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Radiation safety in CT. RADIATION DOSES DURING CT EXAMS ARE CLASSIFIED AS: LOW DOSE RADIATION AS COMPARED TO DOSES GENERATED FROM NUCLEAR EVENTS.

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Presentation on theme: "Radiation safety in CT. RADIATION DOSES DURING CT EXAMS ARE CLASSIFIED AS: LOW DOSE RADIATION AS COMPARED TO DOSES GENERATED FROM NUCLEAR EVENTS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Radiation safety in CT

2 RADIATION DOSES DURING CT EXAMS ARE CLASSIFIED AS: LOW DOSE RADIATION AS COMPARED TO DOSES GENERATED FROM NUCLEAR EVENTS

3 BODY RESPONE TO RADIATION: SOMATIC EFFECTS GENETIC EFFECTS

4 SOMATIC EFFECT MANIFESTED IN THE INDIVIDUAL EXPOSED

5 ACUTE SOMATIC RADIATION SYNDROME STAGES: PRODROMAL- NAUSEA, VOMITING, DIARRHEA LATENT PERIOD – NO SYMPTOMS MANIFEST – ORGAN DAMAGE, DEATH OR RECOVERY HEMATOPOIETIC GI CNS

6 MOST COMMON SOMATIC EFFECTS CATARACT FORMATION SKIN CANCER THYROID CANCER BREAST CANCER LEUKEMIA

7 EFFECT ON AN EMBRYO OR FETUS MOST PRONOUNCED DURING THE FIRST TRIMESTER!!!!

8 ALTERNATIVE EXAMS SHOULD BE SCHEDULED IF PATIENT IS PREGNANT CT OR MRI ?

9 FETAL MRI

10 GENETIC EFFECT MANIFESTED IN THE FUTURE GENERATIONS!

11 RADIATION DOSES FROM CT SCANNERS ARE THE HIGHEST IN DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY!!!! HOWEVER:

12 RADIATION EXPOSURE SHOULD OCCUR : AFTER CONSIDERATION BY THE PHYSICIAN

13 ALARA

14 RADIOLOGIC UNITS (CUSTOMARY) EXPOSURE, INTENSITY ------ ROENTGEN (R) ABSORBED DOSE ----------- RADIATION ABSORBED DOSE (rad) DOSE EQUIVALENT --------- RADIATION EQUIVALENT MAN (rem)

15 RADIOLOGIC UNITS (SI) EXPOSURE, INTENSITY ------ C/kg ABSORBED DOSE ----------- GRAY (Gy) DOSE EQUIVALENT --------- SIEVERT (Sv) 1 Gy = 100 rad 1 Sv = 100 rem

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17 PENCIL IONIZATION CHAMBER METHOD OF MEASURING CT DOSE (CT DOSE INDEX---CTDI)

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19 CT PHANTOM & IONIZATION CHAMBER

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27 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF IONIZATION CHAMBER

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29 THE AMOUNT OF COLLECTED CHARGE IN I.C. IS PROPORTIONAL TO THE AMOUNT OF IONIZATION WHICH IS PROPORTIONAL TO THE AMOUNT OF RADIATION PASSING THROUGH THE CHAMBER. THE TOTAL ELECTRIC CHARGE GENERATED BY AN X-RAY BEAM IS REPRESENTED BY Q AND IS MEASURED IN COULOMBS.

30 IN 1981 CENTER FOR DEVICES AND RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH SUGGESTED AN EASY AND ACCURATE METHOD TO MEASURE PATIENT DOSE IN CT. IT RELIED ON ON CTDI AND MSAD (MULTIPLE SCAN AVERAGE DOSE)

31 MSAD SERIES OF CT SCANS ARE PERFORMED ON A PATIENT. BETWEEN EACH SCAN PATIENT IS MOVED A BED INDEX (BI) DISTANCE.

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37 MSAD vs CTDI

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39 FACTORS IN PATIENT PROTECTION TIME DISTANCE SHIELDING

40 IF PERSONNEL PRESENT IN THE ROOM DURING SCAN MUST BE SHIELDED AND STAND FAR FROM THE SOURCE ( INVERSE SQUARE LAW)

41 GONADAL SHIELDS 4-5 CM WITHIN THE X-RAY BEAM

42 CONTACT SHIELDS 360 ° AROUND PATIENT

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47 CT DOSE IN SPIRAL SCANNING CTDI CAN ALSO BE USED PITCH MSAD OR CTDI

48 MORE USEFUL MEASUREMENT IS EFFECTIVE DOSE TAKES INTO ACCOUNT QUALITY OF RADIATION AND ORGAN SENSITIVITY EXPRESSED IN Sv

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50 EFFECTIVE DOSE (mSv) HEAD------------ 2 CHEST ---------- 8 ABDOMEN --10-20 PELVIS -------10- 20 SKULL -------- 0.07 CHEST PA ---- 0.02 ABDOMEN --- 1 PELVIS -------- 0.7 CTCONVENTIONAL

51 DOSE REDUCTION IN CT BED INDEX SPIRAL PITCH COLLIMATION (PREPATIENT) NOISE DOSE

52 DOSE REDUCTION IN CT SID OID kVp (15 % RULE) mAs DOSE


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