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HYDROGEN CYANIDE IN FIRE OPERATIONS Captain Rick Rochford

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1 HYDROGEN CYANIDE IN FIRE OPERATIONS Captain Rick Rochford
Jacksonville Fire Rescue Department Incident Safety Officer Craig Rogers- Draeger Safety DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 1/40

2 Toxic Gases Generated by Fire Hydrogen Cyanide in Smoke
PRESENTATION CONTENT Toxic Gases Generated by Fire Hydrogen Cyanide in Smoke Health Effects of HCN Gas Detection Options Questions & Answers DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 2/40

3 Toxic Gases Generated by Fire
DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 3/40

4 Clark County Fire Fighter Fatality
Crews operating at the scene of a commercial dice factory fire Heavy smoke and fire conditions All crews are instructed to utilize standard PPE SCBA are used by all responders Clark County Las Vegas Nev. We have been trained with tactical theory from yesterday. With the addition of plastics, synthetics, and natural fibers these materials burn hotter and the toxic by-products that are given off during and after the fire are more deadlier. I use the analogy is that our bodies are like sponges. We will absorb vapors and gases into our systems some of which will be excreted or metabolized and some unfortunately will not. More emphasis needs to be place on fire behavior, smoke reading, toxicology, building construction, health and safety. DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 4/40

5 Clark County Fire Fighter Fatality
What are some of the hazards present? As a Incident Commander, what types of injuries or conditions may you expect? Smoke- particulate matter, heated gases, irritants such as hydrochloric acid, sulfur dioxide, ammonia Asphyxiates such as carbon dioxide and toxins such as hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide. Both CO and CN are very likely to be two of the most prevalent gases. DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 5/40

6 Clark County Fire Fighter Fatality
All crews are ordered out of the structure. As crews leave the factory, they remove their SCBA masks. A Fire Captain removes his mask as he walks out of the smoke. He collapses outside the structure. He is in cardiac arrest. DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 6/40

7 Clark County Fire Fighter Fatality
The Captain did not survive his injuries Coroner ruled this fatality due to cyanide toxicity. Clark County Fire Department Captain Frank E. Testa, April 11, 1970 The U.S. Fire Academy and the IAFF have for years utilized the same NIOSH firefighter fatality statistics to assist in driving the Firefighter Wellness initiatives. These initiatives are based on the statistics that show approximately 50 % of fireground fatalities are caused by cardiac arrest secondary to poor fitness levels. One of the most recent theories currently being evaluated by the IAFC is the possibility of cyanide poisoning causing some cardiac arrests. Early symptoms can masquerade as exhaustion(poor fitness) or a cardiac arrest. These secondary symptoms may be misconstrued as a singular event initiated by a myocardial infarction when, in fact, the problem may have been caused by undiagnosed cyanide poisoning. Cardiac abnormalities induced by cyanide are not limited to immediate on-scene affects, and may be causing some of the more than heart attacks that firefighters sustain each year in the line of duty. Given the fact that cardiac abnormalities may not be present immediately, many off-duty heart attacks may also be related to cyanide exposures at fires. There is evidence that exposures to cyanide poisoning may occur up to 8 days after the exposure. EKG changes can be observed 2-3 weeks after fire related cyanide exposure. DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 7/40

8 In 2005, there were 1,602,000 fires reported in U.S.
2005 FIRE STATISTICS In 2005, there were 1,602,000 fires reported in U.S. 511,000 structure fires 3,105 civilian deaths 15,325 civilian injuries $9.2 billion in property damage 87 firefighter deaths in all types of fires >4000 firefighters injured by smoke inhalation It is estimated up to 80% of all fire fatalities are attributable to smoke inhalation DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 8/40

9 Toxic composition of smoke varies from fire to fire
ANATOMY OF FIRE SMOKE Toxic composition of smoke varies from fire to fire Nature of the burning materials Temperature Oxygen level Ventilation Conditions of high temperature and low oxygen enhance degradation of synthetics quickening chemical release The degradation of these materials happens long before flame ignition begins. DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 9/40

10 Partial List of Fire Produced Gases and Vapors
TOXIC GASES GENERATED BY FIRE Partial List of Fire Produced Gases and Vapors Carbon Monoxide Carbon Dioxide Hydrogen Cyanide Hydrogen Chloride Nitrous Gases Phosgene Hydrogen Sulfide Sulfur Dioxide Acrolein Ammonia Formaldehyde Glutaraldehyde Acetaldehyde Benzaldehyde Benzene Various PNAs (polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) PNA’s polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons are : Organic compounds that are suspected human carcinogens. Formed during incomplete combustion. Hydrogen compounds with multiple benzene rings asphalt, fuels, oil, greases DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 10/40

11 CYANIDE TOXICITY IN SMOKE
Historically, carbon monoxide asphyxiation has been considered the primary cause of deaths of those overcome by smoke Focus of gas monitoring There is mounting evidence that hydrogen cyanide is directly responsible for many more deaths than previously assumed Cumulative effect with CO worse than either individually HCN monitoring devices needs to be added to the monitoring capabilities. Documentation of such exposures need to be captured and used for further research. DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 11/40

12 “ Cyanide toxicity from smoke inhalation in a structural or enclosed space fire is the most likely cause of cyanide toxicity that EMS & fire professionals will encounter” JEMS Communications Summer 2004 With mounting evidence building this is becoming a critical situation in both acute and chronic exposure illnesses for fire and ems personnel. Unless proper PPE is used this will be a growing problem. DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 12/40

13 Hydrogen Cyanide in Smoke
DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 13/40

14 Cyanide production in a fire
CYANIDE PRODUCING MATERIALS Cyanide production in a fire Hydrogen cyanide is produced by incomplete combustion of nitrogen and carbon containing substances (-C≡N) Natural Fibers (wool, silk, cotton, paper) Synthetic polymers (nylon, polyurethane) Synthetic rubber Melamine (resins for molding, laminating, etc.) HCN, a colorless or pale blue compound occasionally found to have a bitter almond-like odor. In order to detect HCN by smell, our bodies must have a particular gene to do so. The gene is absent from % of the general population. So even if you do have the gene you may not be able to detect the odor of HCN due to other odors in the air. Molecule composed of a carbon atom bound to a nitrogen atom by three strong bonds -C≡N DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 14/40

15 Synthetic polymers found extensively in structures
HCN RELEASING POLYMERS Synthetic polymers found extensively in structures Insulation Cushioning Carpets Bedding (mattresses and pillows) Building materials Materials can burn up to 2-3 times hotter and faster than natural materials Quicker flashovers increase speed of HCN release --- Synthetic polymers release large quantities of cyanide. Smoldering materials can release even higher levels of cyanide. This is a perfect reason for SCBA usage. DRAEGER SAFETY Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 15/40

16 Other small scale uses:
Sources of Cyanide Other small scale uses: - Photography labs Blue printing Engraving computer chips - Cleaning or reconditioning of jewelry - Found at clandestine drug labs - manufacturing phencyclidine (PCP) Atmospheric monitoring is an absolute essential tool to have on all fire/ems related responses. Potassium Ferricyanide- powder form used in toners for photographic and blue printing uses. Copper, gold, silver cyanide used in the etching of the pin making connection with the terminal. This prevents corrosion. Sodium and Potassium used in electroplating in jewelry Potassium cyanide found at clandestine drug labs Transportation vehicle interiors Pesticides usages X-ray film recovery Acrilonitrile used in artificial nail adhesive DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 16/40

17 Key Cyanide Studies Two independent studies performed on CN toxicity - Paris France ( ) fire victims( 66 survivors and 43 fatalities) controlled individuals(drug intoxication and CO poisoning) Dallas County Texas smoke inhalation patients at University of Texas Health Science Center Emergency Department deceased individuals at Dallas County medical examiners office. In Paris the EMS Response vehicle contains a doctor, nurse and an EMT. They would upon receipt of a smoke inhalation victim remove whole blood from them and if warrant administer antidotes before transport. DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 17/40

18 KEY CYANIDE STUDIES Final Conclusion: Cyanide and carbon monoxide were both important determinants of smoke inhalation-associated morbidity and mortality Cyanide concentrations were directly related to the probability of death Cyanide may have dominated over CO as a cause of death in some fire victims Cyanide and CO may have potentiated the toxic effects of one another DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 18/40

19 THE STATION NIGHTCLUB FIRE
Most notorious incident of deaths from toxic mix of hydrogen cyanide and carbon monoxide was at West Warwick Rhode Island nightclub fire Feb 20,2003 Pyrotechnics instantly set substandard sound suppressing foam to sheet of flame HCN and CO levels soar and people are quickly overcome by the smoke 100 deaths and 200 injuries Polystyrene spray on insulation for sound barrier Deaths were believed to be from T.V. production crews inpeedeing the exit point out of the building. DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 19/40

20 The Station Night Club Fire
National Institute of Standards and Technology “the high temperatures, low oxygen, high carbon monoxide, and high HCN levels within the test room in the absence of a sprinkler all contributed to a non-tenable condition within 90 seconds after ignition.” Health care providers at all levels of this tragedy did not consider HCN exposure during course of treatment for the surviving victims. New England Journal of Medicine published report: “despite the signs and symptoms indicating CN poisoning, the victims were treated with standard modalities for burns and CO toxicity” DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 20/40

21 Cyanide Poisoning Of Providence Rhode Island Firefighters March 2006
Thursday March :31 hrs Broad Street Providence Rhode Island Firefighters responded to a fast food restaurant relatively uneventful Engine 3’s crew member experienced symptoms of headache, dizziness, difficulty breathing a cough, and at times talking incoherently Transported to Rhode Island Hospital Level 1 Trauma Center. Tested for HCN to find high levels of blood cyanide at 57 ug/dl Placed on antidote therapy Upon learning of Engine 3’s firefighter department contacted all members responding to the call members sought medical attention members went to Rhode Island Hospital found to have whole blood cyanide levels above 20 ug/dl Information of facts obtain from the Providence Fire Department Local 799 after action report May 30, 2006 Investigation team revealed Broad Street: Rigid foam insulation panels were located in the ceiling and roof assembly. Roof consisted of a rubber outer membrane sealed with black tar like adhesive. Portions of the roof contained asphalt shingles. The interior contained fiber reinforced plastic. 75% of the members at the Broad street fire were complaining of headaches and 85% of the members complained of weakness and fatigue DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 21/40

22 Cyanide Poisoning of Providence Firefighters March 2006
March 23, :35 hrs Knight Street Providence Rhode Island firefighters responded to a fire in a six-unit residential apartment Fire in a different part of the city after shift change. Most of the personnel from fast food restaurant relived No injuries reported March 24, :07 hrs. 70 Ralph Street Providence Rhode Island firefighters responded to a house fire All firefighter responding to Ralph St. had previously responded to Knight Street fire At 02:23 hrs. Firefighter Kenneth Baker collapsed at the scene suffering a heart attack Immediately resuscitated and transported to Rhode Island Hospital Knight street fire revealed: Burning contents of crib mattress, plastic bags of clothing, plastic toys, electronic devices(television, stereo), mattress and box spring. Fire area was carpeted and had a foam padding underneath Ralph Street fire was: Contained to the bathroom that contained a fiberglass tub that melted, and numerous plastic items. Heat from the fire was sufficient enough to melt plastic items in the adjacent kitchen area The rescue technician witnessed F.F. Baker lean against the drivers door of Engine 6, and slide down coming to rest against the front wheel F.F. Baker was found to be in ventricular fibrillation and defibrillated twice by medical personnel on the scene DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 22/40

23 Cyanide Poisoning of Rhode Island Firefighters March 2006
In light of the cyanide cases from the previous day testing was conducted on Firefighter Baker. Lab test showed that FF. Baker had whole blood cyanide level of 66ug/dl After consulting with doctors at Rhode Island Hospital, all members who responded to any of the three fires were instructed to go to Rhode Island Hospital if they experienced any symptoms to cyanide poisoning members sought medical care had their cyanide levels tested 8 members tested high (above 20 ug/dl) for cyanide Fire Chief David Costa appointed a five member committee to investigate the causes of cyanide poisoning, review existing policies and procedures, and make recommendations to prevent this from happening again. F.F. Bakers gear was secured and analytically wiped tested Helmet – total cyanide present ug entire outer surface Mask- total cyanide present <0.5 ug entire surface Coat- cyanide per sq. inch <0.5 ug/ft2 4 ft2 (back) Pants- cyanide per sq. inch < 2.0 ug/ft2 (left pant leg) Boots- total cyanide present < 0.5 ug entire outer surface (left boot) Gloves- total cyanide present < 0.5 ug entire outer surface left hand) Decontamination of gear after each fire SCBA masks cleaned Mask bags washed Shower after each fire Risk Management issues DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 23/40

24 Health Effects of HCN HEALTH EFFECTS OF HCN
DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 24/40

25 Small amounts of cyanide are present in the environment and in humans.
CYANIDE DOSES Small amounts of cyanide are present in the environment and in humans. Normal levels of whole blood are believed to be between 0 to 20 micrograms per deciliter (ug/dl). Cyanide levels as low as 50 ug/dl in the blood have proven to be toxic, and blood cyanide levels of 250 – 300 ug/dl fatal. With a half-life of one hour, cyanide is short lived in the blood stream. Standards in the procedures for collection of whole blood samples such as: carboxyhemoglobin saturation methemoglobin content of sampled blood -time between blood sampling and assay storage temperature of blood samples on the measured concentration of cyanide can complicate the interpretation of assay results or introduce sources of errors. Small amounts of cyanide present in the environment include: Bacteria, insects, plants, and animals naturally. They can form, degrade, excrete the compound used as a defense against insects. Natural sources: almonds, cherries, various seeds (peaches, apples) Deciliter = 1/10 of a liter HC inhaled into the blood stream in a matter of seconds has a half-life in the blood of approximately one-hour. If a member has blood cyanide level of 100 ug/dl immediately after an exposure, one hour later the level should be 50 ug/dl, two hours later 25 ug/dl three hours later 12.5 ug/dl four hours later 6.25 ug/dl, five hours later ug/dl , six hours later ug/dl. Only eight laboratories in the country that performs whole blood cyanide tests and doctors with out in-house testing capability may have to wait up to a week for the results. Quest Diagnostic Labs is a local source. Certain laboratory test which can be performed at a hospital include: elevated venous blood oxygen concentration elevated plasma lactate concentrations metabolic acidosis (Cyanide Poisoning Treatment Coalition) DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 25/40

26 ACUTE CYANIDE POISONING
Hydrogen cyanide is a cellular asphyxiant Inhaled HCN inhibits enzyme system responsible for cell respiration (oxygen utilization by cell) Cessation of cell respiration makes normal cell function impossible, leading to cell mortality There is no quick test that allows on-site confirmation of HCN toxicity There are some signs that can lead to assumption of HCN exposure and administration of countermeasures Disorientation and weakness/Drowsiness Shortness of breath and chest tightness(Tachypnea, Dyspnea Tachycardia) Headache Bright red discoloration in skin Smell of almonds on breath Soot around mouth and nose/burns Carbonaceous sputum Tachypnea-abnormally fast breathing Dyspnea- difficulty breathing Tachycardia-cardiac arrhythmia which refers to rapid beating of the heart Rescue or escape from a smoke filled enclosed space. Soot around mouth and nose Carbonaceous sputum Burns around mouth and nose DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 26/40

27 Chronic effects of hydrogen cyanide
CHRONIC EFFECTS OF HCN Chronic effects of hydrogen cyanide Breathing problems/Respiratory Depression to Respiratory Arrest Chest pain / Cardiac arrhythmia/Cardiovascular collapse Eye irritation/vision dimming Palpitations Headaches Loss of appetite Weakness in extremities/ Paralysis Enlargement of thyroid gland Memory loss Parkinson's disease Sarcoidosis- inflammatory disease that starts in your lungs, but in time can affect virtually any organ in your body, including liver, skin, heart, nervous system, and eyes Doctors believe sarcoidosis results from an abnormal immune response. Often goes away within two-three years on its own without treatment. Severe cases treated with strong anti-inflammatory meds. Other concerns: Optic Neuritus- inflammatory condition involving the optic nerve blurred vision, reduced color vision, blind spots, risk of developing MS Retro bulbar- another form of optic neuritis. Fibers become inflamed, visual signaling to the brain becomes disrupted & vision impaired. Exposure to chemicals, allergic reactions Retinal vein occlusion- occurs when the circulation of a retinal vein becomes obstructed by an adjacent blood vessel causing hemorrhages in the retina. Interesting theory is that 4 Providence firefighters experienced vision loss and their officers didn’t. DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 27/40

28 Acute Cyanide Poisoning
Significance for advocates of “sucking the carpet” - carpet fibers are a large source of HCN - fumes develop long before carpet catches fire. Quantitative decomposition long period of time when gas is emitted without the warning presence of flame decomposition stage of the fire is more toxic than those emitted during actual burning decomposition stage is the real killer because of its high toxicity and long period of time between attainment of quantitative decomposition temperature and ignition temperature Closed room and content compartment fire the entire atmosphere (floor-to-ceiling) is heating up and off-gassing towards ignition. While heat is generating on an object gasses are being emitted and when there is the right mixture of gas to oxygen ratio ignition occurs. During this time the toxic byproducts are becoming concentrated enough to incapacitate any one who may be inside the structure. DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 28/40

29 Acute Cyanide Poisoning
Narcotic effects of HCN -blamed for bizarre and irrational behavior - instances where victims, including firefighters fought with rescuers until becoming totally overcome by the smoke. Southwest Supermarket fire Phoenix Arizona - Brett Tarver rescue teams were hampered on several occasions succumbed to the environment and pulled through debris and out of the building. Hypoxia –lack of oxygen to the brain CNS- excitement DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 29/40

30 Effect DOSE MAKES THE POISON HCN LETHALITY Concentrations mg/m3 PPM
Immediately Lethal 200mg/m ppm Lethal after 10 minutes 150mg/m ppm Lethal after 30 minutes mg/m ppm Highly dangerous (Fatal) after minutes 20-40mg/m ppm Light symptoms after several hours Persons whose clothing or skin is contaminated with cyanide can secondarily contaminate response personnel by direct contact or through off-gassing vapor. Hydrogen cyanide is absorbed well by inhalation and can produce death within minutes. Substantial absorption can occur through intact skin if vapor concentration is high. DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 30/40

31 HCN LEALITY NOISH Chemical Pocket Guide
HCN is 35 times more toxic than CO TWA HCN 4.7 ppm CO 35 ppm IDLH HCN 50 ppm CO 1200 ppm LEL HCN 5.6% CO 12.5% UEL HCN 40% CO 74% Fl P ⁰ F VD air = 1 BP ⁰ F Sp. Gr water = 1 Information was gathered from NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards Target Organs: CNS, Cardio, Thyroid, Blood Symptoms: lassitude (weakness, exhaustion), headache, confusion, nausea, vomiting, increased rate and dept of respiration or respiration slow and grasping, thyroid, blood changes. OSHA PEL (ceiling) 10 ppm NIOSH IDLH 50 ppm DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 31/40

32 ACUTE CYANIDE POISONING
Recently has there been first FDA approved cyanide treatment, Hydroxocobalamin, that can safely be administered at fire scene Detoxifies CN by binding it to form cyanocobalamin (B12) Marketed as Cyanokit® Used in France for 10 years Previously, only supportive measures were available on site 100% oxygen application Sodium bicarbonate to counter metabolic acidosis Cardiopulmonary support and anticonvulsants Existing antidote involved nitrates that needed to be monitored under hospital care to avoid lethality when combined with CO Taylor Kit Lilly Kit Pasadena Kit The current treatment for smoke inhalation is to remove the victim from source of exposure, administer ABC’s, administer 100% oxygen and vitals. Based upon results of these studies, new thinking for treatment of smoke inhalation victims is now being focused toward cyanide poisoning. The Paris, France Fire Department does carry antidote kits specifically for smoke inhalation victims called Cyanokit. By protocol in Paris, if a victim has soot in the nose or mouth and suffers an altered level of consciousness, the Cyanokit is used. DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 32/40

33 PHOENIX OVERHAUL STUDIES
Removal of respiratory equipment during overhaul can potentially expose firefighters to a variety of toxic gases Overhaul phase of fire lasts an average of 30 minutes Liberated gases, vapors and particulates may remain in overhaul environment for extended periods of time Vapors may use airborne respirable particulates as entry vehicle into firefighters’ lungs Maximum concentrations of selected contaminants can exceed occupational exposure limits Adverse health effects may occur from exposure to mixture of products even if individual components are below exposure limits Monitoring CO concentrations alone should not be used to predict presence of other contaminants found in the overhaul environment Bolstad-Johnson, et al DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 33/40

34 Conclusions of Phoenix Studies
PHOENIX OVERHAUL STUDIES Conclusions of Phoenix Studies Without the use of respiratory protection, firefighters are overexposed to irritants, chemical asphyxiates and carcinogens Respiratory protection is recommended during fire overhaul SCBA should be utilized in atmospheres with CO > 150 ppm APRs may be considered when CO < 150 ppm, but additional studies to confirm effectiveness in overhaul operations are recommended NIOSH cartridges for APR don’t provide CO protection 150 ppm equates to avg ppm exposure based on 60 minute exposure and 8-hour working day (TLV= 25 ppm) - Post-fire fuels are still off-gassing, SCBA’s should be used. DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 34/40

35 Recommendations for prevention of cyanide exposures
Training Explanation why cyanide is more significant today than ever before Chemistry of cyanide Identification of cyanide containing fuels - Medical concerns of cyanide Why firefighters cannot merely rely on their past experiences to determine whether or not a particular atmosphere is safe. Equipment Deploy cyanide detection equipment into the field for use at fires. DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 35/40

36 Recommendations for prevention of cyanide exposures
Compliance There needs to be enhanced compliance with the existing mandatory mask regulation. - Enhanced compliance will require a cultural change on the part of firefighters. - Company officers must focus on the protection of their members, and ensure that SCBA’s are utilized when necessary and face pieces removed outside the contaminated area when exiting the structure. DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 36/40

37 Recommendation for prevention of cyanide exposures
SCBA Training for difficult operations - All personnel need physical training with SCBA to enhance the comfort level of members when engaged in difficult operations such as: - climbing ladders operating on roofs operating in confined spaces - communicating on air SCBA Air Management SCBA alarms activated during initial extinguishment and during overhaul Air management needs to be addressed which would incorporate SCBA alarms going off during entry times, during overhaul DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 37/40

38 Recommendations for Prevention of Cyanide Poisoning
Post-Fire Decontamination Wash turnout gear after each fire - Shower and change their clothes - Issue second set of gear Washing of SCBA masks before placing back in mask bag. Prevention of gear inside station especially bunk rooms. DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 38/40

39 Recommendations for Prevention of Cyanide Poisoning
Fire Research How much cyanide is generated at fire scenes? - What conditions yield higher verses lower concentrations of CN? Whether CN that is released in a fire remains localized (in a area around the fuel that is off gassing) or does it spread out throughout the building? Is CN released only under certain fire conditions or is it released more commonly whenever CN containing products burn? DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 39/40

40 Recommendations for Prevention of Cyanide Poisoning
Public Education General public, media and legislators need to be educated about the dangers of smoldering and burning plastics and other cyanide containing fuels. - Public needs to know the dangers associated with CN may be present before the presence of any flames and possibly incapacitated by the invisible gases during the incipient stage which could prevent them from escaping. DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 40/40

41 Clark County Fire Fighter Fatality
Crews operating at the scene of a commercial dice factory fire Heavy smoke and fire conditions All crews are instructed to utilize standard PPE SCBA are used by all responders Clark County Las Vegas Nv. We have been trained with tactical theory from yesterday. With the addition of plastics, synthetics, and natural fibers these materials will burn hotter and the toxic by-products that are given off during and after the fire are more deadlier. I use the analogy is that our bodies are like sponges. We will absorb vapors and gases into our systems some of which will be excreted and some unfortunately will not. More emphasis needs to be place on fire behavior, smoke reading, toxicology, building construction, health and safety. DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 41/40

42 Clark County Fire Fighter Fatality
What are some of the hazards present? As a Incident Commander, what types of injuries or conditions may you expect? Smoke- particulate matter, heated gases, irritants such as hydrochloric acid, sulfur dioxide, ammonia Asphyxiates such as carbon dioxide and toxins such as hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide. Both CO and CN are very likely to be two of the most prevalent gases. DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 42/40

43 Gas Detection Options GAS DETECTION OPTIONS
DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 43/40

44 DETECTION TECHNOLOGY AND HCN
Colorimetric Chemistry Short-term Detector Tubes Long-term Detector Tubes Chip Measurement System Electrochemical Sensors Infrared Sensors Gas Chromatographic Methods Flame Ionization (FID) Thermionic Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) Photo Ionization (PID) NO – High IP 13.9 eV DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 44/40

45 Portable instruments with electrochemical sensors
COMMON MONITORING OPTIONS There are 2 commonly available detection technologies that can measure hydrogen cyanide and other non-organic toxics at TLV Portable instruments with electrochemical sensors Colorimetric detector tubes DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 45/40

46 ADVANTAGES OF DETECTOR TUBES
Inexpensive Simple to use No calibration Wide variety of gases & vapors DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 46/40

47 ELECTROCHEMICAL SENSORS
Based on a chemical reaction that produces an electrical response/signal. The more gas that is present, the larger the signal that is generated by the sensor. This signal is directly proportional to the gas that is present. DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 47/40

48 Standard Version Hygiene Version
SINGLE GAS OPTIONS Standard Version Accepts all Draeger EC Sensors (Toxic & O2) Full Menu Hygiene Version Standard + Datalogging DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 48/40

49 PAC 7000 has a simple menu structure
SINGLE GAS OPTIONS PAC 7000 has a simple menu structure Fresh Air, Span Cal STEL, TWA, Peak Value Bump Test COHb option with CO version (set w/PC) Calibration On-board Calibrate w/o a PC No life limiting feature Replaceable sensors Not exchangeable to different gases Dedicated to the original gas purchased DRAEGER SAFETY • Hydrogen Cyanide in Fire Operations March 28, • 49/40


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