15 Teaching Tool #4Explain the logic of evolution by natural selection
16 Evolution Before Darwin Change over time in organic structures: evolutionCharacteristics seemed to have a purpose (porcupines, turtles, skunks)
17 Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection The explanatory challenge:1. why change takes place2. how new species emerge3. what the functions are of parts
18 The answer--natural selection: Variation, inheritance, differential reproduction
19 The key to natural selection: Differential reproductive success because of heritable variants; everyone has ancestors, but not everyone leaves descendants
20 Natural selection provided 3 key answers Explained change over time: descent with modificationExplained the apparent purposive quality of component parts: adaptive functionUnited all species into one grand tree of descent: including humans
21 Darwin Was Deeply Troubled by Facts that Could not Be Explained by Natural Selection
22 Teaching Tool #5Hence, need to explain the tremendous importance of the theory of sexual selection
45 tremendously important. Teaching Tool #11Use examples that relate to what’s important in the lives of students*:MatingCooperationAggressionCommon clinical problems: depression, eating disorders, etc.Social conflict*Coincidentally, these are precisely the topics that evolutionary theory suggeststremendously important.
48 Illustrative Thought Experiment: Mission Impossible What would you do if you were a gene?Your Mission: to increase your replicative success
49 Inclusive Fitness Revolution What would you do if you were a gene?Ensure the survival of your “vehicle” (body)Making copies of yourself: influence your “vehicle” to reproduce (find fertile mates, etc.)Aid in the survival and reproduction of other “vehicles” that contain copies of you (help genetic relatives)
50 Thought ExperimentList all of the qualities women want in a long-term mate.List all of the qualities men want in a long-term mate.
51 Thought ExperimentList all the things that men you know have done to irritate, anger, annoy, or upset women.
52 Teaching Tool #13Deal with controversial topics head on: Issue “surgeon general’s warnings”
53 Surgeon General’s Warning #1: There are Dark Sides to Human Nature
54 Warning # 2: Sexual Conflict is Prevalent Same-Sex FriendshipsMateshipsOpposite-Sex FriendshipsHierarchicalRelationshipsSexual ConflictSame-sex friendship: sexual rivalryOSF: conflict over sexual accessCoalitions: Sexual rivalryParent-offspring: parents run interference with daughter’s mating.Mateships: conflict over EPC’s and within-pair copulations,commitment, etc.Hierarchical: conflict over privileged sexual access, and intrasexualcompetition over matesStep-relationships: Sexual abuse of stepdaughtersCoalitionsStep-RelationshipsParent-Offspring Relationships
55 Warning #3: Evolved Sex Differences Exist Men and Women Differ in Domains Where they Have Recurrently Faced Different Adaptive Problems Over Human Evolutionary History
56 Recurrently Different Adaptive Problems of the Sexes Internal female fertilizationObligatory parental investmentMetabolic demands of breast feedingGenetic cuckoldryPotential for misdirected parental investmentCryptic ovulationCyclic ovulation
57 Likelihood of Agreeing to Have Sex With Someone You Find Attractive as a Function of Time Known
58 Teaching Tool #14Emphasize that well constructed evolutionary psychological hypotheses are testable and hence falsifiable.Strongly Supported: Sex differences in mate preferences for cues to resources and cues to fertilityApparently Falsified: “Loser male” design feature of rape hypothesis
59 Teaching Tool #15 Lighten up: show a sense of humor E.g., One cartoonist’s rendition of male and females brains
64 Evolutionary Psychology is Consilient 1. Organizes known facts parsimoniously2. Provides guidance to important domains3. Leads to new predictions4. Unifies psychology with the life sciences
65 Teaching Tool #18Show humility and honesty: What we know is minute compared to what we do not know
66 Final Teaching Tool #19: Excitement, Awe, Appreciation It is a rare and special privilege to be living in the exciting time of what I believe is the most important scientific revolution in the history of psychology