Presentation on theme: "Absolutism in Eastern Europe"— Presentation transcript:
1Absolutism in Eastern Europe How did the basic structure of society in eastern Europe become different from that of western Europe in the early modern period?How and why did the rulers of Austria, Prussia, and Russia manage to build powerful absolutist states?Absolutism in Eastern Europe
2I. Geography of Eastern Europe 3 aging empires:Holy Roman EmpireRepublic of PolandOttoman Empire3 emerging states:AustriaPrussiaRussia
3RussiaPrussiaPolandHoly Roman EmpireAustriaOttoman Empire
4A. Holy Roman Empire (after 1648) never very strongremember Voltaire?30 Years’ War delivered final blowecon, arts, lit, science religious disunitycentral authority Holy Roman empire in 1648
5H.R.E. continued – gov’t structure: emperorelected by 9 electors, leaders of imp. German statesHabsburg position – bargain w/ electors to keep itimperial dietauthority to raise troops & taxes lost after 30 Yrs. War
6H.R.E. continued…Brandenburg-Prussianot able to become absolutist as a whole, but individual states could:Brandenburg-Prussia (Hohenzollerns)Austria (Habsburgs)1806 – HRE dissolvedAustria
7B. Republic of Poland (about 1650) Kingdom of Poland + Grand Duchy of Lithuaniarepublic = elected king + constitutional libertiesweak central authorityreal authority = szlachta (landed aristocracy) & regional dietsheterogeneous pop.Catholic
8Republic of Poland continued… 1795 – end of republic: carved up by stronger, expansionistic states
9C. Ottoman Empire (about 1650) strongest of the 3 aging empires, BUT:weakened gov’tweakened militaryonce strong – janissaries, well-equipped, devshirmefeared – sieges on Vienna in 1529 & 1683Muslimreligious tolerationheterogeneous pop.Ottoman print of devshirme in Bulgaria. Every fifth Christian child taken.
11EXPANSION & GROWTH!! II. West vs. East Similar paths of development up to 1300:trade, towns, pop. expansion into frontier opportunities for socioeconomic advancementEXPANSION & GROWTH!!
12West vs. East Diverged after 1300: Western Europe Eastern Europe serfdom abolishedserfdom reestablishedweak lordspowerful lordsurbanagrarianstrong middle classweak middle classstrong states – strong central authorityweak empires – weak central authority
13Serfdom in Eastern Europe How did eastern European landlords return peasants to serfdom?made rulers issue laws restricting peasants’ movementhereditary subjugation = serfdom passes on through generationstook over peasants’ land and labor obligationsgrowth of estate agriculture
14Serfdom in Eastern Europe How were eastern landlords able to enforce their changes to the condition of the peasantry? Controlled local justice.
15Serfdom in Eastern Europe Why did serfdom reemerge in eastern Europe?economic interpretation:14th-15th c. agricultural depression & pop. labor shortagelandlords tie peasants to land16th c. prosperity returns but lords finish what they startedflaw in argument: Western Europe had identical economic development but did not reinstate serfdom
16Serfdom in Eastern Europe Why did serfdom reemerge in eastern Europe?political interpretation:most convincing argumentWestern EuropeEastern EuropeWhat happenedstrong monarchs = landlords powerweak monarchs + war = landlords powerDifferent concepts of monarchical authoritymonarch has sovereignty and protects interests of his peoplemonarch is only 1st among equals; does not protect interests of his people
17Serfdom in Eastern Europe political interpretation (continued):Western EuropeEastern EuropePower of the peasantrystrongerweaker – uprisings rarely succeededPower of the towns & urban classesstronger: towns retained greater privilegesweaker: landlords took power & privileges awaylords sold directly to foreign capitalists instead of urban merchantspeasants lost right of refuge
18III. Rise of Eastern Absolutism Monarchs vs. landlords successful monarchs gained power in 3 key areas:taxationarmyforeign policy
20Austria Habsburgs mostly in HRE, but also outside to SE Austrian rulers = HRE emperorsCatholicHabsburg domains to 1795.
21Austria – consolidation of power: 30 Years’ War set stage:Habsburgs (losers) turn inward and eastward to strengthen stateevents in Bohemia (Phase 1) introduce new nobility loyal to Habsburgs Habsburgs reestablish control over Bohemia
22Austria – Bohemia & 30 Yrs War (1): Bohemian Estates (Protestant) revolt against Habsburgs (Catholic)Battle of White Mountain (1620) – Bohemian Estates crushedHabsburgs take land/power from Protestant Czech nobles and give it to Catholic Czech nobles = new Bohemian nobility loyal to Habsburgs
23Austria – Bohemia & 30 Yrs War (2): Habsburgs reestablish control over BohemiaProtestantism eliminatedpeasants exploited even more: the robot Personal note: It was in this era that my grandmother’s family converted from Protestantism to Judaism because they were persecuted for being Protestants and did not want to become Catholic – Judaism for them was the less detestable choice. Not a good decision in the long run.
24Austria – Turkish wars & expansion: 1529 & 1683 – unsuccessful Ottoman sieges on ViennaHabsburgs acquire Hungary & Transylvania (Romania) from Ottomansnew Habsburg state = Austria, Bohemia, + Hungary
25Absolutism partially achieved common Habsburg ruler but each state kept own laws/gov’t (Estates)Pragmatic Sanction (1713) – Habsburg possessions are never to be divided and are to be passed to single heirHungary not fully integratedHungarian nobles revolted somewhat successfullywhy and how: religion (Protestant Hungarians vs. Catholic Habsburgs), Hungarian nationalism, Ottoman military support1703 revolt under Rákóczy Hungarians accept Habsburg rule & Habsburgs restore Hungarian nobility’s privileges
26Austria – Habsburg rulers (+ H.R.E. emperors): Ferdinand II (r )crushes Bohemian Estates & creates new loyal Bohemian nobilityFerdinand III (r )consolidates German-speaking provinces (Austria, Styria, Tyrol)creates permanent standing armyCharles VI (r )Pragmatic Sanction (1713)Rákóczy’s revolt
29Prussia Hohenzollerns = elector of Brandenburg & duke of Prussia elector of Brandenburg – helps choose Holy Roman emperor1618 – Prussia became possession of elector of Brandenburg when junior branch of Hohenzollern family died out
30Prussia Hohenzollerns had little power until 30 Years’ War elector of Brandenburg = position bestowed no real powerBrandenburg: land-locked, no natural defenses, poor landPrussia: separated from Brandenburg, basically part of Poland30 Years’ War weakened the Estates (rep. assemblies) allowed monarchs to take more power
31Prussia – Hohenzollern rulers: Frederick William, the “Great Elector”(r )Frederick III, “the Ostentatious”(r )Frederick William I, “the Soldiers’ King”(r )
32Frederick William, the “Great Elector” (r. 1640-1688) strengthened central authority:unified 3 provinces: Brandenburg, Prussia, lands along the Rhineforced Estates to accept permanent taxation w/o their consentcreated permanent standing armyfactors enabling his success:foreign invasions Estates more willing to issue funds for armyJunkers did not support the towns elector broke town liberties
33Frederick III, “the Ostentatious” (r. 1688-1713) weakfocused on copying Louis XIV’s styleFrederick IIILouis XIV
34Frederick William I, “the Soldiers’ King” (r. 1713-1740) most influential in est. Prussian absolutismmilitary obsessedstrengthened royal authority:created best army in Europecreated strong, centralized bureaucracyhonest and conscientiousworked to develop economyeliminated threat from nobility by enlisting Junkers in army (became officers)almost always at peacecivil society became militarized – very rigid & disciplined
35C. Russia Similar to W. Europe up to ≈1250: Christian (though Eastern Orthodox)territories unified (11th c.)feudal (boyard nobility & peasantry)political fragmentation at various times: Russia becomes quite different from W. Europecause: Russia under brutal foreign rule (Mongols)
39Russia & the Mongol Conquest Chinggis Khan ( ) & Golden Horde – great conquerorsKiev(capital of Ukraine)mid-13th c. – Mongols conquer Kievan Rus Mongol Yoke
40Russia – The Mongol Yoke unified eastern SlavsAllowed Russian princes who demonstrated good service/loyalty to retain some authority. Muscovite princes served Mongols well given more power. Over time Muscovite princes territory and consolidate power.
41Russia – rulers: Ivan I, “Ivan Moneybags” (r. 1328-1341) Ivan III (r )Ivan IV, “Ivan the Terrible” (r )Michael Romanov (r )Alexis (r )Peter the Great (r )
42Ivan I, “Ivan Moneybags” (r. 1328-1341) stingymade $$$ by lending $ to princes for Mongol tax collectionMongols made him tax collector & great prince
43Ivan III (r )Muscovite power consolidated – no longer recognized leadership of Mongol khan hello Russian absolutism!Why did this happen?Ivan III felt strongtsars believed they had to carry on Byzantine legacy (Orthodox Xtianity ; Moscow as “Third Rome” after Constantinople)monarchy became more powerful than nobilityboyard nobility lost power in 15th c.service nobility – new class loyal to tsar
44Ivan IV, “Ivan the Terrible” (r. 1533-1584) 1st to take title of “tsar”wars of expansionsuccessful in the E. – took Mongol landunsuccessful in the W. (Poland-Lithuania)subjugated boyars – reign of terrorservice nobles demand more from peasants peasants flee and form independent outlaw groups = Cossacksurban traders & artisans bound to towns so Ivan could tax themlimited middle class (vs. W. Europe)
451584-1682 Theodore (r. 1584-1598) “Time of Troubles” (1598-1613) fighting over who would be tsarunsuccessful Cossack rebellion led by Ivan BolotnikovMichael Romanov (r )elected by nobles – became new hereditary tsarrestored power of the tsar
461584-1682 cont… Alexis (r. 1645-1676) 1649 – peasants enserfed social class gap widenssplit in Russian Orthodox church: Nikon wants reforms along Greek Orthodox model vs. “Old Believers” want to stick to Russian ways “Old Believers” persecuted & Russians alienated from church– unsuccessful Cossack rebellion led by Stenka RazinAlexis
47Peter the Great (r. 1682-1725) What were his policies? What made him “great”?Was he really great?
48Some Terminology tsar: term for the Russian ruler (like “king”) autocracy: government in which one person possesses unlimited powerabsolutism: government by an absolute ruler or authority, meaning a ruler completely free from constitutional or other restraint