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America in WWII 1941 - 1945. War Begins for the US Dec 8, 1941 – FDR asked & received from Congress a declaration of war against Japan Dec 11, 1941 –

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Presentation on theme: "America in WWII 1941 - 1945. War Begins for the US Dec 8, 1941 – FDR asked & received from Congress a declaration of war against Japan Dec 11, 1941 –"— Presentation transcript:

1 America in WWII 1941 - 1945

2 War Begins for the US Dec 8, 1941 – FDR asked & received from Congress a declaration of war against Japan Dec 11, 1941 – Germany & Italy declare war on US ABC-1 agreement with Britain- get Germany first – Stop Hitler first & then all the Allies would focus on Japan – Limited American strength would hold Japan

3 The Shock of War National unity – including immigrants – WWII actually speeded the assimilation of immigrants Japanese – Americans – Mainly on the Pacific Coast – Forced into internment camps for fear of sabotage – Many lost literally everything – Korematsu v. US – upheld govt action of camps 1988 – govt apologized & paid the survivors $20,000

4 The New Deal Ends Conservative Congress was elected in 1942 – Wiped out the CCC, WPA, & National Youth Administration Massive military orders ($100+ billion in 1942) helped relieve depression

5 Production & WWII War Production Board – Halted production of nonessential items & focused on needed materials for war Govt imposed a national speed limit & gasoline rationing & developed synthetic-rubber plants Farmers – increased production Office of Price Administration – Brought inflation under control through regulation – Rationing held down consumption of critical goods

6 Labor in WWII War Labor Board (WLB) – Imposed ceilings on wage increases Labor unions membership grew but resented the wage ceilings – United Mine Workers were called off the job by John L. Lewis Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act – June 1943 – Authorized the govt to seize & operate tied-up industries – Made strikes against govt-operated industry a crime Govt took coal mine & railroads

7 Manpower & Womanpower Armed services – enlisted 15 million men & 216,000 women – Women /Noncombat units – WAACS, WAVES, SPARS Key industrial & agricultural workers were exempted from the draft Draft left many jobs open – 1942 – Mexico sent braceros to work in the US – Resulted in Zoot Suit Riots – 1943 in L.A. Sailors on leave beat Mexicans

8 Impact for Women More than 6 million women took jobs outside the home – Govt had to start some 3,000 day-care centers for Rosie the Riveters children – Began the revolution in the roles of women – Most women left the workforce after the war – Baby Boom Generation occurred after the war Tens of millions of babies were born in the decade & a half after 1945

9 Wartime Migration Major population boom in War Industries areas – Los Angeles, Detroit, Seattle, & Baton Rouge FDR accelerated the Souths economic development 1.6 million African Americans moved out of the South to seek jobs in the North & West – Mechanical cotton picker eliminated the Souths need for cheap labor – Race relations developed over employment, housing, & segregated facilities

10 Fair Treatment A. Philip Randolph – (Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters) – 1941 - Threatened a march on Washington: demanded equal opportunities for blacks in war jobs & the armed forces FDR responds: – Forbid discrimination in defense industries – Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC) monitored compliance Blacks were drafted but were still assigned mainly to service branches instead of combat

11 Minorities Double V - victory over the dictators abroad & over racism at home – Membership in NAACP increased – 1942 – CORE is founded Congress for Racial Equality Native American Exodus – Many left the reservations & moved to cities or enlisted – 25,000 served – code talkers – Comanches in Europe & Navajos in Japan codes were never broken

12 Holding the Home Front Americans at home suffered little from the war compared to other countries – Economy was invigorated – Employment was high – Rationing – Office of Scientific Research & Development Established a partnership between govt & universities National Debt skyrocketed - $259 billion in 1945

13 The Rising Sun in the Pacific Japanese – win quickly or lose slowly – Allied defeats: during the first 6 months, it looked like the Allied Powers would lose the war Japanese took: – Guam, Wake Island, Hong Kong, Singapore, Burma, Dutch East Indies, & the Philippines Important Burma Road supply route into China from India was cut

14 The Philippines US troops led by General Douglas MacArthur withdrew to Bataan, close to Manila, but eventually surrendered – Bataan Death March – 85 mile forced march of GIs who were tortured & eventually burned alive – MacArthur was ordered by Washington to leave secretly for Australia – I shall return Doolittle Raid : US executed a militarily insignificant raid on Japan in April, 1942 – Helped US moral

15 Japan is Pushed Back Battle of the Coral Sea (May 1942) – Entire battle fought with aircraft – Japan prevented from successfully invading New Guinea & Australia Battle of Midway (June 4-7, 1942) – Turning point // Admiral Chester W. Nimitz – Allies broke the Japanese code – Japan suffered severe loses – Japan no longer had any hopes of attacking US mainland

16 Island Hopping Campaign begins in 1943 – Eventually pushed Japanese forces all the way back to Japan – Sought to neutralize Japanese island strongholds with air and sea power & then move on – Battle of Guadalcanal (Solomon Islands – Aug 1942 – Feb 1943) First Japanese land defeat after 6 months of bitter jungle fighting

17 The Allied Halting of Hitler German U-boats sunk 8 million tons of allied supplies (25% of USSRs) Germans were as far east as Stalingrad by fall 1942, & as deep as El Alamein, Egypt Battle of Stalingrad (Sept 1942) – Very important battle – First major NAZI defeat on land – German army in retreat from the east until Berlin is occupied by the Russians in the spring of 1945 – Stalin never forgave the Allies for not opening a 2 nd front earlier, USSR had to bear the brunt of Nazi invasion

18 North Africa Operation Torch – led by Gen. Eisenhower on Nov 8, 1943 – Germans were led by General Erwin Rommel (the Desert Fox) – Allied troops invaded N. Africa in Algeria & Morocco Battle of El Alamein – major victory for Allies – Signaled end of Nazi presence in N. Africa

19 Italy Invasion of Italy commanded by George Patton – July 10, 1943 – British & US forces land on Sicily; victorious within 1 month – Mussolini was forced out of power (1943) – October 1943 – Italy declares war on Germany – June 4, 1944 – Allied march into Rome First capital city freed from Nazi control – Other parts of Italy remain under NAZI control until Spring 1945

20 Tehran Conference Nov 28 – Dec 1, 1943 First meeting of the Big Three – FDR, Stalin, & Churchill Agree on an invasion of Western Europe Stalin confirmed Soviet commitment to war against Japan

21 D-Day June 6, 1944 – Operation Overlord – Commanded by Eisenhower – 120,000 troops left England & landed at 5 beachheads at Normandy Coast 800,000 more men within 3 weeks, 3 million total Significance: – Established a second front – Troops entered Paris on Aug 25 By the end of summer, Belgium, France, & Luxembourg liberated

22 Presidential Campaign 1944 Democrat – FDR & Harry S Truman Republican – Thomas Dewey – Platform: 12yrs was too long FDR is elected to a 4 th term – Experience played a major role


24 Last Days of Hitler Pre-invasion bombing – Berlin & other major cities were hit repeatedly Especially factories & oil refineries Allied invasion (Sept 1944) repelled by Germany – Allies arrived on the edge of Germany by mid Sept Battle of the Bulge – Dec 16, 1944 – Germans launched a major offensive on US positions in Belgium & Luxembourg – General George Patton & his airborne division stopped Hitlers last gasp counter-offensive – By Jan, the Allies were again advancing toward Germany

25 War in Europe Comes to an End April 1945 – US approach Berlin from west while Soviets come from east – Hitler committed suicide in an underground bunker on April 30, 1945 – FDR dies of natural causes – April 12, 1945 Truman steps in Depth of the Holocaust is uncovered V-E Day Victory in Europe Day – May 7, 1945 – Germany surrendered unconditionally


27 Japan Dies Hard Feb 1945 – Iwo Jima – Fighter planes were now close enough to bomb Japan April – June, 1945 – Okinawa – Fierce fighting which virtually destroyed Japans remaining defenses Japan still showed no willingness to surrender

28 Potsdam Conference Held in near Berlin in July 1945 US & Soviet Union warn Japan to surrender or be destroyed – Tens of thousands leaflets were dropped in Japan Japan refuses removal of emperor – show some signs that they may surrender if they can keep their emperor

29 The 1 st Atomic Bomb Manhattan Project – secret plans to build an atomic bomb – Albert Einstein worked on project Bomb was tested in New Mexico July 16, 1945 Aug 6, 1945 –Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima – 180,000+ died – Bomb was dropped by the Enola Gay – Japanese still refuse to surrender

30 The 2 nd Atomic Bomb Aug 9, 1945 – bomb dropped on Nagasaki – 80,000+ died Japan agreed to surrender under one condition: keep Emperor Hirohito – Allies accepted condition on Aug 14, 1945 Sept 2, 1945 – Official surrender on board the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay (MacArthur was there) – V-J Day - Victory in Japan Day

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