2Complete Dominance Involves dominant and recessive alleles dominant allele always overpowers the recessive allele in appearance
3Incomplete Dominance Neither allele is dominant or recessive Organisms with two different phenotypes produces offspring with a third phenotype that is a blending of the parents
4Incomplete DominanceEx: Cross a red flower (RR) with a white flower (WW) and the offspring will be pink (RW)!
5Incomplete Dominance(RR)In another flower, if red ____ and blue ____ flowers are crossed, they produce a 3rd purple ____ flowerWhat would be the genotypic ratio and phenotypic ratio if you crossed two purple flowers?(BB)(RB)
6Incomplete Dominance Cross of two purple flowers _RB_ X _RB_ What are gamete possibilities?genotypic ratio1RR : 2RB : 1BBphenotypic ratio1red : 2 purple : 1 blueRBRRredRBpurpleBBblueRB
7Codominance Neither allele is dominant or recessive Parents with different phenotypes produce an offspring with a third phenotypeThird phenotype will show both parental phenotypes simultaneously (at the same time)
8CodominanceIn cattle and horses, if you cross a pure red (RR) with a pure white (WW), you get (RW) which produces the color roan.
9CodominanceThese cattle or horses actually have both red and white hairs intermixed, or are spotted. Roan is a third phenotype.If you cross a roan with a white…RW X WWRWRWroanWWwhiteWW
12Multiple allelestwo or more possible alleles for the same gene within a populationThus multiple allelesHowever, individuals within the population are only able to hold two of themNon-human examples: rabbit fur color, mice skin color, eye color in flies, wing size in flies
13Multiple Alleles Blood type in humans The _four_ different blood types:A, B, O, and ABBlood types are produced by three_ different alleles:A, B and OPhenotypeGenotypeAAA or AOBBB or BOABAB onlyOOO only
14Genotype for Blood Type I and i used in genotype I used with A and B i used with O A and B are dominant over O: A and B are codominant Ex: Genotype: AA is IAIA
15Blood type chart PHENOTYPE GENOTYPE A AA, IAIA AO, IAi B BB, IBIB BO, IBiABAB, IAIBOOO, iiBlood type AB is an example of codominance in humans
16Blood Type Punnett Square Draw a Punnett square showing all the possible genotypes for the offspring produced by a type “O” mother and an a Type “AB” father.iiIAiIBiCross: ii x IAIBIAIB
17Blood Type Punnett Square Cross a female with blood type A and a male with heterozygous B blood type.Complete ratios (phenotypic and genotypic)A male with blood type B has a child with a woman who has blood type A. The child is blood type O. What is the genotype of the male and female? Show your work.
25Sex-linked traitsEvery new born has a 50% chance of being female and a 50% chance being maleDAD: X YSperm contains either:MOM: X XEggs all contain:XYorXYXXXXXYX
26Sex-Linked traitsThe X chromosome contains many genes, whereas the Y chromosome contains only a few genessex-linked genes: genes located on one of the sex chromosomes (X or Y) but not the othermost sex-linked genes are X-linked genes
27Examples of sex-linked traits: X-linked Colorblindness: more common in males than femalesHemophilia: more common in males than femalesBoth colorblindness and Hemophilia are recessive traits
31Colorblind: X-linked trait C- normal visionc- colorblindYou must incorporate XX (mom) and XY (dad)This is how to set it up:(remember colorblindness is X-linked!)Normal visionHeterozygous(carrier)ColorblindFemale: XXMale: XY
32Punnett SquareCross a female who is a carrier for colorblindness with a normal vision man.Cross a normal vision woman (homozygous) with a colorblind man.
33Hemophilia: X-linked recessive trait Hemophilia is the inability for blood to clotYour blood clots every time you get a papercutH: normal clottingh: hemophiliaMake a key for hemophilia:Normal female: Normal Male:Female Carrier: Can a man be a carrier?Female with hemophilia: Male with: