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Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.1 Human Figure Drawings in Personality Evaluations: Old Controversy, New Data Achilles N. Bardos University of Northern Colorado.

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Presentation on theme: "Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.1 Human Figure Drawings in Personality Evaluations: Old Controversy, New Data Achilles N. Bardos University of Northern Colorado."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.1 Human Figure Drawings in Personality Evaluations: Old Controversy, New Data Achilles N. Bardos University of Northern Colorado School Psychology Programs (970)

3 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.2 Human Figure Drawing n What can we say about the girl who drew this picture of herself (9 yrs. old)? n Is she intellectually normal? n Does she have emotional problems?

4 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D years of history n Luquet (1903) 4 intellectual development 4 changes in drawings reflect emotional stability

5 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.4 DAP History (continues) n Goodenough (1926) 4 Drawings reflect intellectual level and provide information about the emotional aspects of a child (Goodenough, 1926) 4 Drawing probably carry profound meaning, had we but the wisdom to understand them (Goodenough, p. 60). 4 Conclusion: Human figure drawings are multidimensional in nature

6 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.5 DAP History (continues) n Lewis (1928) 4 viewed drawings as more valuable than dreams in understanding interpersonal relationships. n Buck (1948) 4 The most well known effort to interpretation 4 H-T-P

7 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.6 DAP History (continues) n MACHOVER (1948) 4 Personality projection in the drawing of the HF 4 A one to one relationship was hypothesized to exist between particular signs and areas of conflict the drawer might be experiencing.

8 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.7 DAP History- Projective Hypothesis n Frank (1948) - the essential feature of a projective technique is that it evokes from the subject what is in various ways expressive of his private world and personality process (p. 47) n this private world is created by the individual as the result of his special experiences … [based on] geographical, cultural, and social environments (Rabin, 1981, p. 10)

9 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.8 DAP History (continues) n Koppitz (1968) 4 most recent approach that uses total number of items 4 first actuarial method attempting to differentiate meaningful from non-meaningful items

10 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.9 Critical reviews n Machovers hypothesis lacks empirical support n Koppitzs system failed the test of diagnostic validity n Literature review conclusions 4 lack of objectivity in scoring 4 number of items more important in discriminating normal from clinical groups 4 global aspects should be used for interpretation 4 Use DAP as a screening measure

11 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.10 Frequency of DAP use? n The DAP continues to be ranked in the 10 most frequently used instruments in personality evaluations.

12 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.11 Arguments Against the Use of HFD n Popularity should not equate with clinical utility n Questions about validity-- can drawing by a person tell about that persons behavior, personality or emotions? n Experts arent any more accurate in interpretation than the untrained. n Use with other tests wont give any additional information. Dont use less valid test with valid. n Artistic ability affects the score on these tests. n Cites research against and flawed studies-why do studies with the psychiatric population, it is obvious they are disturbed. n They are popular due to ease of administration and lower cost.

13 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.12 Arguments for the Use of Human Figure Drawing Tests n They utilize a variety of methods, techniques and scoring. It is hard to group all DAP tests together. n Recent tests like DAP:SPED made scoring more objective and standardized. n Psychologists know that using a multi-method approach yields better results. n Literature also supports the use and utility of human figure drawing tests. n Efficiency of resources used(personnel, instruments).

14 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.13 DAP:SPED Development n We studied over 75 years of research on DAP and found the following needs: 4 Scoring rules were vague and lacked objectivity and had low reliability (Roback, 1968; Swensen, 1957, 1968) 4 Items associated with emotional disturbance appear in drawings of nondisturbed children 4 The number of items found is more important than the presence of any single item (Koppitz, 1968)

15 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.14 DAP:SPED Development 4 One-to-one interpretation of one sign to a specific interpretation lacked empirical support 4 Global interpretation is effective to identify children with emotional problems (Kahill, 1984; Roback, 1968; Swensen, 1957, 1968) 4 DAPs can be used for screening purposes for gross levels of maladjustment 4 DAPs can be used for evaluation of emotional and intellectual dimensions (Koppitz, 1968).

16 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.15 Draw A Person: Screening Procedure for Emotional Disturbance - DAP:SPED Jack A. Naglieri Timothy J. McNeish Achilles N. Bardos 1991

17 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.16 DAP:SPED Development Goals n A DAP scoring system should: 4 have objective items 4 include experimentally validated items 4 Be normed on a representative sample 4 Have good reliability 4 Show differentiation of known groups

18 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.17 DAP:SPED Test Construction n Collected many potential items n Subjected the initial items to careful review and revision to ensure objectivity n Tested the items rates of occurrence in the normal standardization sample n Only selected items that were unusual (that is equal to or more than 1SD from the mean)

19 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.18 Item Types n Measurement items 4 Tall or short Figure 4 Small or big figure 4 Top or Bottom placement 4 Left or Right placement 4 Slanting figure n Content items 4 sign is present or not

20 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.19 Base Rates of Original Items

21 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.20 Drawing Size n How do you know when a child draws a small figure? n How do you know when the figure is close to the page? n What is normal ! 4 Ages 9-12: Y Height =105 mm Y Width = 54 mm 68 mm 97 mm 93 mm 74 mm

22 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.21 What is Abnormal Size n For Ages 9-12 MeanSD Height10536 Width5425 Top7436 Bottom9739 Left6818 Right9320 n Mean + or - 1 SD > 1SD Tall> 140 Short< 70 Top Plcmt Top< 39 Bottom> 135

23 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.22 DAP:SPED Standardization n 2,260 children (6780 drawings were evaluated on 93 items) n Ages years n Representative of the US on the basis of 4 Age 4 Gender 4 Race 4 Geographic Region 4 Ethnicity 4 Socioeconomic Status

24 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.23 Psychometric Properties n Reliability 4 Internal consistency 4 Inter-rater reliability 4 Intra-rater reliability 4 Test-retest stability

25 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.24 Reliability n Internal Reliability 4 Typical projective test reliability is the.20s (Anastasi, 1988) 4 DAP:SPED Total Test Reliabilities are Y Ages 6-8 =.76 Y Ages 9-12 =.77 Y Ages =.71

26 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.25 Validity evidence for the DAP:SPED

27 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.26 DAP:SPED Validity n McNeish & Naglieri (1993) Journal of Special Education, 27, Special Ed (SED) 4 81 Regular Ed 4 Matched Groups 4 All males (75% white) years of age n SED earned significantly higher mean T-score (55.3; SD =10.6) than control group (49.5; SD=8.6) >55 < 55 SED 49%51% Normal 32%68%

28 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.27 DAP:SPED Validity n Naglieri, & Pfeiffer, S. I. (1992). Psychological Assessment, 4, n 54 Subjects in psychiatric day treatment at the Devereux Foundation & 54 matched controls n DSM-III-R Disruptive Behavior Disorders n Age range 7-17 years, 78% males; 95% white n DAP:SPED means significantly different (SD 10.3) vs 49.4 (SD =8.7) 4 78% of controls and 48% of DBD correctly identified 4 SPED improves accuracy of prediction by 25%

29 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.28 Additional Studies with the DAP:SPED ¶ Psychiatric Residential Sample · Public School Setting with ED students/New York ¸ Public School Setting with ED students/Colorado ¹ Learning Disabled Students/Ohio º Hearing Impaired Students » 5 recent dissertations

30 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.29 Study 1. Psychiatric Residential Sample Clinical GroupControl Group Males33177 Females1641 Age15.3 years14.5 years Race Black74 White36211 Hispanic3`-- Other33 Other Clinical Group Information Court ReferralYes44No5 Court Decision: In Need of Supervision (37), Juvenile Delinquents (7) Committee on Special Education (3)

31 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.30 Study 1. Psychiatric Residential Sample AgeDAP:SPED Percentages Sample NMeanSDMeanSDMalesWhite Clinical Normal T-test = 7.41, p<.001

32 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.31 DAP:SPED and Self Concept (study 1) Mean SDPearson Corr. DAP: SPED MSCS Social Personal Competence Personal Affection * Achievement Family ** Physical Total Note: * p<.05 ** p<.01

33 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.32 Study 1. Psychiatric Residential Sample Nonreferred (N=22)Referred (N=26) Mean SDMean SD DAP:SPED MSCS Social P. Comp P. Affec Achieve Family Physical Total

34 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.33 Efficiency of Classification with ED Adolescents (study 1) Emotional ClassificationNormalED DAP: SPED Decision Do not Refer16022 Refer for Further Evaluation5627 Sensitivity:.5555% of children scoring 55 or above will be correctly identified Specificity:.74Accurate screening predictions were made for 74% of the children Efficiency of.33There is a 33% chance that a child outcome refer referred will have emotional difficulties Efficiency of.85 85% chance that a child referred will be do not referjudged as being normal

35 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.34 Study 2. ED Students In Public School Setting ED GroupControl Group Males50226 Females 8 38 AgeMeanMean years6.9 years years10.8 years years14.7 years Race Black74 White36211 Hispanic3-- Other33

36 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.35 Study 2. Additional Relevant Information Mean SD WISC-R VIQ = PIQ = FSIQ = Program in Special Education Option II38

37 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.36 Study 2. Age DAP:SPED Percentages SampleNMeanSDMeanSDMales White ED Normal t-test = 3.85, p<. 001

38 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.37 Groups Emotional Classification NormalEmotionally Disturbed DAP:SPED Decision Do Not Refer Refer for Further Evaluation 7128 Results of DAP:SPED Classification (study 2).

39 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.38 Efficiency of Classification (study 2) Hit Rates What this means: Sensitivity.4848% of those scoring 55 or above will be correctly identified Specificity:.73Accurate screening predictions were made for 73% of the children Efficiency of screening outcome refer.28There is a 28% chance that a child referred by DAP:SPED will be judged as having emotional difficulties Efficiency of screening.86There is a 86% chance that a child not outcome do not referbeing referred by DAP:SPED will be judged as normal

40 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.39 Study 3 EBD Students in Colorado Subjects: 42 students identified SIEBD (Significant Identifiable Emotional/Behavioral Disorder) Age: 8-17 years Sex: 38 males 4 females Race: Black6 Hispanic1 White34 American Indian 1

41 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.40 Study 3. Instruments Administered n DAP: SPED n Emotional and Behavior Problem Scale (EBPS) by teacher n Multidimensional Self Concept Scale (MSCS)

42 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.41 DAP:SPED EBPS--Empirical Interp. Aggre/Conduct Disorder Emo. Withdrawal/Depress Learning Comp. Disorder Avoidance/Unresponsive Aggre/Self Destructive Total (Sum of St. Scores) Study 3 DAP:SPED and EBPS

43 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.42 Study 3. DAP: SPED and MSCS Mean SD Range DAP:SPED MSCS Social Personal Competence Personal Affect Achievement Family Physical Total

44 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.43 Study 3. DAP: SPED EBPS Aggression/Conduct disorder -.19 Emotional withdrawal/Depression-.22 Learning Comp. Disorder-.42* Avoidance/Unresponsive-.05 Aggressive/Self Destructive-.02 Total score-.33*

45 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.44 Study 3. DAP:SPED and MSCS MSCS Social.05 Personal Competence.09 Personal Affection-.11 Achievement-.01 Family-.13 Physical -.03 Total.01

46 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.45 Study 4 Children with Learning Disabilities NormalLearning Disabled AgesNMean SDNMeanSDt-test ** * Note: * p<.05, **p<.01

47 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.46 Study 4. DAP: SPED, DAP:QSS, and WISC R Correlations DAP:QSSDAP:SPED WISC-R MSD VIQ PIQ **-.05 FSIQ DAP: QSS ** Note: **p<.01

48 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.47 Study 5. Hearing Impaired Students (Colorado) Total SampleN=307 GenderRaceHispanic61 Males142Asian or P. Islander8 Females127Black18 Missing38Native American7 Age (in years)White Other19 13& older113Missing69 Missing58Classroom Placement (52 missing) Full-time/Regular24 Part time /Special Ed94 Full time /Special Ed137

49 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.48 Study 5. DAP:SPED and the Devereux Behavior Rating Scales--(Ages 5-12 years) Variable Mean SD IP IBF DPSF Total DAP:SPED Devereux Scales IP IBF D PSF Total Note: P=Interpersonal Problems, BF= Inappropriate Behaviors/Feelings, D=Depression, SF=Physical Symptoms/Fears All correlations between the Devereux Subtests were p<.001

50 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.49 Study 5. DAP:SPED and Devereux Behavior Rating Scales-- Ages Variable Mean SD IP IBF DPSF Total DAP:SPED *-.31* * Devereux Scales IP IBF D PSF Total Note: P=Interpersonal Problems, BF= Inappropriate Behaviors/Feelings, D=Depression, SF=Physical Symptoms/Fears All correlations between the Devereux Subtests were p<.001

51 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.50 Study 5. Present Special Education placement n Learning Disabled6 n Speech and Language Impaired9 n Mentally Retarded8 n Seriously Emotionally Disturbed6 n Hard of Hearing/Deaf247 n Orthopedically Handicapped4 n Deaf/Blind40 n Other Health Impaired2 n Other3 Special Services n Psychological Counseling/Therapy35 n Psychiatric Hospitalization/Resid. Treatment2

52 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.51 Results of DAP: SPED with Hearing Impaired Students 254 Valid Cases/Student Records show 5 as ED CriterionNumber Services IdentifiedProvided 55 or less (no need for further evaluation) 55 to (further evaluation is suggested) >65452 (Evaluation is strongly indicated)

53 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.52 DAP:SPED Recent Dissertations n Parental stress and childrens drawings n DAP:SPED with hearing Impaired children n Cultural Differences 4 Navajo children 4 Research in Greece n Sexually abused n Emotionally Disturbed

54 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.53 DAP:SPED & Stress n Sample of 100 regular education (ages 6-9) students given DAP:SPED whose mothers completed the Parenting Stress Index. There was a significant difference between childrens scores of those with mothers under high stress versus low stress. Males scored higher than females.

55 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.54 DAP:SPED with Deaf Children Sample of 39 deaf children (9-12) given DAP:SPED and Meadow-Kendall Social- Emotional Inventory for Deaf children and corroboration of emotional disturbance by psychologist. No significant differences were found between the two groups.

56 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.55 DAP:SPED with Native American Students n Sample of 40 Reservation Navajo school- aged students who attend public schools. They were administered the DAP:SPED under timed and untimed conditions. Cultural differences in time did not effect the results. No significant differences were found between the groups.

57 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.56 DAP:SPED with Greek Children (Politikos, 1998) n The exact same procedures used in the development of the DAP:SPED were employed using the drawings of a sample of Greek Children. n There were differences in item performance. Items that did not meet selection criteria in the U.S. norms were deemed necessary for a Greek version. n The DAP:SPED might not be as transportable to other cultures as originally thought

58 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.57 Drawings of sexually abused children and the DAP:SPED Impact of rater knowledge on sexually abused and nonabused girls scores on the DAP:SPED. (Chiristi Bruening et.al. 1997, Journal of Personality Assessment). n The DAP:SPED...is sufficiently objective to withstand the counfounding influence of varying case descriptions.

59 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.58 MACI, Devereux & DAP:SPED and children with ED Dwors, J. (1996). Differences in normal and seriously emotional disturbed students on the Devereux Behavior Rating Scale-School Form, DAP:SPED and the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory.

60 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.59 Learning the DAP:SPED scoring system n Training of raters 4 a one day workshop Y competency scoring with 90% accuracy Y periodical monitoring of rater performance Y final competency using drawings in chapter 5. n New users 4 Use chapter 5

61 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.60 Administration n Directions appear in the Record Form n Drawing time for the man, woman, self) is 5 minutes each (max total time = 15 minutes)

62 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.61 THE DAP:SPED SCORING SYSTEM 55 items

63 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D Tall Figure n scored if the distance between the uppermost and the lowermost points of the figure is greater than the height of Line 1 (use the template for the appropriate age). n Articles of clothing such as hats or shoes are included in the measurement, although other objects (e.g. handbag, briefcase, backpack, baseball bat) are not included. n The template must be aligned squarely with the page (not rotated).

64 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.63 Figure Size

65 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D Short Figure n scored if the distance between the uppermost point of the figure and the lowermost point of the figure is less than Line 2 (use the template for the appropriate age). n Articles of clothing such as hats or shoes are included in the measurement, although other objects (e.g. handbag, briefcase, backpack, baseball bat) are not included. n In all cases, the template must be aligned squarely with the page (not rotated).

66 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D Big Figure n is scored if the figure exceeds both the vertical and horizontal dimensions of Box 3 (use the template for the appropriate age). n Articles of clothing such as hats or shoes are included in the measurement, although other objects (e.g. handbag, briefcase, backpack, baseball bat) are not included. n The template must be aligned squarely with the page (not rotated).

67 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D Little Figure n is scored if the figure fits completely within Box 4 (use the template for the appropriate age). n Articles of clothing such as hats or shoes are included in the measurement, although other objects (e.g. handbag, briefcase, backpack, baseball bat) are not included. n The template must be aligned squarely with the page (not rotated).

68 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D Top Placement n is scored when any part of the figure is in Box 5 and the figure is entirely above Line 5 (use the template for the appropriate age). n Articles of clothing such as hats or shoes are included in the measurement, although other objects (e.g. handbag, briefcase, backpack, baseball bat) are not included. n is scored when any part of the figure is in Box 8 and the figure is entirely to the right of Line 8 (use the template for the appropriate age). n Articles of clothing such as hats or shoes are included in the measurement, although other objects (e.g. handbag, briefcase, backpack, baseball bat) are not included.

69 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.68 Placement on the Page Box 5 Box 6 Line 6 Line 5

70 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D Bottom Placement n is scored when any part of the figure is in Box 6 and the figure is entirely below Line 6 (use the template for the appropriate age). n Articles of clothing such as hats or shoes are included in the measurement, although other objects (e.g. handbag, briefcase, backpack, baseball bat) are not included.

71 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D Left Placement n is scored when any part of the figure is in Box 7 and the figure is entirely to the left of Line 7 (use the template for the appropriate age). n Articles of clothing such as hats or shoes are included in the measurement, although other objects (e.g. handbag, briefcase, backpack, baseball bat) are not included.

72 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D Right Placement n is scored when any part of the figure is in Box 8 and the figure is entirely to the right of Line 8 (use the template for the appropriate age). n Articles of clothing such as hats or shoes are included in the measurement, although other objects (e.g. handbag, briefcase, backpack, baseball bat) are not included.

73 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D Slanting Figure n is scored if the vertical axis of the figure (i.e., the line from midpoint of head width to midpoint of stance width) deviates by 15 degrees or more from a perpendicular to the bottom edge of the page (use the Item 9 template). n Use Scoring Template

74 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.73 n 10. Legs Together 4 is scored if the legs are drawn together with no visible space between legs or if only one leg is visible in profile. n 11. Baseline Drawn 4 is scored if a ground line, grass, etc., is drawn. Items 10, 11

75 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.74 Items 12, 13 n 12. Lettering/Numbering 4 is scored if letters, words, phrases, or numbers appear anywhere on the page other than on the figure (on the figure includes worn accessories) n 13. Rotated Page 4 is scored if the figure is drawn with the longest dimension of the page on the top (i.e., the folded edge of the Record Form is at the bottom or top instead of on the side.

76 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.75 Items 14, 15 n 14. Left/Right-Facing Figure 4 is scored if the entire figure or head only is in the left-facing or right-facing profile. n 15. Figure Facing Away 4 is scored if the entire figure or head only is facing away from the viewer so that only the back of the head is visible.

77 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D Failed Integration n is scored if any of the following are present but not attached: 4 head is attached to neck or top of torso 4 two arms (one if in profile) are attached to the top half of the torso (above the halfway mark in the vertical measurement of the torso or bottom of a dress). The torso extends from the top of the trunk, where it meets the head or neck, to the bottom, where it meets the legs or crotch. 4 two legs (one if in profile) are attached at the bottom of the torso (below the halfway mark in the vertical measurement of the torso or bottom of a dress).

78 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D Failed Integration n Arms are attached below the midpoint between the vertical measurement of the torso - so score as 1

79 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D Transparencies n is scored if any body part shows through clothing or another body part.

80 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.79 Items 18, 19 n 18. Restart 4 is scored if one or more human figures are obviously abandoned (erased, scratched out, or merely left incomplete) and a more complete figure appears on the page. n 19. Head Omitted 4 is scored if the figures head is absent. Any attempted representation of a head cannot be scored as an omission.

81 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.80 Items 20, 21 n 20. Hair Omitted 4 is scored if the figure has no hair on its head. Any attempted representation of hair on head, including beard, etc., cannot be scored as an omission. n 21. Eyes Omitted 4 is scored if the figures eyes are absent. Any attempted representation of eyes (including only one eye) cannot be scored as an omission.

82 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.81 Items 22, 23, 24 n 22. Nose Omitted 4 is scored if the figures nose is absent. Any attempted representation of a nose cannot be scored as an omission. n 23. Mouth Omitted 4 is scored if the figures mouth is absent. Any attempted representation of a mouth cannot be scored as an omission. n 24. Torso Omitted 4 is scored if the figures torso is absent. Any attempted representation of a torso cannot be scored as an omission.

83 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.82 Items 25, 26, 27 n 25. Arms Omitted 4 is scored if the figure has no arms. Any attempted representation of arms (including only one arm) cannot be scored as an omission. n 26. Fingers Omitted 4 is scored if the figure has no fingers. Any attempted representation of fingers cannot be scored as an omission. n 27. Legs Omitted 4 is scored if the figure has no legs. Any attempted representation of legs (including only one leg) cannot be scored as an omission.

84 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.83 Items 28, 29 n 28. Feet Omitted 4 is scored if the figure has no feet. Any attempted representation of feet (including only one foot) cannot be scored as an omission. n 29. Crotch Erasure 4 is scored if erasure is apparent in the area of the figures crotch (below the waistline or belt and above the knee area of the leg).

85 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D Crotch Shading n is scored if pencil strokes are present on the figures crotch area (below the waistline or belt and above the knee area of the leg) which fill in an area by coloring or darkening (including stripes or checks on clothing).

86 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D Hand Shading n is scored if pencil strokes are present on the figures hand(s) which fill in an area by coloring or darkening.

87 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D Feet Shading n is scored if pencil strokes are present on the figures feet (foot) which fill in an area by coloring or darkening. (Shoelaces are not scored as shading.)

88 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D Outside Shading n is scored if pencil strokes are present outside of the figure which fill in an area by coloring or darkening.

89 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.88 n is scored if both the figures eyes (one if in profile) are empty (i.e. open circles). 34. Vacant Eyes

90 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.89 Items 35, 36, 37 n 35. Closed Eyes 4 is scored if both the figures eyes are closed. n 36. Crossed Eyes 4 is scored if both the figures eyes are crossed. n 37. Gazing Left/Right 4 is scored if both the figures eyes (one if in profile) are gazing toward the raters left or right.

91 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.90 Items 38, 39 n 38. Frowning Mouth 4 is scored if the figures mouth is frowning. n 39. Slash Mouth 4 is scored if the figures mouth is a straight line or slash.

92 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D Teeth n is scored if teeth are present in the figures mouth.

93 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.92 Items 41, 42 n 41. Object in Mouth 4 is scored if an object (cigar, pipe, etc.) is present in the figures mouth. n 42. Reaching Arms 4 is scored if both the figures arms (including hands) extend above the top of the figures head.

94 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D Pressed to Torso n is scored if both the figures arms are down at the side of figure with no visible space between the torso of the figure and the arms.

95 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D Inconsistent Position n is scored if each of the figures arms is in a different position (i.e., reaching, outstretched, hanging, or pressed to torso, as defined below). 4 a reaching arm extends above the figures head 4 an outstretched arm is approximately horizontal 4 a hanging arm points downward 4 an arm is pressed to torso if there is no space between it and the torso

96 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D Hands Cut Off n is scored if there are no hands or fingers at the ends of the arms. (Hands hidden behind back of figure or in pockets not scored.)

97 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.96 Items 46, 47, 48 n 46. Hidden Hands 4 is scored if the hands are hidden behind the back of the figure or in pockets. n 47. Fists 4 is scored if the hands are made into fists. n 48. Talons 4 is scored if one or more fingers are clearly pointed (like a claw) or knife-like.

98 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.97 Well, lets see…So far Ive got rhythm, Ive got Music…actually who could ask for anything more? 49. Aggressive Symbols n is scored for the presence of one or more aggressive symbols, gestures, or written statements (e.g., guns, knives, clubs, written profanity, or other symbols of aggression).

99 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.98 Items 50, 51 n 50. Object Attached 4 is scored for the presence of one or more objects attached to, or being held by, the figure (e.g., handbag, briefcase, backpack, baseball bat, but excluding aggressive symbols and articles such as eyeglasses and jewelry). n 51. Background Filled In 4 is scored for the presence of anything drawn in addition to the human figure which is not attached to or being held by the figure (e.g., animal, automobile, building, tree, sun, moon, clouds, raindrops).

100 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.99 Items 52, 53 n 52. Monster 4 is scored if the figure is drawn as a nonhuman or monster. n 53. Multiple Figures 4 is scored for the presence of more than one complete person (or monster) on the page.

101 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D Nude Figure n is scored if a fully or partially unclothed figure is drawn. This item includes any representation of genitalia, for example, but bare feet, short pants, or short sleeve shirt are not scored.

102 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D Uniformed Figure n is scored for a figure drawn as a soldier, cowboy/cowgirl, policeman, etc. n sports figures or cheerleaders are not scored.

103 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.102 DAP:SPED: Interpretation

104 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.103 DAP:SPED Interpretation n Use the 65 as a guide n Describe the childs score as like normal or children with emotional problems

105 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.104 DAP:SPED Interpretation Julies emotional status was assessed using several different kinds of measures. She earned a T-score of 64 (90% confidence range is 58-70) on the Draw A Person: Screening Procedure for Emotional Disturbance. This score falls at the 92nd percentile, meaning that she had more signs of emotional problems in her drawings than about 92% of the standardization sample. Similarly, she earned very high scores on the Devereux Scales...

106 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.105 DAP:SPED Interpretation n Relate the DAP:SPED scores to other measures of emotional status n Consistency across projective and behavioral rating scale methods is not necessarily expected 4 An indication of a problem in either type of evaluation system is cause for concern and further examination of the case

107 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.106 DAP:SPED 1. Tall Figure 3. Big Figure 11. Baseline Drawn 12. Lettering/Numbering 30. Crotch Shading 31. Hand Shading 32. Feet Shading 37. Gazing Eyes 39. Slash Mouth 50. Object Attached TOTAL = 10 (normal mean is 3 points per drawing)

108 Achilles N. Bardos, Ph.D.107 DAP:SPED Publisher Pro-Ed 8700 Shoal Creek Boulevard Austin, Texas (512)


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