Presentation on theme: "Genetic Control During Embryonic Development Maurice Pescitelli Jr, PhD University of Illinois at Chicago -- College of Medicine Department."— Presentation transcript:
Genetic Control During Embryonic Development Maurice Pescitelli Jr, PhD University of Illinois at Chicago -- College of Medicine Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology Dept of Surgery, Division of Pediatric Surgery
Embryonic Development The construction of an adult from a single cell, the fertilized egg (zygote).
1. Differentiation A Single Cell, the Fertilized Egg, Gives Rise to Hundreds of Different Cell Types. This Generation of Cellular Diversity Is Called Differentiation.
Dolly and Bonnie Gilbert, SF (2003) Developmental Biology, 7 th ed.
Homeotic mutation: Master Regulatory Genes
Halteres into wings Gilbert, SF (2003) Developmental Biology, 7 th ed.
Homeotic Genes: Master Regulatory Genes
Transformation of L1 into a thoracic vert. by Hoxc-8 KO Gilbert, SF (2003) Developmental Biology, 7 th ed.
Developmental Regulatory genes are Transcription factors Transcription factors or gene regulatory proteins are involved in activating or repressing transcription. TFs act by binding to the control regions of genes or by interacting with other DNA-binding proteins.
Transcription factor Families Homeodomain proteins (Hox) POU Basic helix-loop-helix Basic leucine zipper Zinc finger Nuclear hormone receptors & their Hormone- responsive elements DNA-bending proteins
Homeodomain Proteins [5.4] (After Pabo and Sauer, 1992)
Back to the fruit fly In Drosophila, patterning of denticles on each segment is under genetic control. A mutation disrupts this patterning and results in a continuous lawn of denticles suggesting the “spines of a hedgehog” to the discoverers. Drosophila hh encodes a secreted peptide (morphogen) responsible for patterning in the wing as well as other parts of the fly.
Normal Denticle pattern Alexandre C, et al 1999 Development 126:
Action of Signaling molecules – Paracrine factors Inducing factors controlling the form of a developing organ Mitogen regulating cell proliferation Morphogen acting in a dose-dependent way to pattern the cell fates within a target field
In situ hybridization of shh gene expression in 3-day chick embryo Gilbert, SF (2003) Developmental Biology, 7 th ed.
Regulation of Spinal Cord Development Sadler, 9 th ed.
Summary Master developmental regulatory genes are Transcription Factors Signaling (paracrine) factors activate the TFs These are used over and over in a modular fashion during development: Their effects depend on the position and history of the cells in which they are expressed.
Selected Bibliography Texts –Scott F. Gilbert Developmental Biology, 7 th Ed. Sinaur Associates. is an associated site with useful supplementary material.http://www.devbio.com –T. W. Sadler Langman’s Medical Embryology, 9 th Ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Recent Reviews –Veraksa A, et al Minireview: Developmental Patterning Genes and Their Conserved Functions: From Model Organism to Humans. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 69: –Ingham and McMahon Hedgehog signaling in animal development: paradigms and principles. Genes & Development 15: –Kim, Kim, and Hui The VACTERL Association: lessons from the Sonic Hedgehog pathway. Clin. Genet. 59: –The May 15, 2003 issue of Nature has a special section on bone and cartilage with 8 reviews that address many of the topics I have tried to cover. The next slide is a figure from one of them.
Figure 3 Mouse and human phenotypes caused by mutations affecting skeletal patterning and differentiation. The grouping of the disorders reflects the different origins of the progenitor cells in the craniofacial (cranial neural crest), axial (somites) and limb skeleton (lateral plate mesoderm). Only disorders discussed in the text are listed. The responsible genes are in parentheses after the names of the syndromes. ELAZAR ZELZER 1 AND BJORN R. OLSEN 1 Nature 423, (2003); The genetic basis for skeletal diseases. Harvard Medical School, Department of Cell Biology, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA