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Trading states in Africa Chapter 11. Early civilizations of Africa Section 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Trading states in Africa Chapter 11. Early civilizations of Africa Section 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Trading states in Africa Chapter 11

2 Early civilizations of Africa Section 1

3 Sahara Who: Africans What: the largest desert in the world, a geographic feature in the great variety of African landscapes Where: Northern Africa When: 730 BC- present Why: this desert plays a major role in the development of Africa & its trading kingdoms that develop

4 Sahara (6) Who: Africans What: the largest desert in the world; just one geographic feature in the great variety of African land Where: North Africa When: 730 BC- present Why: the geographic features of this area played a major role in the development of Africa

5 Sahara (7) Who: Africans What: largest desert in the world; just one of the many geographic features of Africa Where: Northern Africa When: 730 BC- present Why: this desert played a major role in the development of N. Africa = desert = not a lot of vegetation = lower population; trade routes went through here

6 Savannahs (6) Who: Africans What: grassy plains, make up the continents largest & most populated regions Where: Central & South Africa When: 730 BC- present Why: this area had the most vegetation = food = larger population; this geographic region affected how/where ppl lived

7 Savannas (7) Who: Africans What: grassy plains, the continents largest & most populated regions Where: Central & South Africa When: 730 BC- present Why: these grassy plains had a lot of vegetation = food = people = most populous regions of Africa

8 Cataracts (6) Who: Africans What: waterfalls on high plateaues Where: Africa When: 730 BC- present Why: these hindered easy movement from place to place in Africa, acted as barriers = travel from place to place was hard

9 Cataracts (7) Who: Africans What: waterfalls that hindered movement throughout Africa Where: high plateaus of Africa When: 730 BC- present Why: these served as barriers to trade= they hindered easy movement of ppls from place to place

10 Workbook pg 98 I. – A. 1. Sahara- largest desert in the world, shapes Africa = not as many ppl live here b.c. of desert 2. Savannahs- grassy plains w. vegetation = most populous region 3. Cataracts- hindered movement throughout Africa, acted as barriers

11 I. – B. 1. Minerals (salt, gold, copper,iron) showed wealth & power = trade increased 2. Camels could travel long distances w.o water & could carry heavy loads = trade increased

12 Savannah Who: Africans What: grassy plains, Africas largest & most populated region Where: Central & South Africa When: 730 BC- present Why: moving north & south throughout Africa, this is the continents most populated region b.c. of all the vegetation

13 Cataracts Who: Africans What: waterfalls on high plateaus Where: Africa When: 730 BC- present Why: these hindered easy movement throughout the continent b.c. they were difficult to cross = limits travel

14 Workbook pg 98 I. A. Geographic patterns – Sahara- desert region in the North (not a lot of ppl live here); Savannahs- most populated due to a lot of vegetation = food – Cataracts, (waterfalls)- restrict people from moving about the continent B. Resources spur trade - Salt, gold, iron & copper were valuable = great wealth & power = trade throughout Africa - Camels allowed more trade through the desert b.c. they were able to carry heavy loads & go long times w.o water= trade increased through the Sahara

15 Desertification Who: Africans What: a climate change that slowly dried out the Sahara, cropland & pastureland are devoured/destroyed Where: Northern Africa, Sahara desert When: 2500 BC Why: as the land became parched, the desert spread; the desertification led to migration b.c. ppl had to find new areas to live in that maintained their way of life

16 II. Part A. 1) Hunters & gatherers settled down & learned to cultivate the Nile Valley & domesticate animals 2)Sahara used to be covered with rich grasslands & savannah = ppl lived here 3)Desertification- dried out vegetation = ppl migrated (leave) 4) Ppl leave to find new areas that maintain their ways of life

17 II. Part B 1. People migrated all throughout Africa = diverse cultures/languages- root language = Bantu 2. The Bantu spread their skills/language & merge with other groups; still there today

18 Bantu Who: Africans What: the root language of the African languages Where: Africa, W. Africa When: 1000BC- present Why: gives the movement Bantu migrations its name; Bantu-speakers spread their skills of farming, iron working, & domesticating animals; other existing cultures merged w. Bantu; their influence is still in the languages of that region today

19 Nubia Who: Egyptians, Nubian, Northeast Africans What: ancient kingdom called Kush Where: Egypt, northeast Africa, on the Nile When: 2700 BC Why: this kingdom was flourishing, trade led to contact b/n Nubia & Egypt; Nubia was under Egyptian control & remained that way for about 500 years = Nubia adopted several Egyptian traditions

20 Meroe

21 Kingdoms of West Africa Section 2

22 Surplus Who: African Farming Villagers What: Extra Resources for more than was needed Where: Africa When: 100 A.D. Why: Development of trade allowed the villages to keep more resources. They began to trade their food surplus for products from other villages. This led to an increase in trade.

23 Commodity Who: Africans What: Valuable products Where: Africa When: 730 B.C A.D. Why: People needed salt in their diet, especially in hot tropical areas to replace the salt lost from perspiration. Salt was important for the use of food and preservation. The Sahara had an abundance of salt. The Savannah didnt have enough salt=commodity for them=Trade.

24 WK sheet #2 Cause=Salt is needed for diet and food preservation. Salt is a commodity esp. for the Savannah. Effect=Trade, the Savannah doesnt have enough=willing to trade gold for salt.

25 Ghana Who: Africans, Soninke people What: Its a kingdom from many united farming villages. Where: West Africa When: 800 A.D.

26 Sundiata Who: Sundiata, ruler of Mali What: sickly boy regarded as too weak to be a threat, crushed his enemies & created the kingdom of Mali Where: Egypt/Mali When: Why: he crushed his enemies, ran control of the gold trade routes in Africa, & founded the empire of Mali

27 Mali Who: Sundiata What: empire, gold trade route was here Where: W. Africa When: Why: Gold trade routes & salt supplies expanded here; caravan routes made small towns into great trading cities = many people wanted to live here = freedom of religion & tolerance

28 Mansa Musa Who: greatest ruler of the kingdom of Mali What: greatest ruler of Mali who improved it; converted to Islam Where: Mali, West Africa When: Why: expanded Malis borders west to Atlantic ocean & north; ensured peace & order in his empire; converted to Islam = based system of justice on Quran; promoted religious freedom & tolerance; created alliances w. other Muslim states; brought back Muslim scholars to promote Islamic education in Mali = a lot of West Africa is Islamic today

29 Songhai Who: Sunni Ali, Askia Muhammad What: a new Muslim kingdom in West Africa as Mali was weakening, capital= Goa Where: present-day Mali & Niger, W. Africa When: Why: – Sunni Ali (at the height) made trade routes (gold & salt) & wealthy cities; professional army protected the empire; provincial governors presided over local states; – Askia: efficient bureaucracy w. separate departments for farming, military, & treasury; disputes over Askias leadership after he died = changes in leadership = civil war & unrest – Moroccan invaders used gunpowder to take over

30 Kingdoms & trading states of EastAfrica Section 3

31 Axum Who: African farmers What: a kingdom in present day Eritrea, center of goods & ideas (trade) Where: East Africa When: 100BC-600s AD Why: the merging of culture and peoples of Axum gave way to the language of Geez; this kingdom gained control of the Red Sea; trade here led the kingdom to profiting

32 Adulis Who: Axumites What: capital city of Axum, port city Where: Axum, near the Red Sea When: 400 AD Why: this capital commanded triangular trade that connected Africa, India, & the Mediterranean world; a lot of goods passed through here- from the center of Africa out, and from out of Africa into Africa; trade = wealth

33 Wksheet- Axum Christianity brought to region Adulis becomes wealthy Merging of cultures led to a new language called Geez

34 Ethiopia Who: Axumite kings, Ethiopians What: a kingdom that was a portion of Axums empire, protected by rugged mountains Where: Red Sea, East Africa, When: 400 AD- present Why: Ethiopia was known for its large Christian church population; they absorbed many local customs like traditional music; their influence is still in Ethiopian church services today & they are still said in Geez

35 Ethiopia- Worksheet Ethiopia had a distinct Christian culture w. Christian churches, traditional music, & language Geez; unified their sense of identity

36 King Lalibela Who: King of Ethiopia What: he directed the building of 11 remarkable churches in Ethiopia during his reign Where: Ethiopia, East Africa When:1200s Why: these 11 churches still exist there today & they illustrate the architectural and artistic skill of the Ethiopian craftsmen of the time; he helped to create Ethiopias distinct culture of the time

37 Coastal City States- Wksheet 1. Swahili language is developed 2. Asian traders and immigrants as far away as Indonesia traveled here and added to the mix of peoples here

38 Swahili Who: What: a new vibrant culture and language Where: East Africa When: 1000s Why: international trade system = many ppl mixing & trading = adopt each others culture & language = mixing = Swahili (new language)

39 Great Zimbabwe Who: Bantu peoples,,Portuguese What: ruins of Bantu peoples, a great inland empire; means stone houses Where: East Africa When: Why: built by Bantus in Zimbabwe was a great trade city and in decline when Portuguese traders pushed through to find more gold mines; the capital reached its height around 1300 b.c. of the trade network that reached across the Indian Ocean; there was an effective bureaucracy under a God-king; in 1500, Zim fell b.c. there was too high a population &civil war


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