Presentation on theme: "Definition of Ethics Ethics is defined as a system or a moral code of a particular person, religion, group or profession or any other social units. Ethics."— Presentation transcript:
Definition of Ethics Ethics is defined as a system or a moral code of a particular person, religion, group or profession or any other social units. Ethics is sometimes called as moral philosophy. What is good? What is bad?
Definition of Ethics in Islam Ilm al-akhlaq ( علم الاخلاق ) Amal salih ( عمل صالح ) Adab ( ادب, pl. آداب ), which means good manners. Purification of the soul ( تزكية النفس ) or science of self-purification ( علم التصوف )
وَنَفْسٍ وَمَا سَوَّاهَا (91:7) فَأَلْهَمَهَا فُجُورَهَا وَتَقْوَاهَا (91:8) قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَن زَكَّاهَا (91:9) وَقَدْ خَابَ مَن دَسَّاهَا (91:10) By the Soul, and the proportion and order given to it; And its enlightenment as to its wrong and its right; Truly he succeeds that purifies it, And he fails that corrupts it! (al- Shams:7-10)
The Foundation of Ethics in Islam A. Division of Knowledge 1. Knowledge as the Real Knowledge Based on al-Quran and the Sunnah of our beloved Prophet Muhammad(SAW) 2. Knowledge as Information Other knowledge that is derived not from the two main sources.
In the words of Ibn Khaldun: It should be known that instruction of children in the Quran is a symbol of Islam. Muslims have, and practice, such instruction in all their cities, because it imbues hearts with a firm belief [in Islam] and its articles of faith, which are derived from the verses of the Quran and certain Prophetic traditions. The Quran has become the basis of instruction, the foundation of all habits that may be acquired later on. The reason for this is that the things one is taught in ones youth take root more deeply [than anything else]. They are the basis of all later knowledge. The first impression the heart receives is, in a way, the foundation of [all] habits.
B. The True Servant (abd) of Allah SWT Our beloved Prophet Muhammad (SAW). Aishah (RA) said, The character of the Emissarry of God (SAW) was the Quran. In a hadith, I was sent only to perfect the noble qualities of character.
أَفَغَيْرَ دِينِ اللّهِ يَبْغُونَ وَلَهُ أَسْلَمَ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ طَوْعًا وَكَرْهًا وَإِلَيْهِ يُرْجَعُونَ (3:83) Do they seek for other than the Religion of Allah.-while all creatures in the heavens and on earth have, willing or unwilling, bowed to His Will (Accepted Islam), and to Him shall they all be brought back. (al-Imran:83)
وَإِذْ أَخَذَ رَبُّكَ مِن بَنِي آدَمَ مِن ظُهُورِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ وَأَشْهَدَهُمْ عَلَى أَنفُسِهِمْ أَلَسْتُ بِرَبِّكُمْ قَالُواْ بَلَى شَهِدْنَا أَن تَقُولُواْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ إِنَّا كُنَّا عَنْ هَذَا غَافِلِينَ (7:172) When thy Lord drew forth from the Children of Adam - from their loins - their descendants, and made them testify concerning themselves, (saying): "Am I not your Lord (who cherishes and sustains you)?"- They said: "Yea! We do testify!" (This), lest ye should say on the Day of Judgment: "Of this we were never mindful" (al-Araf:172)
C. Servanthood ( عبدالله ) To serve Allah SWT by remembering Him. فَاذْكُرُونِي أَذْكُرْكُمْ وَاشْكُرُواْ لِي وَلاَ تَكْفُرُونِ Then do ye remember Me; I will remember you. Be grateful to Me, and reject not Faith. (al-Baqarah:152) To serve Him by serving His creatures for His Cause.
قُلْ إِنَّ صَلاَتِي وَنُسُكِي وَمَحْيَايَ وَمَمَاتِي لِلّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ؛ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ وَبِذَلِكَ أُمِرْتُ وَأَنَاْ أَوَّلُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ؛ Say: "Truly, my prayer and my service of sacrifice, my life and my death, are (all) for Allah, the Cherisher of the Worlds: No partner hath He: this am I commanded, and I am the first of those who bow to His will. (al-Anam, 6:162 – 163)
إِن كُلُّ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ إِلَّا آتِي الرَّحْمَنِ عَبْدًا Not one of the beings in the heavens and the earth but must come to ((Allah)) Most Gracious as a servant. (Maryam, 19:93)
اتْلُ مَا أُوحِيَ إِلَيْكَ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ إِنَّ الصَّلَاةَ تَنْهَى عَنِ الْفَحْشَاء وَالْمُنكَرِ وَلَذِكْرُ اللَّهِ أَكْبَرُ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا تَصْنَعُونَ (29:45) Recite what is sent of the Book by inspiration to thee, and establish regular Prayer: for Prayer restrains from shameful and unjust deeds; and remembrance of Allah is the greatest (thing in life) without doubt. And Allah knows the (deeds) that ye do. (al-Ankabut:45)
إِنَّ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَاخْتِلاَفِ اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ لآيَاتٍ لِّأُوْلِي الألْبَابِ (3:190) الَّذِينَ يَذْكُرُونَ اللّهَ قِيَامًا وَقُعُودًا وَعَلَىَ جُنُوبِهِمْ وَيَتَفَكَّرُونَ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ رَبَّنَا مَا خَلَقْتَ هَذا بَاطِلاً سُبْحَانَكَ فَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ (3:191) Behold! in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the alternation of night and day,- there are indeed Signs for men of understanding. Men who celebrate the praises of Allah, standing, sitting, and lying down on their sides, and contemplate the (wonders of) creation in the heavens and the earth, (With the thought): "Our Lord! not for naught Hast Thou created (all) this! Glory to Thee! Give us salvation from the penalty of the Fire.
D. The Way of Purification of the Soul ( تزكية النفس ) هُوَ الَّذِي بَعَثَ فِي الْأُمِّيِّينَ رَسُولًا مِّنْهُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِهِ وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَإِن كَانُوا مِن قَبْلُ لَفِي ضَلَالٍ مُّبِينٍ (62:2) It is He Who has sent amongst the Unlettered an apostle from among themselves, to rehearse to them His Signs, to sanctify them, and to instruct them in Scripture and Wisdom,- although they had been, before, in manifest error. (Al- Jumuah:2)
Right Intention and Determination. Right intention means to do every action for the sake of Allah SWT and His Prophet Muhammad (SAW). Determination ( عزم ) means using our will power to overcome the whisperings of shaytan ( وسواس ) and desires ( هوى ).
لَهُ مُعَقِّبَاتٌ مِّن بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِ يَحْفَظُونَهُ مِنْ أَمْرِ اللّهِ إِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يُغَيِّرُ مَا بِقَوْمٍ حَتَّى يُغَيِّرُواْ مَا بِأَنْفُسِهِمْ وَإِذَا أَرَادَ اللّهُ بِقَوْمٍ سُوءًا فَلاَ مَرَدَّ لَهُ وَمَا لَهُم مِّن دُونِهِ مِن وَالٍ For each (such person) there are (angels) in succession, before and behind him: They guard him by command of Allah. Verily never will Allah change the condition of a people until they change it themselves (with their own souls). But when (once) Allah willeth a people's punishment, there can be no turning it back, nor will they find, besides Him, any to protect. (al-Rad, 13:11)
قَالَ أَرَأَيْتَكَ هَـذَا الَّذِي كَرَّمْتَ عَلَيَّ لَئِنْ أَخَّرْتَنِ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ لأَحْتَنِكَنَّ ذُرِّيَّتَهُ إَلاَّ قَلِيلاً He said: "Seest Thou? this is the one whom Thou hast honoured above me! If Thou wilt but respite me to the Day of Judgment, I will surely bring his descendants under my sway - all but a few!" (al-Isra, 17:62)
أَفَرَأَيْتَ مَنِ اتَّخَذَ إِلَهَهُ هَوَاهُ وَأَضَلَّهُ اللَّهُ عَلَى عِلْمٍ وَخَتَمَ عَلَى سَمْعِهِ وَقَلْبِهِ وَجَعَلَ عَلَى بَصَرِهِ غِشَاوَةً فَمَن يَهْدِيهِ مِن بَعْدِ اللَّهِ أَفَلَا تَذَكَّرُونَ Then seest thou such a one as takes as his god his own vain desire? Allah has, knowing (him as such), left him astray, and sealed his hearing and his heart (and understanding), and put a cover on his sight. Who, then, will guide him after Allah (has withdrawn Guidance)? Will ye not then receive admonition? (al-Jathiya, 45:23)
Continuous Learning and Reminding Continuous learning of the first kind of knowledge. Always be on guard and vigilant ( مراقبة ). Remembering death as a reminder of ones feeble existence.
قُلْ إِنَّ الْمَوْتَ الَّذِي تَفِرُّونَ مِنْهُ فَإِنَّهُ مُلَاقِيكُمْ ثُمَّ تُرَدُّونَ إِلَى عَالِمِ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ فَيُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ (62:8) "The Death from which ye flee will truly overtake you: then will ye be sent back to the Knower of things secret and open: and He will tell you (the truth of) the things that ye did!" (al-Jumuah:8)
Ibn Omar said: I along with ten other Companions was near the Messenger of God (PBUH). Then an Ansari asked him: O Prophet of God who is the wisest and honoured of men? He said: Those who remember death most and prepare most for it. They pass away with honour in this world and the next.
Caliph Harun Ar-Rashid has a servant, by the name of Bahlul ( بهلول ), who is a bit fool and unwise. One day, the Caliph gave Bahlul a stick, and said to him that if he found anybody who is more stupid than him, he should give that person this stick himself. One day the Caliph prepare a large entourage of a large group of palace servants and armies, with all the necessary supplies and enough animals to carry them to travel to a distant land.
He said to Bahlul: See Bahlul I have made an extensive preparation for this journey, but there is another journey that all human beings will go. Bahlul asked, What is that? The Caliph said, The journey to the next life. Bahlul asked again, What is that? The Caliph said, The eternal life after our temporary life in this world. Bahlul asked, Would you made the same preparation for that journey? The Caliph said, No, in that journey, Im going alone!
Then Bahlul said, In that case, I have found the person to whom I should give the stick that you have given to me. You made a large preparation to that distant land, but you are not going to make the same preparation to a place where you will dwell in forever. Hearing this, the Caliph Harun ar-Rashid was dumbfounded. Although he understood that Bahlul does not understand what kind of preparation that should be prepared for the eternal life, but what Bahlul said struck his heart and he understood the truth in it.
Association with the Pious and Religious People. The need for a teacher is a must, since seeking for any kind of knowledge requires a teacher, and so does in the way of purifying ones soul. Being with the good and pious people can influence ones character.
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ اتَّقُواْ اللّهَ وَكُونُواْ مَعَ الصَّادِقِينَ O ye who believe! Fear Allah and be with those who are true (in word and deed) (al-Tawbah:119).
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ اسْتَعِينُواْ بِالصَّبْرِ وَالصَّلاَةِ إِنَّ اللّهَ مَعَ الصَّابِرِينَ؛ وَلاَ تَقُولُواْ لِمَنْ يُقْتَلُ فِي سَبيلِ اللّهِ أَمْوَاتٌ بَلْ أَحْيَاء وَلَكِن لاَّ تَشْعُرُونَ O ye who believe! seek help with patient perseverance and prayer; for Allah is with those who patiently persevere. And say not of those who are slain in the way of Allah. "They are dead." Nay, they are living, though ye perceive (it) not. (2:153-154)
Abu Hurayrah ( رضي اللّه عنه ) reported that the Messenger of Allah ( صلّى اللّه عليه و سلّم ) said, Truly Allahmay He be exaltedhas said: Whosoever acts with enmity towards a friend of Mine, against him will I indeed declare war. Nothing endears My servant to Me than doing of what I have made obligatory upon him to do. And My servant ceases not seeking My nearness by offering supererogatory ( نوافل ) prayers till I love him. When I love him, I shall be his hearing with which he shall hear, his sight with which he shall see, his hands with which he shall hold, and his feet with which he shall walk; and if he asks Me, I shall surely give him, and if he takes refuge in Me, I shall certainly give him refuge.
Practices Sincere Repentance ( توبة نصوحة ) وَتُوبُوا إِلَى اللَّهِ جَمِيعًا أَيُّهَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ (24:31) And O ye Believers! turn ye all together towards Allah, that ye may attain Bliss. On the authority of Anas b. Malik, the Messenger of God (SAW) is reported to have said, There is nothing more loved by God than the youth who repents.
يَا بَنِيَّ اذْهَبُواْ فَتَحَسَّسُواْ مِن يُوسُفَ وَأَخِيهِ وَلاَ تَيْأَسُواْ مِن رَّوْحِ اللّهِ إِنَّهُ لاَ يَيْأَسُ مِن رَّوْحِ اللّهِ إِلاَّ الْقَوْمُ الْكَافِرُونَ "O my sons! go ye and enquire about Joseph and his brother, and never give up hope of Allah's Soothing Mercy: truly no one despairs of Allah's Soothing Mercy, except those who have no faith." (Yusuf:87)
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا تُوبُوا إِلَى اللَّهِ تَوْبَةً نَّصُوحًا عَسَى رَبُّكُمْ أَن يُكَفِّرَ عَنكُمْ سَيِّئَاتِكُمْ وَيُدْخِلَكُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ يَوْمَ لَا يُخْزِي اللَّهُ النَّبِيَّ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَعَهُ نُورُهُمْ يَسْعَى بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَبِأَيْمَانِهِمْ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا أَتْمِمْ لَنَا نُورَنَا وَاغْفِرْ لَنَا إِنَّكَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ (66:8) O ye who believe! Turn to Allah with sincere repentance: In the hope that your Lord will remove from you your ills and admit you to Gardens beneath which Rivers flow,- the Day that Allah will not permit to be humiliated the Prophet and those who believe with him. Their Light will run forward before them and by their right hands, while they say, "Our Lord! Perfect our Light for us, and grant us Forgiveness: for Thou hast power over all things." (At-Tahrem:8)
Abu Huraira reported from Allahs Messenger (PBUH) that his Lord, the Exalted and Glorious, thus said: A servant committed a sin and he said: O Allah, forgive me my sin, and Allah said: My servant committed a sin and then he came to realise that he has a Lord Who forgives the sins and takes to account (the sinner) for the sin. So I forgive My servant. He then again committed a sin and said: O Allah, forgive me my sin, and Allah said: My servant committed a sin and then he came to realise that he has a Lord Who would forgive his sin and would take to account for the sin. So I forgive My servant. He then again committed a sin and said: O Allah, forgive me my sin, and Allah said: My servant committed a sin and then he came to realise that he has a Lord Who forgives his sin and takes to account for the sin. So I forgive My servant. (Bukhari and Muslim)
Consistent ( استقامة ) إِنَّ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا رَبُّنَا اللَّهُ ثُمَّ اسْتَقَامُوا تَتَنَزَّلُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ أَلَّا تَخَافُوا وَلَا تَحْزَنُوا وَأَبْشِرُوا بِالْجَنَّةِ الَّتِي كُنتُمْ تُوعَدُونَ (41:30) In the case of those who say, "Our Lord is Allah, and, further, stand straight and steadfast, the angels descend on them (from time to time): "Fear ye not!" (they suggest), "Nor grieve! but receive the Glad Tidings of the Garden (of Bliss), the which ye were promised! (Fussilat:30)
مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ رِجَالٌ صَدَقُوا مَا عَاهَدُوا اللَّهَ عَلَيْهِ فَمِنْهُم مَّن قَضَى نَحْبَهُ وَمِنْهُم مَّن يَنتَظِرُ وَمَا بَدَّلُوا تَبْدِيلًا Among the Believers are men who have been true to their covenant with Allah. of them some have completed their vow (to the extreme), and some (still) wait: but they have never changed (their determination) in the least: (al-Ahzab, 33:23)
وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَنُكَفِّرَنَّ عَنْهُمْ سَيِّئَاتِهِمْ وَلَنَجْزِيَنَّهُمْ أَحْسَنَ الَّذِي كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ (29:7) Those who believe and work righteous deeds,- from them shall We blot out all evil (that may be) in them, and We shall reward them according to the best of their deeds. (al-Ankabut:7) The Prophet SAW said, Whoever helps a brother in difficulty, God will help him through his difficulties on the Day of Judgement.
Sources: Bakar, Osman, Classification of Knowledge in Islam, Kuala Lumpur: ISTAC, IIUM, 2006. Imam Al-Ghazzali, Ihya Ulum-Din, trans. Fazlul Karim, New Delhi: Islamic Book Service, 1991. Kabbani, Shaykh Muhammad Hisham, Self- Purification and the State of Excellence, Mountain View: As-Sunna Foundation of America, 1998.