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EMISSION STANDARDS IN LIGHT AND HEAVY VEHICLES. INTRODUCTION Emission requirements in Europe since 1970 US and some European countries (Sweden, Norway.

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Presentation on theme: "EMISSION STANDARDS IN LIGHT AND HEAVY VEHICLES. INTRODUCTION Emission requirements in Europe since 1970 US and some European countries (Sweden, Norway."— Presentation transcript:

1 EMISSION STANDARDS IN LIGHT AND HEAVY VEHICLES

2 INTRODUCTION Emission requirements in Europe since 1970 US and some European countries (Sweden, Norway and Austria) introduced first Current emission regulate NOX,HC,CO & PM Standards are represent by Euro & followed by no. For motorcycles & mopeds and for engines of non road machinery

3 ROAD TRAFFICS SHARE OF EMISSION

4 EMISSION STANDARDS

5 EU STANDARDS FOR HEAVY VEHICLES

6 TEST CYCLES Emissions measured by standardized test cycles For light vehicles in g/Km For heavy vehicles in g/kWh For light vehicles transient cycle Heavy vehicles both transient and stationary cycle ETC,ESC,European load response (ELR), Enhanced Environmentally vehicles(EEV)

7 EUROPEAN TRANSIENT CYCLE(ETC) FIGE transient cycle Road cycle measurement of heavy duty vehicles 3 parts – urban, rural, motorway driving – total 1800s – each 600s 1.city driving max speed 50 km/hr, frequent starts, stops, and idling 2.rural driving starting with a steep acceleration segment (avg-72km/hr)

8 CONTD… 3. Motorway driving with average speed of about 88 km/h The cycle in two variants: a) As a chassis and b) An engine dynamometer test.

9 EUROPEAN STATIONARY CYCLE(ESC) Emission certification of heavy duty diesel engine Engine is tested on dynamometer over steady state modes The specified speed held within ±50 rpm and the specified torque held within ±2% of max torque final results in g/kWh

10 LIGHT VEHICLES Road vehicles under 3.5 tonne (both passenger cars & commercial vehicles) Auto-oil-program Emission control increased the quality of fuel (eg; sulphur-150ppm to 10ppm within 2009) NOX is controlled in PV Particulates are controlled in DV

11 EU STANDARDS FOR LIGHT VEHICLES

12 HEAVY VEHICLES Vehicles heavier than 3.5tonnes EuroI-1992,EuroII-1995,EuroIII-2000, EuroIV- 2005,EuroV-2008 Main difference b/w Euro IV and Euro V Environmentally friendly vehicles as well as for on-board diagnostic systems (OBD) enhanced it

13 EU STANDARDS FOR HEAVY VEHICLES

14 FUTURE EMISSION STANDARDS Motor Vehicle Emissions Group Commission German Environment agency (UBA) published new proposal for ES:- Passenger cars: 1. Emission requirements should be fuel- neutral 2. Particulate requirement should be strengthen by a factor NO X strengthen by a factor of 3 4. Summation value for NOx + HC replaced with an HC limit

15 CONTD… Heavy vehicles:- 1. Fuel-neutral requirements 2. Particulate standards for NOx requirement for 2008 are halved & then halved again in 2010 Current weight-based standards with maximum no of particles within size range Tax incentives to vehicles that comply with requirements

16 FACTFILE:EMISSION CONTROL Petrol-driven passenger cars Emission consist of NOX and unburnt HC Three-way catalytic convertor C to start the catalytic convertor Diesel-driven cars Nitrogen oxides Particulates Combined methods

17 POPULAR EMISSION CONTROL DEVICES HC as a result of vaporization of gasoline Clean air act in 1977 Feedback fuel control system Oxygen sensors in exhaust Some of the popular emission control system are explained

18 CATALYTIC CONVERTOR Flash It oxidize CO & HC using palladium & platinum as catalyst separating oxygen than adding It cannot operate in presence of lead Industrial application to avoid harmful emissions Ideal byproducts of automobile engine are CO 2, H 2 O, and some N 2 Standard subcomponents of catalytic oxidizers include a line burner, catalyst bed, and heat exchanger.

19 PCV VALVE Take vapors from crankcase Recirculation of air through crankcase Dilute air/fuel mixture Increase life of oil and engine life of valve and filter is around to miles If the valve or system is clogged, it will create engine oil leak

20 EGR VALVE Reduce emissions of oxides of N2 (1972) How oxides of nitrogen formed? Thought of a fire extinguisher to cool the combustion chamber How CO2 & water (plus zillion other noxious chemicals) cool combustion chamber & prevent the formation of NO X External EGR and Internal EGR valve

21 EVAPORATIVE CONTROLS To dispose of fuel vapors created in fuel system Improper operation may cause rich driveability Maintain stable fuel tank pressure Due to evaporation fuel vapors are created Stored vapor fuel is added to the incoming air/fuel mixture

22 AIR INJECTION The air injection system supplies air to the exhaust stream to promote additional burning of exhaust gases such as hydrocarbons (abbreviated as HC) and carbon monoxide (abbreviated as CO). catalytic converter to further reduce HC, CO and oxides of nitrogen (NOx), a major contributor to photochemical smog AIR INJECTION

23 TURBOCHARGER

24 Its a part of advanced clean diesel system Increase diesel efficiency What is a turbocharger? How common rail direct injection and turbocharging increases efficiency Turbochargers and advanced

25 ABOUT BHARAT STANDARDS Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI) decided to implement Bha-III The gasoline vehicles were being tested for idle carbon monoxide emission and diesel vehicles for free acceleration smoke. Four metros Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, New Delhi and the mini metros Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat, Kanpur and Agra.

26 EURO STANDARDS FOR PETROL CARS

27 EURO STANDARDS FOR DIESEL CARS

28 EURO vs.US/JAPAN STANDARDS

29 MERCEDES-BENZ BIONIC CAR

30 TECHNICAL DATA Vehicle Type: Mercedes-Benz concept car Intake system: Common-rail direct injection, particulate filter, Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) Engine: 4-cylinder Diesel engine Horsepower: 140 hp Torque: 300 1,600 – 3,000 rpm Transmission: AUTOTRONIC continuously variable automatic transmission

31 DISCUSSION


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