19The key to natural selection: Differential reproductive success because of heritable variants; everyone has ancestors, but not everyone leaves descendants
20Natural selection provided 3 key answers Explained change over time: descent with modificationExplained the apparent purposive quality of component parts: adaptive functionUnited all species into one grand tree of descent: including humans
21Darwin Was Deeply Troubled by Facts that Could not Be Explained by Natural Selection
22Teaching Tool #5Hence, need to explain the tremendous importance of the theory of sexual selection
45tremendously important. Teaching Tool #11Use examples that relate to what’s important in the lives of students*:MatingCooperationAggressionCommon clinical problems: depression, eating disorders, etc.Social conflict*Coincidentally, these are precisely the topics that evolutionary theory suggeststremendously important.
48Illustrative Thought Experiment: Mission Impossible What would you do if you were a gene?Your Mission: to increase your replicative success
49Inclusive Fitness Revolution What would you do if you were a gene?Ensure the survival of your “vehicle” (body)Making copies of yourself: influence your “vehicle” to reproduce (find fertile mates, etc.)Aid in the survival and reproduction of other “vehicles” that contain copies of you (help genetic relatives)
50Thought ExperimentList all of the qualities women want in a long-term mate.List all of the qualities men want in a long-term mate.
51Thought ExperimentList all the things that men you know have done to irritate, anger, annoy, or upset women.
52Teaching Tool #13Deal with controversial topics head on: Issue “surgeon general’s warnings”
53Surgeon General’s Warning #1: There are Dark Sides to Human Nature
54Warning # 2: Sexual Conflict is Prevalent Same-Sex FriendshipsMateshipsOpposite-Sex FriendshipsHierarchicalRelationshipsSexual ConflictSame-sex friendship: sexual rivalryOSF: conflict over sexual accessCoalitions: Sexual rivalryParent-offspring: parents run interference with daughter’s mating.Mateships: conflict over EPC’s and within-pair copulations,commitment, etc.Hierarchical: conflict over privileged sexual access, and intrasexualcompetition over matesStep-relationships: Sexual abuse of stepdaughtersCoalitionsStep-RelationshipsParent-Offspring Relationships
55Warning #3: Evolved Sex Differences Exist Men and Women Differ in Domains Where they Have Recurrently Faced Different Adaptive Problems Over Human Evolutionary History
56Recurrently Different Adaptive Problems of the Sexes Internal female fertilizationObligatory parental investmentMetabolic demands of breast feedingGenetic cuckoldryPotential for misdirected parental investmentCryptic ovulationCyclic ovulation
57Likelihood of Agreeing to Have Sex With Someone You Find Attractive as a Function of Time Known
58Teaching Tool #14Emphasize that well constructed evolutionary psychological hypotheses are testable and hence falsifiable.Strongly Supported: Sex differences in mate preferences for cues to resources and cues to fertilityApparently Falsified: “Loser male” design feature of rape hypothesis
59Teaching Tool #15 Lighten up: show a sense of humor E.g., One cartoonist’s rendition of male and females brains
64Evolutionary Psychology is Consilient 1. Organizes known facts parsimoniously2. Provides guidance to important domains3. Leads to new predictions4. Unifies psychology with the life sciences
65Teaching Tool #18Show humility and honesty: What we know is minute compared to what we do not know
66Final Teaching Tool #19: Excitement, Awe, Appreciation It is a rare and special privilege to be living in the exciting time of what I believe is the most important scientific revolution in the history of psychology