Presentation on theme: "EMISSION STANDARDS IN LIGHT AND HEAVY VEHICLES. INTRODUCTION Emission requirements in Europe since 1970 US and some European countries (Sweden, Norway."— Presentation transcript:
INTRODUCTION Emission requirements in Europe since 1970 US and some European countries (Sweden, Norway and Austria) introduced first Current emission regulate NOX,HC,CO & PM Standards are represent by Euro & followed by no. For motorcycles & mopeds and for engines of non road machinery
TEST CYCLES Emissions measured by standardized test cycles For light vehicles in g/Km For heavy vehicles in g/kWh For light vehicles transient cycle Heavy vehicles both transient and stationary cycle ETC,ESC,European load response (ELR), Enhanced Environmentally vehicles(EEV)
EUROPEAN TRANSIENT CYCLE(ETC) FIGE transient cycle Road cycle measurement of heavy duty vehicles 3 parts – urban, rural, motorway driving – total 1800s – each 600s 1.city driving max speed 50 km/hr, frequent starts, stops, and idling 2.rural driving starting with a steep acceleration segment (avg-72km/hr)
CONTD… 3. Motorway driving with average speed of about 88 km/h The cycle in two variants: a) As a chassis and b) An engine dynamometer test.
EUROPEAN STATIONARY CYCLE(ESC) Emission certification of heavy duty diesel engine Engine is tested on dynamometer over steady state modes The specified speed held within ±50 rpm and the specified torque held within ±2% of max torque final results in g/kWh
LIGHT VEHICLES Road vehicles under 3.5 tonne (both passenger cars & commercial vehicles) Auto-oil-program Emission control increased the quality of fuel (eg; sulphur-150ppm to 10ppm within 2009) NOX is controlled in PV Particulates are controlled in DV
HEAVY VEHICLES Vehicles heavier than 3.5tonnes EuroI-1992,EuroII-1995,EuroIII-2000, EuroIV- 2005,EuroV-2008 Main difference b/w Euro IV and Euro V Environmentally friendly vehicles as well as for on-board diagnostic systems (OBD) enhanced it
FUTURE EMISSION STANDARDS Motor Vehicle Emissions Group Commission German Environment agency (UBA) published new proposal for ES:- Passenger cars: 1. Emission requirements should be fuel- neutral 2. Particulate requirement should be strengthen by a factor 10 3. NO X strengthen by a factor of 3 4. Summation value for NOx + HC replaced with an HC limit
CONTD… Heavy vehicles:- 1. Fuel-neutral requirements 2. Particulate standards for 2008 3. NOx requirement for 2008 are halved & then halved again in 2010 Current weight-based standards with maximum no of particles within size range Tax incentives to vehicles that comply with requirements
FACTFILE:EMISSION CONTROL Petrol-driven passenger cars Emission consist of NOX and unburnt HC Three-way catalytic convertor 300-400C to start the catalytic convertor Diesel-driven cars Nitrogen oxides Particulates Combined methods
POPULAR EMISSION CONTROL DEVICES HC as a result of vaporization of gasoline Clean air act in 1977 Feedback fuel control system Oxygen sensors in exhaust Some of the popular emission control system are explained
CATALYTIC CONVERTOR Flash It oxidize CO & HC using palladium & platinum as catalyst separating oxygen than adding It cannot operate in presence of lead Industrial application to avoid harmful emissions Ideal byproducts of automobile engine are CO 2, H 2 O, and some N 2 Standard subcomponents of catalytic oxidizers include a line burner, catalyst bed, and heat exchanger.
PCV VALVE Take vapors from crankcase Recirculation of air through crankcase Dilute air/fuel mixture Increase life of oil and engine life of valve and filter is around 30000 to 50000 miles If the valve or system is clogged, it will create engine oil leak
EGR VALVE Reduce emissions of oxides of N2 (1972) How oxides of nitrogen formed? Thought of a fire extinguisher to cool the combustion chamber How CO2 & water (plus zillion other noxious chemicals) cool combustion chamber & prevent the formation of NO X External EGR and Internal EGR valve
EVAPORATIVE CONTROLS To dispose of fuel vapors created in fuel system Improper operation may cause rich driveability Maintain stable fuel tank pressure Due to evaporation fuel vapors are created Stored vapor fuel is added to the incoming air/fuel mixture
AIR INJECTION The air injection system supplies air to the exhaust stream to promote additional burning of exhaust gases such as hydrocarbons (abbreviated as HC) and carbon monoxide (abbreviated as CO). catalytic converter to further reduce HC, CO and oxides of nitrogen (NOx), a major contributor to photochemical smog AIR INJECTION
Its a part of advanced clean diesel system Increase diesel efficiency What is a turbocharger? How common rail direct injection and turbocharging increases efficiency Turbochargers and advanced
ABOUT BHARAT STANDARDS Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI) decided to implement Bha-III The gasoline vehicles were being tested for idle carbon monoxide emission and diesel vehicles for free acceleration smoke. Four metros Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, New Delhi and the mini metros Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat, Kanpur and Agra.