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Human Resource Shortages in the Zambian Health Sector & its Impact on HIV/AIDS care Emmanuel M. Makasa MD, MPH Zambia Medical Association Lusaka, Zambia.

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Presentation on theme: "Human Resource Shortages in the Zambian Health Sector & its Impact on HIV/AIDS care Emmanuel M. Makasa MD, MPH Zambia Medical Association Lusaka, Zambia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Resource Shortages in the Zambian Health Sector & its Impact on HIV/AIDS care Emmanuel M. Makasa MD, MPH Zambia Medical Association Lusaka, Zambia Given to the Infectious Diseases Division of Brown University School of Medicine at Miriam Hospital, Providence RI, USA 21 st May 2009

2 Human Resource Shortages in the Zambian Health Sector & its Impact on HIV/AIDS care OBJECTIVES: Describe healthcare system & infrastructure in Zambia. Discuss impact of HIV & effect on health sector. Examine interplay of human resource shortages & HIV care in Zambia. Relevance of human resources issue to ID in the USA A man ravaged by AIDS is bathed at a hospice in Zambia (www.Time.com)www.Time.com

3 Human Resource Shortages in the Zambian Health Sector & its Impact on HIV/AIDS care Zambias location in the world:Country Profile: Landmass 752,612 Sq Km Population – 12million Declining life birth of 37.5 years. High dependency ratio- 47% pop aged <15yrs. Fairly urbanized – 34.7% in urban areas. Administrative 9 provinces. Weak social economic position (among least developed) Democratic gov. (two 5 yr terms) Source:www.witiger.com

4 Zambias Healthcare System: Centralized (Ministry of Health) Three levels of healthcare. Free public healthcare for all. Small private sector. Inadequate funding (<15% of national budget) Zambias Healthcare Infrastructure: Inadequate & poor state of essential infrastructure, equipment & transport. Continued shortages & erratic supply of essential drugs & medical supplies. High disease burden with critical shortages of qualified health workers at all levels of health service delivery. Human Resource Shortages in the Zambian Health Sector & its Impact on HIV/AIDS care

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6 Zambias HIV/AIDS statistics & Response: 1, 100, 000 people living with HIV (Total Pop. 12 million) 15.2% Adult prevalence rate (15 – 49 yrs) 980,000 Adults living with HIV (15-49yrs) 560, 000 Women living with HIV (>15yrs) 95,000 children living with HIV (0 – 14yrs) 56, 000 Deaths due to AIDS 600,000 Orphans due to Aids (0 – 17yrs) Impact of HIV/AIDS on Zambia General: Retarded national development Disrupted extended family system Lowered life expectancy to 37.5 yrs On Health Sector: Increase disease burden Shortages of health facilities, supplies & staff Morbidity and mortality of health workers from AIDS NOTE: Impact worse in rural areas Source: Epidemiological Fact Sheet on HIV & AIDS, 2008

7 Human Resource Shortages in the Zambian Health Sector & its Impact on HIV/AIDS care Progress towards universal access: Source: Ministry of Health, Zambia

8 Human Resource Shortages in the Zambian Health Sector & its Impact on HIV/AIDS care

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10 Source: Ministry of Health, Zambia

11 Human Resource Shortages in the Zambian Health Sector & its Impact on HIV/AIDS care

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13 Impact of HIV/AIDS and Human Resource Shortages on Zambias healthcare delivery. Human Resource Shortages in the Zambian Health Sector & its Impact on HIV/AIDS care HIV/AIDS + Malaria & TB HRH Weak Retention Death from AIDS Inadequate training Increased Disease Burden Human Resources for Health Shortages Healthcare Delivery in Crisis Inadequate & poor state of Health infrastructure and medical supplies

14 The way forward: Make human resources for health a priority in the fight against the HIV/AIDS. Rural areas of Zambia should NOT be ignored as they are affected the most. Although we need help as a country from international partners to build capacity, our future lies in our own hands. Need for more Zambian political will and commitment to overcome the challenges we face. Human Resource Shortages in the Zambian Health Sector & its Impact on HIV/AIDS care

15 What does this mean for you: Practice & do research abroad? - Awareness of situation helpful. -Human resource issues should be part of research. How does the Zambian situation affect you & your careers? - While there are opportunities for short term work, long term work is what is needed the most. - The role of teaching and training locals should also be a priority. Without tackling this issue, your work in trying to fight HIV, especially in Africa, is greatly held back. Human Resource Shortages in the Zambian Health Sector & its Impact on HIV/AIDS care

16 Acknowledgements: Division of Infectious Diseases Dr. Flanigan, ID Division Chair Susan M. Tootell & Dalila Zachary All of you for attending Human Resource Shortages in the Zambian Health Sector & its Impact on HIV/AIDS care

17 References: 1.World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2006 – Working together for health. 2.UNAIDS. Zambia – Country Response. Available at: Accessed May Makasa E. The Human Resources crisis in the Zambian Health Sector – a discussion paper. Med J Zambia 2008;35(3) Ministry of Health of Zambia. Joint Annual Review for 2007 Main Report. Available at: Accessed May Ministry of Health of Zambia. National Strategic Plan Available at: Accessed May Central Statistics Office Zambia. Main Zambia Census Report Available at: Accessed May Human Resource Shortages in the Zambian Health Sector & its Impact on HIV/AIDS care


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