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Office of The National Steering Committee on overcoming of toxic chemicals used by US during the war in Vietnam (Office 33) The status of herbicide/dioxin.

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Presentation on theme: "Office of The National Steering Committee on overcoming of toxic chemicals used by US during the war in Vietnam (Office 33) The status of herbicide/dioxin."— Presentation transcript:

1 Office of The National Steering Committee on overcoming of toxic chemicals used by US during the war in Vietnam (Office 33) The status of herbicide/dioxin residues in Vietnam

2 Contaminated sources of herbicide/dioxin Ranch Hand 8/1961-10/1971 - Density of spray is about 37 kg/ha, which is 17 time higher than the spray density in agriculture WASH, STORE AND SPILLED AREAS FOR SPRAYING AIRPLAN AgentsLiter Orange 49.3 millions White 20.6 millions Blue 4.7 millions Purple, Pink, Green 2.4 millions Sum 77 millions ~77 million liters of herbercide Dioxin: byproduct in Agents Orange; Purple; Pink, Green

3 Dioxin contamination in Vietnam caused by AO source: The ratio of TCDD is very high: - In soil and sediment VN: 2,3,7,8- TCDD > 90%; Contamination by industrial sources: 2,3,7,8TCDD ~10% Quantity of dioxin contained in herbicides: - Folkin: 500 kg - Stellman: 366 kg ( 240 times total amount of dioxin/furan in USA year 2000). -Vietnam-Russia Tropical Center: 1000 kg

4 - 19,905 flights sprayed herbicide 25.585 hamlets were sprayed with toxic chemicals 80% areas were duplicated spray 11% areas were sprayed more than 10 times Total forest area sprayed : 3,104,000 ha (approx.17.8% natural forest area) Amount of wood lost about 82,830,000 m 3 Many rare and prestigue plans and animals were diminished and lost

5 Table 1: Determinate results of dioxin residues in environment (until 2006) TTAreasSamples Concentration 2378- TCDD/TEQ, ppt Analytical laboratories- Sources 1 Gio Linh - Cam L, Qung Tr (2003-2004) Soil Water Sediment 1,2 TEQ (n=31) 0 (n=2) 1TEQ (n=15) TTNĐVit- Nga TTNĐVit- Nga TTNĐVit- Nga TTNĐVit- Nga Mai Anh Tun và cs (2004) Cam L, Qung Tr (2004) Organism soil < 0.2 TEQ (n=12) 20 TEQ (n=10) 2 Sân bay A So (1999) Sân bay Tà Bt(1999) Sân bay A Lưi(1999) A Lưi( đn 1999) Soil 122/123 (n=10) 13/15 (n=7) 12/13 (n=9) 23,5 (n=89) UB10-80+Hatfield UB10- 80+Hatfield UB10- 80+Hatfield UB10- 80+Hatfield 3 Sa Nhơn, Sa Thy, Kon Tum (2003) Soil sediement 0,14 TEQ (n=14) 0,38 TEQ (n=6) TTNĐVit- Nga - Cc Môi trưòng 4 Phú Lc, TT-Hu (1993) soil8,6 (n=4/6) Matsuda và cs (1993) 5 Tây Ninh (1993) Tân Bình, Tân Biên, Tây Ninh(1995-98) Soil organism 14 (n=14/54) 13,2/14,3 (n=24) 0,7/ 2,8 (n=7) Matsuda và cs TTNĐVit- Nga 6 Rng Sác, Tp. HCM(1986-1990) Tân Sơn Nht Tp. HCM(1995-1996) Tân Sơn Nht Tp. HCM(2006) Soil Sediment soil sediement 16 (n=7) 3,6/4,0 (n=7) 2,06-341TEQ (n=5) VH1/ ĐHKHTNHN UB10-80 TTNĐVit- Nga Ban 10-80, VP33 (2006)

6 Table 1: Determinate results of dioxin residues in environment (until 2006) (cont.) TT AreasSamples Concentration 2378- TCDD/TEQ, ppt Analytical laboratories- Sources 7 Cà Mau (1993)Đt<1 (n=16)Matsuda và cs 8H Tr An (2002-2003) Đt Bùn Nưc S.vt 3,9 TEQ (n=15) 2,8 TEQ (n=27) 0 (n=4) 1,0 TEQ (n=19) Vin KHTLMN TTNĐVit- Nga 9 Khu vc Mã Đà (2000) Khu vc SB Rang Rang (2004) Đt 8,6/10,2 (n=9/17) 119/122 (n=1/17) 24 TEQ (n=5) 265 TEQ (n=1) TTNĐVit- Nga Mai Anh Tun và cs (2004) 10 Bình M, Tân Uyên,Bình Dương (1995-1998) Đt Svt 12,7/14,5 (n=19) 1,3/3,4 (n=10) TTNĐVit- Nga

7 Because of time, rain, flood, slops, run off,… > Concentration of Dioxin in spraying areas were mostly decreased below the harmful level to environment. Cuu Long delta areas: not detected 2,3,7,8-TCDD concentration Cuu Long delta areas: not detected 2,3,7,8-TCDD concentration Midle areas: Qung Tr, Tha Thiên Hu (A Lưi) dioxin concentration were found but were not high levels (average is 23,5ppt) Midle areas: Qung Tr, Tha Thiên Hu (A Lưi) dioxin concentration were found but were not high levels (average is 23,5ppt) South East area: average of dioxin concentration is 15,05 ppt South East area: average of dioxin concentration is 15,05 ppt Some big lakes: (như Du Ting, Tr An), dioxin concenration in sediment are in acceptable level (safety level) Some big lakes: (như Du Ting, Tr An), dioxin concenration in sediment are in acceptable level (safety level) > Other contaminated areas is still lacking?? > Mobility, precipitation of hebicides/dioxin? ? > Unload hebicides/AO when airplan be pursuing or be charsing

8 DIOXIN RESIDUES AT THE STORED, WASHED, SPILLED AND UPLOADED AREAS At present, 3 hotspot areas has been determining: Bien hoa, Biên Hòa, Đà Nng và Phù Cát aiportsAt present, 3 hotspot areas has been determining: Bien hoa, Biên Hòa, Đà Nng và Phù Cát aiports in 2007, US MOD have providing information on new 7 aiports Đà Nng, Biên Hòa, Phù Cát, Nha Trang, Tân Sơn Nht, Phan Rang và Tuy Hòa ) are previous storages that might be also contaminated. VN MOD, Hattfield are now doing sampling, analysing to determine dioxin concentration in these airports. For Danang airport, it have been identified some more contamination places at the South of aiport; in Bienhoa airport also indentified some new places of dioxin contamination (but analytical result is still not finished yet). in 2007, US MOD have providing information on new 7 aiports Đà Nng, Biên Hòa, Phù Cát, Nha Trang, Tân Sơn Nht, Phan Rang và Tuy Hòa ) are previous storages that might be also contaminated. VN MOD, Hattfield are now doing sampling, analysing to determine dioxin concentration in these airports. For Danang airport, it have been identified some more contamination places at the South of aiport; in Bienhoa airport also indentified some new places of dioxin contamination (but analytical result is still not finished yet).

9 Herbicides in Bien Hoa Airbase Operation Ranch Hand (Dec. 1966 – Feb. 1970) - total transport and handling Agent Orange: 98,000 barrels (20,384,000 l) Agent White: 45,000 barrels (9,360,000 l) Agent Blue: 16,300 barrels (3,390,000 l) Operation Pacer Ivy (Apr. 1970 – Mar. 1972) Re-drumming of 11,000 barrels Agent Orange (2,288,000 l) and site cleanup occurred Spills of Herbicides in Bien Hoa Airbase December 1969 – March 1970: four large spills from 28,000-liter tanks occurred on the airbase. Spills and leakages also occurred due to handling (loading, washing and re-drumming).

10 Bien Hoa Airbase: Area contaminated Dioxin, Volume to be Treated LocationArea(m2) dioxin 0-0.3m mean (ppt) Treatment (m) depth(m) Est. Soil, Sediment(m3) South of runway 15.0005.276 19-65.500 1,218.000 South of runway 20.0002.650 80,3-22.800 1,224.000 Site Z1 38.00015.864 2-409.818 1,557.000 Z1-Perimeter land 49.000893 2,0-13.300 0,922.050 Z1-perimeter wetlands/lak es 41.000495 16-2.240 0,520.500 Sum163.000141.550 * Treatment level: Soil 1000ppt; Sediment 150ppt Z1 has been isolated, 5 million USD; 3,600 m3 bioremidiatio

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13 Herbicides in Phu Cat Airbase Operation Ranch Hand (Jun. 1968 – May. 1970) - total transport and handling Agent Orange: 17,000 barrels (3,536,000 l) Agent White: 9,000 barrels (1,872,000 l) Agent Blue: 2,900 barrels (603,200 l) Spills of Herbicides in Phu Cat Airbase Spills and leakages occurred due to handling (loading and washing).

14 Phu Cat: Area contaminated Dioxin, Volume to be Treated LocationArea(m2) dioxin 0-0.3m mean (ppt) Treatment (m) depth(m) Est. Soil, Sediment(m3) Loading Area (A)261 2,6-876 00 Zone B24.000482 1,5-2.950 0.61,440 Washing area (C)6.00025 1,9-218 00 Storage area(Z3)2.02011.367 1.22,424 Lakes A,B,C310.00043 1,7-196 0.51,550 Sum342.020 5,414 * Treatment level: Soil 1000ppt; Sediment 150ppt

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17 Herbicides in Da Nang Airbase Operation Ranch Hand (May 1964 – Jan. 1971) - total transport and handling: Agent Orange: 52,700 barrels (10,961,600 l) Agent White: 29,000 barrels (6,032,000 l) Agent Green: 5,000 barrels (1,040,000 l) Operation Pacer Ivy (Dec. 1971 – Mar. 1972) Collected and re-drummed 8,220 barrels Agent Orange (1,709,760 l) Spills of Herbicides in Da Nang Airbase Spills and leakages occurred due to handling (loading, washing and re-drumming

18 Sen Lake Ranch Hand Sites Pacer Ivy Sites

19 P1 P2 P3 P4

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