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Dewey in Scandinavia : exploring new translation models of Dewey Presentation at Dewey goes Europe : on the use and development of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) in European libraries, Vienna 28 April, 2009 Ingebjørg Rype, National Library of Norway Magdalena Svanberg, National Library of Sweden
Outline Why consider new translation models of Dewey in Scandinavia? –Sweden –Norway The mixed translation model – what is it? Exploring the mixed model – the results of the pilot studies and a workshop New approaches to the mixed model –Sweden –Norway Future work
Classification in Sweden – a background Most libraries in Sweden use a national Swedish classification scheme, SAB. A Swedish switch to Dewey is under way. –Decision by the National Library to switch from the national scheme SAB to Dewey. –Recommendation by the Swedish Library Association. –Research libraries have decided or are preparing for a decision. –Interest among public libraries.
Why consider new translation models of Dewey in Sweden? Need for a Swedish translation of Dewey Until now, the only Dewey content available in Swedish is the Dewey Summaries The abridged edition is too brief. To translate and maintain the full edition means a lot of work. Translations of DDC numbers far down in the hierarchy with little or no literary warrant in Sweden would be of limited value. Following the Norwegian example, with an abridgment of our own –Could cause problems with interoperability. –Would be time consuming in itself.
Classification and indexing in Norway – a background Dewey is used by most libraries in Norway Use of different editions of Dewey (DDK 5, DDC 21, DDC 22 and WebDewey) Norway has no national subject heading system Different local indexes to Dewey in OPACs
DDK 5 DDK 5 based on DDC 21 Special customized edition on the level between Abridged and full DDC Level of abridgment based on literary warrant in Norwegian libraries Used by: –Public and school libraries –Biblioteksentralen (The Library Center) –The National Bibliography Used for reference and for specific subjects by university and special libraries, but in general they use DDC 22 /WebDewey DDK 5 is important for development of Norwegian terminology in local subject headings
Why consider new translation models of DDC in Norway? Use of different versions of Dewey makes reuse of classification numbers in the copy cataloging process difficult Use of different versions of Dewey makes it difficult to search by Dewey numbers across catalogs One version of Dewey would make it easier to create end user tools (a la MelvilSearch) which could be used across catalogs
Example from BIBSYS Mitt liv, min frihet : en selvbiografi / Ayaan Hirsi Ali ; oversatt av Poul Henrik Poulsen. - [Oslo] : Cappelen, s., pl. : ill. Originaltittel: Infidel BIBSYS: Number assigned by LC: /3092
Important considerations before switching to a web version How can the classification praxis be more standardized among all Norwegian libraries? Is it possible to develop one edition of Dewey which could be used by all libraries? Is it possible to develop a model which is not as time consuming as translating the whole Dewey or continue the special customized DDK?
What is the mixed translation model? Use Dewey data in the vernacular as framework Update the vernacular data to match the current version of the DDC Where needed, add English-language classes from full edition to complete hierarchies Translate the auxiliary tables (Tables 1-6) in full Use standard terminology for instructions in the language of each record (e.g., “Her:” / “Class here”) Include logical abridgment instructions to address use by smaller collections Provide separate indexes featuring the terminology available in each language
Excerpt from DDK Symptomer og generelle patologiske prosesser som problemer i seg selv Inkluderer: Betennelser, feber, infeksjoner, koldbrann, sjokk, ødemer, kroniskt tretthetssyndrom (myalgisk encefalomyelitt) Her: Symptombeskrivelse [tidligere ]; patologi, diagnose, behandling av symptomer med ulike sykdomsårsaker Klassifiser tolkning av symptomer for diagnose og prognose i Klassifiser symptomer og patologiske prosesser vedrørende en bestemt sykdom eller kategori sykdommer med sykdommen eller kategori sykdommer, for eksempel symptomer på hjertesykdommer Klassifiser kronisk tretthetssyndrom betraktet som en bestemt type sykdom med sykdommen, f.eks, kronisk tretthetssyndrom betraktet som en sykdom i immunsystemet Smerte Klassifiser hodepine i
Excerpt from Mixed edition Symptomer og generelle patalogiske prosesser som problemer i seg selv Inkluderer: Feber, koldbrann, ødemer Her: Patologi, diagnose, behandling av symptomer med ulike sykdomsårsaker; symptombeskrivelse Infeksjoner klassifiseres nå i Klassifiser oversiktsverker om palliativ pleie i ; klassifiser tolkning av symptomer for diagnose og prognose i ; klassifiser virkninger av skader og sår i 617.2; klassifiser komplikasjoner og følgesykdommer i /9. Klassifiser symptomer og patologiske prosesser vedrørende en bestemt sykdom eller kategori sykdommer med sykdommen eller kategori sykdommer, for eksempel symptomer på hjertesykdommer Smerte Klassifiser hodepine i / — (English language subdivisions)
Excerpt from Mixed edition – English language subdivisions Inflammation Shock and multiple organ failure Standard subdivisions are added for either or both topics in heading For shock associated with injury or surgery, see Chronic fatigue syndrome Class here chronic fatigue syndrome discussed as a specific kind of disease [formerly with the kind of disease], myalgic encephalomyelitis See also /4 for chronic diseases.
Excerpt from Mixed edition – Norwegian index terms to captions in English Inflammation Betennelser – Symptomatologi Shock and multiple organ failure Flerorgansvikt – Symptomatologi Sjokk – Symptomatologi Chronic fatigue syndrome Kronisk tretthetssyndrom – Symptomatologi Myalgisk encefalomyelitt - Symptomatologi
Pilot studies Usability as a classifier’s tool Navigation between Norwegian and English terminology Difference between classifying Norwegian or English literature?
Advantages More index terms Index terms in both English and Norwegian The whole Dewey from one source
Disadvantages Norwegian content in instruction notes and including notes disappeared Not all Norwegian librarians have mastered English well enough to use it as an entry point to Dewey. Confusing with mix of languages
Workshop Arranged by the Norwegian committe on classification and indexing (NKKI), the National Library, and Library Education What level do we need for a new Norwegian translation? Is it possible to create a Norwegian edition which could be used by all libraries?
New approach to the mixed model - Norway The workshop gave a recommendation for full translation: Norwegian terminology is important. –for cataloguers to understand the instructions in Dewey and classify fast and correctly. –as a basis for subject headings –as an access point for librarians and end users Need for consistency in classification - easier to maintain if all libraries use one Dewey edition Those who use a full edition today would not use a mixed edition The need for exchange of classification data makes it important with interoperable data A full translation needs abridgment instructions on DDK level.
Future work - Norway NKKI will give a recommendation to the National Library on a full translation with abridgment instructions If not a full translation: How to use the experiences from the Mixed edition project? –a datafile containing the full (English-language) Dewey from which we can produce an abridged Norwegian version? –abridged on DDK-level with extended index? –indexes in both Norwegian and English?
New approach to the mixed model - Sweden For Sweden, the mixed model still seems to be a possible way to reach a Swedish translation in reasonable time and with reasonable resources. Differences from the Norwegian circumstances –No translation at all to start from. –University libraries are the main user group. –Svenska ämnesord (Swedish subject headings) is an additional access point and source of terminology. –SAB does not provide detailed notes, and the scheme is not extensively indexed. Swedish librarians are used to coping without this kind of information in the classification scheme.
Level of initial translation to Swedish Dewey classes mapped to SAB in the converting table SAB-Dewey. Dewey classes found in the abridged edition of DDC. All superordinate classes to translated classes.
SAB is guiding the level of translation DDC numberCaption 616Sjukdomar Särskilda medicinska förhållanden Genetiska sjukdomar (Ärftliga sjukdomar) Medfödda sjukdomar Chronic diseases Symtom och allmänna patologiska processer som problem i sig Smärta Inflammation Shock and multiple organ failure Chronic fatigue syndrome
Swedish subject headings will be mapped to DDC DDC numberSwedish subject headings (examples) 616Sjukdomar Genetiska sjukdomar Kromosomrubbningar Medicinsk genetik Missbildningar hos människan Siamesiska tvillingar Kroniska sjukdomar Symtom Feber Smärta Inflammation Chock Kroniskt trötthetssyndrom
The abridged DDC will complement the level Controversies related to public morals No counterpart in SAB. Will still be translated, since it is a number from the abridged edition.
Future work - Additional translation into Swedish Guided by: Literary warrant in LIBRIS, the Swedish union catalog Need for Swedish terminology and Swedish examples, based on problems reported by Swedish librarians. Work in progress Possibly an intermediate step on the way to a full translation?
Future work -The mixed edition as an end-user tool? The mixed edition as an end-user tool has not been studied yet. How will the mix of languages work for an end-user, possibly with no knowledge of English? Browsing top-down – no big difference from using an abridged edition for browsing. Searching could be more of a problem, but the mappings SAO-DDC will help up the situation Plans for a pilot study of the mixed edition as an end-user tool using MelvilSearch.
/Magdalena Svanberg Captions will be in English further down in the hierarchy. Do you want to continue browsing?
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The Swedish Dewey project Goals: Translating Dewey to Swedish using the mixed model Mapping Swedish subject headings to Dewey Developing tools to search and navigate material with SAB codes and material with Dewey numbers together. Training Start May 2009 The Swedish mixed edition will be made available when a reasonable amount of the content is translated into Swedish. National Library switches to DDC in 2011 or Libraries can switch to DDC during the project, or wait for the switch of the National Library.
Thank you! Ingebjørg Rype National Library of Norway Telephone: Magdalena Svanberg National Library of Sweden Telephone: