3BEHAVIOURWe choose our behaviours to satisfy our needs at any given timeA person’s behaviour at any given time is their best effort to meet their needsBehaviour is holistic/total – acting- thinking – feeling – physiology, and most of these are choices
4Behaviour contd./…Originates from within and not form some external stimuliEmphasis on choice of and responsibility for our behaviour
5TOTAL BEHAVIOUR (holistic) ActingThinkingFeelingPhysiologyMost of them are choices
6NEEDS Survival Belonging and Love Power Freedom Fun A person’s behaviour at any given time is their best effort to meet their needs
7Survival To survive as individuals and as a species Physical needs for food, water, air, safety, shelter,Need for a sense of security in respect of the on-going provision of basic needs
8Love and Belonging Need to love and care for others To believe that we are loved and cared forUnsatisfactory or non-existent ‘connections’ with people are the major source of all almost all long-term human problems (Glasser ,1998)Whatever the presenting problem disconnectedness according to Glasser will be the underlying cause or issue
9Power/Self-WorthNeed for a sense of empowerment, worthiness, self-efficacy and achievementNeed to be able and capableIt implies a sense of achievement, accomplishment, pride, importance and self-esteem
10Freedom Need for Freedom Independence and autonomy The ability to make choicesTo express oneself freelyFreedomInternal blocks to freedomExternal blocks to freedom
11Fun The desire to enjoy school (a job) To have a sense of humour To engage in a hobbyTo have a feeling of excitement about a work project or a leisure time activityFun is the internal payoff for learningImportant in relationships
12NEEDS - WANTS Needs genetic instructions’ are common to all people Wants are the way we meet our needsIf a person’s behaviour is their best way of meeting their needsWhat needs is the behaviour meeting?Are there more effective ways of meeting the need?Can we engage in a collaborative effort to find better ways of meeting this need?
13SPECIFIC WANTS Human beings develop specific wants Each person, as they grow and interacting with family and culture develop specific and unique wants as to how needs are to be metWe have wants related to each needThese are analogous to pictures in that each one is specific
14ResponsibilityBy helping clients to take responsibility for their behavioural choices rather than accepting that they are victims of their own impulses, past history, other people or present circumstances they are able to make dramatic chances.We are influenced by the past but not controlled by it.
15EmphasisAn effort to teach, encourage and help clients to take responsibility for their behaviourPersonal responsibility is at the heart of therapeutic change
16OUR QUALITY WORLD The people we want to be with The things we most want to own or experienceThe ideas or systems of beliefs that govern our behaviourOur assumptions
17PICTURE ALBUM Contains pictures that meet a specific need Love Are the pictures realistic?Do they need to be changed?Am I prepared to change them?In conflict, compromise is necessary.
18PICTURE ALBUMS We control our mental images or pictures Put them in, exchange them or throw them outWe always have the option of choosing some more positive behaviour
19Contd./…This extensive collection of pictures or wants is called a ‘mental picture album (Glasser, 1984) and the ‘quality world’ (Glasser, 1990)
20Quality WorldWhat does it mean when we change what is in our quality world?PersonsSituationsBelieves
21BELIEF SYSTEM Much of my behaviour is a response to external signals Other people can control how I think, feel and actI have a right to punish others who do not do what I want them to do
22SUCCESS IDENTITY Effective and need fulfilling behaviour Able to give and receive loveExperience a sense of self worthInvolved with others in a caring wayMeet their needs in ways that are not at the expense of others
23FAILURE IDENTITY See themselves as unloved, unwanted, rejected Unable to become intimately involved with othersUnable to make and stick with commitmentsAre generally helpless
24THEORY Discounts the concept of mental illness Focuses on moral issues Past is largely ignored in favour of the presentDoes not recognise transferenceUnconscious is largely ignored
25CHOICES - Depression Continue to depress yourself Change what you are doing to get what you wantChange what you wantChange both what you want and what you are doing to get what you want
26We can even choose misery Why is depression a choice?Why would a person choose to be depressed?What are the advantages/gains of being depressed?We should always look at secondary gains in relation to choice
27Reasons for choosing misery To keep angering under controlTo attract helpTo excuse not taking actionTo control othersNever let anyone control you by the pain and misery (s)he chooses for themselves
28Counselling - SchoolFor a successful counselling relationship (therapeutic alliance) the counsellor should be in the client’s quality worldSchool should be in the client’s quality worldWe can change what is in our quality world, put new persons/things in and take persons/things that are already there out.
29Goals of Reality Therapy Teach choice theory for understanding behaviourRaise awareness of choosing miseryIncrease client’s sense of responsibilityAssist clients to have realistic pictures in their albums to meet their needsAssist in implementing new behaviours
30Practice of Reality Therapy Building an appropriate relationshipEvaluate present behaviourLook at possible alternatives for getting what the client wants out of lifeSelecting alternative for reaching goalsDevelop a behavioural planNot giving up
31Build Relationship Listen for themes Summarise and focus Use attending behavioursSuspend judgementDo the unexpectedUse humourEstablish boundariesShare selfListen for metaphorsListen for themesSummarise and focusAllow consequencesAllow silenceShow empathyBe ethicalCreate anticipation and communicate hope
32Contd./… Don’t argue Don’t boss manage Don’t criticise or coerce Don’t demeanDon’t encourage excusesDon’t instil fearDon’t give up easily
33WDEP SYSTEM Discuss wants and perceptions Discuss directions and doingsSelf evaluationFormulate a plan of action
34Discuss Wants & Perception Wants QuestionsAsk clients what they want?Ask what they want to avoid?Ask what they want regarding needs?Ask who they want to be?Ask how they see (perceive) their control, themselves and the others?
35Discussion of Direction Ask Clients About Their Overall Direction.Where is the accumulation of your current choices taking you?Are you headed in a direction where you want to be in a month, a year, 2 years?As Glasser stated, “ Ask client…about the direction they would like to take their lives?
36Self EvaluationSelf Evaluation is the heart, the essence, the most important component, the quintessential segment of the delivery system.Glasser (1972) described SE as “the basis for Change”“If there is a specific time in Reality Therapy when people begin to change, it is when the client evaluates what he or she is doing and begins to answer the question, “Is it helping?”
37Self Evaluation contd./… People do not change until they decide that what they are doing does not help them accomplish what they want (Glasser, 1980).Self Evaluation is the keystone in the arch of procedure. It holds the other together, and if it is to removed, the arch crumbles (Wubbolding, 1990, 1991)
38Self-evaluation Questions Is your overall behaviour taking you where you want to go?Is this specific action to your best advantage?Is what you tell yourself really helping you?Is what you want realistically attainable?
39Plan of ActionAsk Clients to make plans to more effectively fulfill their wants and needs without infringing on the rights of others to do the same
40Plan of Action Successful planning is SMART: S: Simple, small and SpecificM: MeasurableA: Aligned with wantsR: Realistic (reasonable and responsible)T: Time Framed** Written in the present tense as if it has already occurred
41Plan of Action Questions What else can you Do?What (action) steps will you need to accomplish your goal?What resources do you need?What knowledge or skills you need to accomplish this goal?How will you know if the plan is successful?
42Questions What do you want? What are you doing? Is what you are doing getting you what you want?If not are there other thing you could do?Which of these would you like to try first?When?
43APPROACHLet’s begin by talking about what you have been doing to solve the problemIn what way is it helping?Is your behaviour in touch with reality?Is what you are doing the responsible thing to do?Is your behaviour effective?If your behaviour is not getting you what you want, what would you like to do differently?Will we make a plan?
44CENTRAL TAKSTo assist clients in evaluating their behaviour in the context of meeting their needs.What do you really want?Is what you are doing getting you what you really want?Are there other better ways of getting what you want?What are some of these other ways?
45Format What did you do? What is our agreement about that What were you supposed to do?What are you going to do next time?Do you want to write out the plan or will I do it for youLet’s check tomorrow (next week) on the plan
46Basic Steps Establish a relationship Identify the problem Evaluate present behaviourDevelop a plan that will help to resolve the problemObtain commitment for the planStructure for evaluation of the plan
47DEVELOPING AN ACTION PLAN The ‘action stage’ of the ‘Egan Model’ will be helpful here:Goal setting and scenario settingBalance sheetBrainstorming and selectionShaping a planForced field analysis
48MEETING NEEDS NEED HOW DID I MEET IT? Survival Belonging and love PowerFreedomFun
49MEETING NEEDS HOW DID I FACILIT ATE n.. IN NEED MEETING NEEDS Survival Belonging and lovePowerFreedomFun
50Contribution Short-term therapy Clients self-evaluation and plan People are responsible for who they are and who they are becomingClients sense of control
51LIMITATIONS: No focus on the unconscious, dreams, transference People choose disorders; depressingPlans for how someone should live their life should be made jointly and not just by the therapist
52READINGGlasser, W. (1986) Choice Theory in the Classroom New York, Harper CollinsGlasser, W. (1992) The Quality School , New York, Harper CollinsGlasser, W. (1993) The Quality School Teacher,New York, Harper CollinsGlasser, W. (1998) Choice Theory,New York, Harper Collins
53Cont’d./…Glasser, W. (2006) Every Student Can Succeed, Chatsworth, CA, Wikkiam Glasser Inc.Nelson-Jones, R. (1995) The Theory and Practice of Counselling, New York, Cassell.ppWubbolding, R. (1988) Using Reality Therapy, New York, Harper and Row.
54Contd./…Wubbolding, R. and Brickell, J. (1999) Counselling with Reality Therapy. Oxford, Speechmark Publishing