Presentation on theme: "Culture of Violence? Jordan Condo Santiago Ibarra Emilee Lawson"— Presentation transcript:
1Culture of Violence? Jordan Condo Santiago Ibarra Emilee Lawson Dominic RandazzoCassandra Stuart
2Why violence?“Violence is important virtually by definition. In some respects, the whole field of conflict resolution is about finding alternatives to violence.” – Hauss (www.beyondintractability.org)
3Definitions Violence Conflict and violence “Hard”/physical vs. “Soft”/symbolic or psychological (Suarez-Orozco & Robben)“large-scale violence takes place in complex and over-determined socio-cultural contexts which intertwine psychic, social, political, economic, and cultural dimensions” and “targets the body, the psyche, as well as the socio-cultural order” (Suarez-Orozco & Robben)Conflict and violence“There can be conflict without violence, but not violence without conflict. It is thus important to detect the potential for violence in conflicts.” (Hopenhayn)Intractable conflict and violenceNot all violent conflicts are intractable; not all intractable conflicts are violent (Hauss)
4Social & Cultural Roots of Violent Conflict Conflict as cultural behavior – “The culture of conflict is a society’s configuration of norms, practices, and institutions which affect what people enter into disputes about, with whom they fight, how the disputes evolve, and how they are likely to end. It is a product of social structural organization and psychocultural dispositions.” (Ross)Situations, conditions or processes conducive to the outbreak of violent conflict – the Latin American experience (Hopenhayn)Culture of violence vs. ideologies that legitimate violence (Suarez-Orozco & Robben; Hopenhayn)
5Why do we care?Cultural frames shape our perceptions, attributions, judgments, and ideas of self and other – cultures are powerful, and often unconscious, “influencing conflict and attempts to resolve conflict in imperceptible ways” (LeBaron)“Culture is critical in shaping the manor in which people perceive, evaluate, and choose options for dealing with conflict” (Fry & Bjorkqvist)Alternatives to violence DO exist (Fry & Bjorkqvist)By studying CR from different cultural settings, it is possible to enhance our repertoire of alternatives to violence and discover widely applicable CR strategies (Fry & Bjorkqvist)
6Religion: Proclivity to Violence? Modern ThoughtsHuntington: “Clash of Civilizations”Rapoport: Parity in espousing good and evilFox StudyFrequency of State FailuresRevolutions, ethnic wars, mass killingsCounts acts between religious groups and between sects of same religious groupControls for uneven religious group size
7Number of Proportional State Failures from 1965-2001 Fox’s ResultsNumber of Proportional State Failures from
8Discussion of Fox’s Results 1965 to 2001: Muslims were proportionally more violentReligious conflict is on the riseBasic confirmation of Huntington that religious cleavages are a source of conflictCaveatsDifficulty in separating secularization’s effect on nationalism from religionLimited timeframe
9Piety Gone Wild: The Crusades Dates:Parties: Christian armies versus Muslims and JewsRole of religion: Pope urged warriors to protect Christians going on pilgrimagesConfounding factors: Statist concerns of princes; church’s desire for authority and land
10From Riots to Pogrom: Gujarat Date: 2002Parties: Hindu-nationalists, Muslims, state functionariesRole of religion: Muslims attacked by Hindus of different castes; ElectioneeringConfounding Factors: Nationalism; class struggle
11Why Does Religion Incite Violence? Religion as self-identityPower of interpretationFundamentalismGod’s need for human accomplices“God’s War” or the “just war”Good versus evil; light versus darkInfidels ruling over true believers
12Religious Revelations Are some religions more prone to violent conflict?Fox suggests ‘yes’Role of nationalism, secularism, historical events (timeframe), etc.Religion remains a source of conflictFundamentalism in the post-9/11 West
13Ethnicity and Violence Arab-Kurdish Conflict in Iraq
14Why an Ethnic Conflict?LanguageCultureReligionTerritory
19Economic Conflict Now, but… Analysis: Kurds the winner in Iraq oil law. Lando, Ben. United Press International, February 27, 2007.“Turkish leaders warned Iraqi Kurds Tuesday that their claims to the ethnically volatile, oil-rich city of Kirkuk in Iraq and talk of independence would fuel conflict in the region…” Agence France-Presse, February 27, 2007.
20Addressing the Violence Understanding what the conflict isWhat has led to the violence?Is the cause systemic, proximate or immediate?What are the parties’ interests?What are the parties willing to do?
21Motivations for Violence External wars – Fighting over property and resourcesInternal wars - Focused on power struggles of dictatorial and totalitarian regimes, religious and ethnic factorsCombination - Internal war and violence advanced or precipitated by external economic forces and internal greed for resources and power.Nye, J. S. (2003). Understanding International Conflicts. New York: Longman.
22Motivations for Violence When conflict arises “people seek security in increasingly smaller and narrower identity groups. This, it seems, is why the lines of contemporary armed conflict are increasingly drawn along ethnic, religious, or regional affiliations rather than along ideological or class lines.”Lederach, J. P. (1997). Building peace: Sustainable reconciliation in divided societies. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, P.13.
23Preventing Violence Goal: Achieving a Culture of Peace by: Presenting peace as an alternative to warPreventing conflict from exploding into war and violenceRe-establishing peace when violence eruptsAs promoted by United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organization (Boulding, E.(2000). Cultures of peace: The hidden side of history (1st ed.). Syracuse, NY: SyracuseUniversity Press.; Herr, R., & Zimmerman-Herr, J. (Eds.). (1998). Transforming violence:Linking local and global peacemaking. Waterloo, ON: Herald Press; Mayor, F., & Adams, D.(2000). The culture of peace: A programme of action. Prospects, 1, 3-13.
24The Seville Statement Adopted by UNESCO in 1989 Laid the foundation for the culture of peace program
25UNESCO’s Eight Areas within a Program of Action Education for a culture of peaceSustainable economic and social developmentRespect for all human rightsEquality between men and womenDemocratic ParticipationUnderstanding, tolerance and solidarityParticipatory communications and the free flow of information and knowledgeInternal Peace and security, including disarmament and economic conversion
26Mechanisms to Achieve Goals Preventative Action: research, early intervention to avoid being caught by surprise when violence erupt, recognize signs of impending violence, judging the probability that certain events will lead to violenceNegotiation: peace talks, honesty, trust, being willing to come to the table, establishing and building relationships, overcome desire to dominate or destroy the opposing parties’ ability to pursue own interests
27Mechanisms to Achieve Goals Mediation/Arbitration: using a third party to assist in coming to an agreement, doing the best thing for all parties involved, win-win, agreeing to disagree and move forward, agreeing not to use violence or to use it as a last resortLitigation: using law to determine outcome, deters violence if government/community follows up with court orders, sense of fairness if used correctly
28ConclusionHatreds are woven into the fabric of culture through history and sometimes mythUnderstanding and tolerance are the greatest challengesSignificant change in attitude, values and behaviors must occur in order to reach sustainable non-violence
29Group DiscussionDo you believe that some cultures, religions, and ethnic groups are more prone to use violence than others? Why?How would you use preventative action, negotiation, litigation, and arbitration/mediation to manage violent conflict (or its potential outbreak) more effectively?