, which fits easily on wall charts and in books.

16 The elements in the periodic table
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Patterns in the Periodic Table

17 Columns of elements What are columns of elements called? 1 2 groups 3
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Patterns in the Periodic Table What are columns of elements called? 1 2 groups 3 4 5 6 7

18 Rows of elements What are rows of elements called? periods 1 2 3 4 5 6
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Patterns in the Periodic Table What are rows of elements called? periods 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

19 Complete the sentences – periodic table
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Patterns in the Periodic Table Teacher notes This completing sentences activity could be used as a plenary or revision exercise on the periodic table. Students could be asked to write down the missing words in their books and the activity could be concluded by the completion on the IWB.

20 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry
Patterns in the Periodic Table

21 Patterns: metals and non-metals
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Patterns in the Periodic Table Where are these different types of elements grouped together in the periodic table? metals on the left and centre non-metals on the right (except hydrogen) semi-metals between metals and non-metals Semi-metals have some properties similar to metals and other properties similar to non-metals. Can you name a semi-metal element?

22 Patterns: physical state
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Patterns in the Periodic Table Where are these elements of different states grouped together in the periodic table? solids on the left, in the centre and on the right liquids in the middle and on the right gases on the far right (except hydrogen) Only two elements are liquids at room temperature. What are they? bromine and mercury

23 Metals to non-metals, solids to gases
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Patterns in the Periodic Table

24 Patterns: reactivity of metals
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Patterns in the Periodic Table What happens to the reactivity of metals along a period? What happens to the reactivity of metals down a group? Which is the most reactive metal? increase in reactivity Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Na Mg Al Li Be increase in reactivity

25 Which metal is more reactive?
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Patterns in the Periodic Table Teacher notes This quiz could be used as a plenary or revision exercise to check students’ understanding of the reactivity of the metals in the periodic table. Coloured traffic light cards could be used with this activity to increase class participation.

26 Patterns: reactivity of non-metals
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Patterns in the Periodic Table Group 0 elements are the most unreactive of all elements. increase in reactivity For the remaining non-metals and semi-metals, reactivity increases up a group and along a period from left to right. At Rn Sb Te I Xe Ge As Se Br Kr Si P S Cl Ar B C N O F Ne He increase in reactivity Which is the most reactive non-metal/semi-metal? unreactive

27 Which non-metal is more reactive?
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Patterns in the Periodic Table Teacher notes This quiz could be used as a plenary or revision exercise to check students’ understanding of the reactivity of non-metals and semi-metals in the periodic table. Coloured traffic light cards could be used with this activity to increase class participation.

28 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry
Patterns in the Periodic Table

29 Patterns, atomic number and electrons
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Patterns in the Periodic Table The periodic table shows that patterns in the properties of elements are linked to atomic number. What links atomic number and the properties of elements? Electrons! atomic number = number of protons number of protons = number of electrons atomic number = number of electrons As atomic number increases by one, the number of electrons also increases by one. This means that the elements in the periodic table are also arranged in order of the number of electrons.

30 How are electrons arranged?
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Patterns in the Periodic Table Electrons are arranged in shells around an atom’s nucleus. (The shells can also be called energy levels). Each shell has a maximum number of electrons that it can hold. Electrons will fill the shells nearest the nucleus first. 2nd shell holds a maximum of 8 electrons 1st shell holds a maximum of 2 electrons 3rd shell holds a maximum of 8 electrons This electron arrangement is written as 2,8,8.

31 H He Electrons in period 1
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Patterns in the Periodic Table Elements in period 1 only have electrons in the first shell. Why are there only two elements in period 1? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 H He 1 1 2 The first shell can only hold a maximum of two electrons, so period 1 only includes the elements hydrogen and helium. What is special about the outer shell of helium?

32 Li Be B C N O F Ne Electrons in period 2
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Patterns in the Periodic Table Elements in period 2 all have a complete first shell. What happens to electrons in the second shell in period 2? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Li Be B C N O F Ne 2 2,1 2,2 2,3 2,4 2,5 2,6 2,7 2,8 The second shell is completed one electron at a time going across the period from left to right. What is special about the outer shell of neon?

33 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar Electrons in period 3
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Patterns in the Periodic Table Elements in period 3 have complete first and second shells. What happens to electrons in the third shell in period 3? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar 3 2,8,1 2,8,2 2,8,3 2,8,4 2,8,5 2,8,6 2,8,7 2,8,8 The third shell is completed one electron at a time going across the period from left to right. What is special about the outer shell of argon?

34 What are the patterns of electron arrangement?
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Patterns in the Periodic Table Consider the electron arrangements of the first 20 elements in the periodic table. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 1 2 2 2,1 2,2 2,3 2,4 2,5 2,6 2,7 2,8 3 2,8,1 2,8,2 2,8,3 2,8,4 2,8,5 2,8,6 2,8,7 2,8,8 4 2,8,8,1 2,8,8,2 What is the pattern of outer shell electrons in a group? What is the pattern of outer shell electrons across a period? What is the pattern of full electron shells in a group?

35 Electron trends in the periodic table
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Patterns in the Periodic Table Trends down a group: the number of outer shell electrons is the same; the number of complete electron shells increases by one. The number of a group is the same as the number of electrons in the outer shell of elements in that group, except for group 0. Trends across a period: the number of outer shell electrons increases by one; the number of complete electron shells stays the same. The point at which a new period starts is the point at which electrons begin to fill a new shell.

36 Electrons and groups Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry
Patterns in the Periodic Table

37 Groups and periods Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry
Patterns in the Periodic Table

38 What’s the electron arrangement?
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Patterns in the Periodic Table Teacher notes This quiz could be used as a plenary or revision exercise to check students’ understanding of the electron configuration in the periodic table. Coloured traffic light cards could be used with this activity to increase class participation.

39 Names of groups in the periodic table
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Patterns in the Periodic Table

40 Periodic table and electron structure
Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Patterns in the Periodic Table Teacher notes This completing sentences activity could be used as a plenary or revision exercise on the periodic table and electron structure. Students could be asked to write down the missing words in their books and the activity could be concluded by the completion on the IWB.

41 Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry
Patterns in the Periodic Table

42 element – A substance made up of only one type of atom.
Glossary Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry Patterns in the Periodic Table atomic number – The number of protons in an atom. Sometimes called the proton number. electron arrangement – A shorthand way of writing the number of electrons in an atom’s electron shells. element – A substance made up of only one type of atom. group – A column in the periodic table containing elements with the same number of outer shell electrons and similar chemical properties. period – A row in the periodic table containing elements with the same number of full electron shells. periodic table – The table that lists all the elements in order of increasing atomic number, arranged into groups and periods. property – Any characteristic of an element.

43 Anagrams Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry
Patterns in the Periodic Table

44 Multiple-choice quiz Boardworks GCSE Additional Science: Chemistry
Patterns in the Periodic Table Teacher notes This multiple-choice quiz could be used as a plenary activity to assess students’ understanding of the periodic table. The questions can be skipped through without answering by clicking “next”. Students could be asked to complete the questions in their books and the activity could be concluded by the completion on the IWB.


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