Presentation on theme: "The status of herbicide/dioxin residues in Vietnam"— Presentation transcript:
1The status of herbicide/dioxin residues in Vietnam Office of The National Steering Committee on overcoming of toxic chemicals used by US during the war in Vietnam (Office 33)
2Contaminated sources of herbicide/dioxin ~77 million liters of herbercideAgentsLiterOrange49.3 millionsWhite20.6 millionsBlue4.7 millionsPurple , Pink , Green2.4 millionsSum77 millionsRanch Hand8/ /1971- Density of spray is about 37 kg/ha, which is 17 time higher than the spray density in agricultureWASH, STORE AND SPILLED AREAS FOR SPRAYING AIRPLANDioxin: byproduct in Agents Orange; Purple; Pink , Green
3Quantity of dioxin contained in herbicides: - Folkin: 500 kg - Stellman: 366 kg ( 240 times total amount of dioxin/furan in USA year 2000).-Vietnam-Russia Tropical Center: 1000 kgDioxin contamination in Vietnam caused by AO source:The ratio of TCDD is very high:In soil and sedimentVN: 2,3,7,8- TCDD > 90%;Contamination by industrial sources: 2,3,7,8TCDD ~10%
4- 19,905 flights sprayed herbicide hamlets were sprayed with toxic chemicals80% areas were duplicated spray11% areas were sprayed more than 10 timesTotal forest area sprayed : 3,104,000 ha (approx.17.8% natural forest area)Amount of wood lost about 82,830,000 m3Many rare and prestigue plans and animals were diminished and lost
5Concentration 2378-TCDD/TEQ, ppt Analytical laboratories-Sources Table 1: Determinate results of dioxin residues in environment (until 2006)TTAreasSamplesConcentration 2378-TCDD/TEQ, pptAnalytical laboratories-Sources1Gio Linh - Cam Lộ,Quảng Trị ( )SoilWaterSediment1,2 TEQ (n=31)(n=2)1TEQ (n=15)TTNĐViệt- Nga TTNĐViệt- Nga TTNĐViệt- NgaTTNĐViệt- NgaMai Anh Tuấn và cs (2004)Cam Lộ, Quảng Trị (2004)Organismsoil< 0.2 TEQ (n=12)20 TEQ (n=10)2Sân bay A So (1999)Sân bay Tà Bạt(1999)Sân bay A Lưới(1999)A Lưới( đến 1999)122/ (n=10)13/ (n=7)12/ (n=9)23, (n=89)UB10-80+Hatfield UB10-80+Hatfield UB10-80+Hatfield UB10-80+Hatfield3Sa Nhơn, Sa Thầy,Kon Tum (2003)sediement0,14 TEQ (n=14)0,38 TEQ (n=6)TTNĐViệt- Nga - Cục Môi trưòng4Phú Lộc, TT-Huế(1993)8, (n=4/6)Matsuda và cs5Tây Ninh (1993)Tân Bình, Tân Biên, Tây Ninh( )organism(n=14/54)13,2/14,3 (n=24)0,7/ 2, (n=7)TTNĐViệt- Nga TTNĐViệt- Nga6Rừng Sác, Tp. HCM( )Tân Sơn Nhất Tp. HCM( )Tân Sơn Nhất Tp. HCM(2006)(n=7)3,6/4, (n=7)2,06-341TEQ (n=5)VH1/ ĐHKHTNHNUB10-80 TTNĐViệt- NgaBan 10-80, VP33(2006)
6Concentration 2378-TCDD/TEQ, ppt Analytical laboratories-Sources Table 1: Determinate results of dioxin residues in environment (until 2006) (cont.)TTAreasSamplesConcentration 2378-TCDD/TEQ, pptAnalytical laboratories-Sources7Cà Mau (1993)Đất< (n=16)Matsuda và cs8Hồ Trị An ( )BùnNướcS.vật3,9 TEQ (n=15)2,8 TEQ (n=27)(n=4)1,0 TEQ (n=19)Viện KHTLMN TTNĐViệt- Nga9Khu vực Mã Đà (2000)Khu vực SB Rang Rang (2004)8,6/10,2 (n=9/17)119/ (n=1/17)24 TEQ (n=5)265 TEQ (n=1)TTNĐViệt- NgaMai Anh Tuấn và cs (2004)10Bình Mỹ, Tân Uyên,Bình Dương( )Svật12,7/14,5 (n=19)1,3/3, (n=10)
7Because of time, rain, flood, slops, run off,… > Concentration of Dioxin in spraying areas were mostly decreased below the harmful level to environment.Cuu Long delta areas: not detected 2,3,7,8-TCDD concentrationMidle areas: Quảng Trị, Thừa Thiên Huế (A Lưới) dioxin concentration were found but were not high levels (average is 23,5ppt)South East area: average of dioxin concentration is 15,05 pptSome big lakes: (như Dầu Tiếng, Trị An), dioxin concenration in sediment are in acceptable level (safety level)> Other contaminated areas is still lacking??> Mobility, precipitation of hebicides/dioxin? ?> Unload hebicides/AO when airplan be pursuing or be charsing
8DIOXIN RESIDUES AT THE STORED, WASHED, SPILLED AND UPLOADED AREAS At present, 3 hotspot areas has been determining: Bien hoa , Biên Hòa, Đà Nẵng và Phù Cát aiportsin 2007, US MOD have providing information on new 7 aiports Đà Nẵng, Biên Hòa, Phù Cát, Nha Trang, Tân Sơn Nhất, Phan Rang và Tuy Hòa ) are previous storages that might be also contaminated. VN MOD, Hattfield are now doing sampling, analysing to determine dioxin concentration in these airports. For Danang airport, it have been identified some more contamination places at the South of aiport; in Bienhoa airport also indentified some new places of dioxin contamination (but analytical result is still not finished yet) .
9Herbicides in Bien Hoa Airbase Operation Ranch Hand (Dec. 1966 – Feb Herbicides in Bien Hoa Airbase Operation Ranch Hand (Dec – Feb. 1970) - total transport and handling Agent Orange: 98,000 barrels (20,384,000 l) Agent White: 45,000 barrels (9,360,000 l) Agent Blue: 16,300 barrels (3,390,000 l) Operation Pacer Ivy (Apr – Mar. 1972) Re-drumming of 11,000 barrels Agent Orange (2,288,000 l) and site cleanup occurred Spills of Herbicides in Bien Hoa Airbase December 1969 – March 1970: four large spills from 28,000-liter tanks occurred on the airbase. Spills and leakages also occurred due to handling (loading, washing and re-drumming).
10Bien Hoa Airbase: Area contaminated Dioxin, Volume to be Treated LocationArea(m2)dioxin0-0.3mmean (ppt)Treatmentdepth(m)Est. Soil,Sediment(m3)South of runway15.0005.2761,218.00020.0002.65080,24.000Site Z138.00015.8641,557.000Z1-Perimeter land49.0008932,0,922.050Z1-perimeterwetlands/lakes41.0004950,520.500Sum* Treatment level: Soil 1000ppt; Sediment 150pptZ1 has been isolated, 5 million USD; 3,600 m3 bioremidiatio
13Herbicides in Phu Cat Airbase Operation Ranch Hand (Jun – May. 1970) - total transport and handlingAgent Orange: 17,000 barrels (3,536,000 l)Agent White: 9,000 barrels (1,872,000 l)Agent Blue: 2,900 barrels (603,200 l)Spills of Herbicides in Phu Cat AirbaseSpills and leakages occurred due to handling (loading and washing).
14Phu Cat: Area contaminated Dioxin, Volume to be Treated LocationArea(m2)dioxin0-0.3mmean (ppt)Treatmentdepth(m)Est. Soil,Sediment(m3)Loading Area (A)2612,6-876Zone B24.0004821,0.61,440Washing area (C)6.000251,9-218Storage area(Z3)2.02011.3671.22,424Lakes A,B,C431,7-1960.51,550Sum5,414* Treatment level: Soil 1000ppt; Sediment 150ppt
17Herbicides in Da Nang Airbase Operation Ranch Hand (May 1964 – Jan. 1971) - total transport and handling:Agent Orange: 52,700 barrels (10,961,600 l)Agent White: 29,000 barrels (6,032,000 l)Agent Green: 5,000 barrels (1,040,000 l)Operation Pacer Ivy (Dec – Mar. 1972)Collected and re-drummed 8,220 barrels Agent Orange (1,709,760 l)Spills of Herbicides in Da Nang AirbaseSpills and leakages occurred due to handling (loading, washing and re-drumming