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Genetic Control During Embryonic Development Maurice Pescitelli Jr, PhD University of Illinois at Chicago -- College of Medicine Department.

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Presentation on theme: "Genetic Control During Embryonic Development Maurice Pescitelli Jr, PhD University of Illinois at Chicago -- College of Medicine Department."— Presentation transcript:

1 Genetic Control During Embryonic Development Maurice Pescitelli Jr, PhD University of Illinois at Chicago -- College of Medicine Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology Dept of Surgery, Division of Pediatric Surgery

2 Embryonic Development The construction of an adult from a single cell, the fertilized egg (zygote).

3 1. Differentiation A Single Cell, the Fertilized Egg, Gives Rise to Hundreds of Different Cell Types. This Generation of Cellular Diversity Is Called Differentiation.

4 2. Morphogenesis -- Pattern Formation Differentiation is carefully orchestrated. The repertoire includes: Proliferation Cell migration Interactions (Induction) Epithelial-mesenchymal transformations Epithelial folding, movement, in- & evagination, fusion Apoptosis …

5 3. Controlled Growth

6 Dolly and Bonnie Gilbert, SF (2003) Developmental Biology, 7 th ed.

7 Homeotic mutation: Master Regulatory Genes

8 Halteres into wings Gilbert, SF (2003) Developmental Biology, 7 th ed.

9 Homeotic Genes: Master Regulatory Genes

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12 Transformation of L1 into a thoracic vert. by Hoxc-8 KO Gilbert, SF (2003) Developmental Biology, 7 th ed.

13 Developmental Regulatory genes are Transcription factors Transcription factors or gene regulatory proteins are involved in activating or repressing transcription. TFs act by binding to the control regions of genes or by interacting with other DNA-binding proteins.

14 Transcription factor Families Homeodomain proteins (Hox) POU Basic helix-loop-helix Basic leucine zipper Zinc finger Nuclear hormone receptors & their Hormone- responsive elements DNA-bending proteins

15 Homeodomain Proteins [5.4] (After Pabo and Sauer, 1992)

16 Genes encoding TFs and resulting phenotype Androgen receptor Androgen insensitivity syndrome AZF1Azoospermia CBFA1Cleidocranial dysplasia CSXHeart defects EMX2Schizencephaly Estrogen receptor Growth reg. problems, …

17 Genes encoding TFs and resulting phenotype Forkhead ‑ like 15 Thyroid agenesis, cleft palate Gl13Grieg syndrome HOXA ‑ 13 Hand ‑ foot ‑ genital syndrome HOXD ‑ 13 Polysyndactyly LMXIB Nail ‑ patella syndrome MITF Waardenburg syndrome type 2 Pax2Renal ‑ coloboma syndrome

18 Genes encoding TFs and resulting phenotype PAX3 Waardenburg syndrome type 1 PAX6 Aniridia PTX2 Reiger syndrome PITX3 Congenital cataracts POU3F4 Deafness and dystonia SOX9Campomelic dysplasia, male sex reversal

19 Pax6 expression in the mouth parts Gilbert, SF (2003) Developmental Biology, 7 th ed.

20 Genes encoding TFs and resulting phenotype SRYMale sex reversal TBX3Schinzel syndrome (ulna ‑ mammary syndrome) TBX5 Holt ‑ Oram syndrome TCOF Treacher ‑ Collins syndrome TWIST Seathre ‑ Chotzen syndrome WTI Urogenital anomalies

21 What turns TFs on?

22 Back to the fruit fly In Drosophila, patterning of denticles on each segment is under genetic control. A mutation disrupts this patterning and results in a continuous lawn of denticles suggesting the “spines of a hedgehog” to the discoverers. Drosophila hh encodes a secreted peptide (morphogen) responsible for patterning in the wing as well as other parts of the fly.

23 Normal Denticle pattern Alexandre C, et al 1999 Development 126:

24 Hedgehog

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26 Action of Signaling molecules – Paracrine factors Inducing factors controlling the form of a developing organ Mitogen regulating cell proliferation Morphogen acting in a dose-dependent way to pattern the cell fates within a target field

27 In situ hybridization of shh gene expression in 3-day chick embryo Gilbert, SF (2003) Developmental Biology, 7 th ed.

28 Regulation of Spinal Cord Development Sadler, 9 th ed.

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30 Families of Signaling Molecules Hedgehog families (Indian, Desert, Sonic) Wnt Fibroblast growth factor TGF-beta superfamily Platelet-derived growth factor Ephrin

31 Summary Master developmental regulatory genes are Transcription Factors Signaling (paracrine) factors activate the TFs These are used over and over in a modular fashion during development: Their effects depend on the position and history of the cells in which they are expressed.

32 Selected Bibliography Texts –Scott F. Gilbert Developmental Biology, 7 th Ed. Sinaur Associates. is an associated site with useful supplementary material.http://www.devbio.com –T. W. Sadler Langman’s Medical Embryology, 9 th Ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Recent Reviews –Veraksa A, et al Minireview: Developmental Patterning Genes and Their Conserved Functions: From Model Organism to Humans. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 69: –Ingham and McMahon Hedgehog signaling in animal development: paradigms and principles. Genes & Development 15: –Kim, Kim, and Hui The VACTERL Association: lessons from the Sonic Hedgehog pathway. Clin. Genet. 59: –The May 15, 2003 issue of Nature has a special section on bone and cartilage with 8 reviews that address many of the topics I have tried to cover. The next slide is a figure from one of them.

33 Figure 3 Mouse and human phenotypes caused by mutations affecting skeletal patterning and differentiation. The grouping of the disorders reflects the different origins of the progenitor cells in the craniofacial (cranial neural crest), axial (somites) and limb skeleton (lateral plate mesoderm). Only disorders discussed in the text are listed. The responsible genes are in parentheses after the names of the syndromes. ELAZAR ZELZER 1 AND BJORN R. OLSEN 1 Nature 423, (2003); The genetic basis for skeletal diseases. Harvard Medical School, Department of Cell Biology, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA


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