Presentation on theme: "Life in the 1960s An Era of Change. Lyndon Johnson: The Great Society The country led by Johnson was originally one of prosperity. However despite the."— Presentation transcript:
Lyndon Johnson: The Great Society The country led by Johnson was originally one of prosperity. However despite the new roads, malls and booming,bustling place there were many many poor people in 1960s America There were nearly 50 million poor people but they were well hidden in the slums of cities, rural areas, in the Deep South and on Native America reservations. Thus, LBJ made the elimination of poverty a major policy goal.
Johnson's Task Johnson had a large task after the assassination of JFK He had to show the country that he could hold them together LBJ's First Speech Days after the assassination he said the Congress, John Kennedys death commands what his life conveyedthat America must move forward. Johnson was a Texan at heart. He was the opposite of Kennedy, talking directly and roughly at times He had a large stature and he found it difficult to gain acceptance from the nations capital.
War on Poverty People often wonder why LBJ was so concerned with the poor The truth is he had known hard times as a young man himself He was also a teacher in a low income area which furtherer his understanding of what it meant to suffer in poverty He felt that a wealthy government should try to help with the of its citizens in poverty Plans for an anti- poverty program were already in place when Johnson took office He knew that he would get strong support for any plan that would link him to Kennedy.
More The news at the time of Johnson's addressThe news at the time of Johnson's address Johnson's address In the speech Johnson clearly states how much emphasis needs to be placed on ending poverty He also declares unconditional war on poverty By the summer of 1964 Johnson had already convinced Congress to pass the Economic Opportunity Act This created a wide range of programs aimed at creating jobs and fighting poverty The Office of Economic Opportunity was to help create this programs
More on Poverty Many of the new programs were for the young people living in inner cities The Neighborhood Youth Corps provided work-study programs to help the underprivileged young men and women to earn a high school diploma or college degree The Job Corps tried to help young unemployed people to find a job. Then there was VISTA (Volunteers for Service to America) This was a domestic Peace Corps to help young people with a community mind to work in poor neighborhoods
The Election of 1964 Johnson was able to make a lot of changes very quickly. This was a surprise to many Americans Johnson had to prepare to run again in 1964 against Republican Barry Goldwater Goldwater was from Arizona and was known for being a conservative Goldwater was; however, to conservative for a nation that was deeply concerned about a nuclear war Johnson won by a landslide only losing 5 Southern states and Arizona. He said, For the first time in my life I truly felt loved by the American people.
The Great Society Johnson began working on the Great Society he had promised He was also able to make huge strides with Civil Rights He passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Johnson remarks about signing the Civil Rights Act of 1964Johnson remarks about signing the Civil Rights Act of 1964 What is the Civil Rights Act of 1964?What is the Civil Rights Act of 1964? Parts of the Bill Johnson also passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965 The Voting Rights Act of 1965The Voting Rights Act of 1965
The Great Society The Great Society was Johnsons vision of the more perfect and equitable society the United States could and should become Johnsons goals directly reflected what was going on in the country at the time: civil rights and poverty Johnson wanted to build a better society for all, a society where leisure is a welcome chance to build and reflect... Where the city of man serves not only the needs of the body and the demands of commerce but the desire for beauty and the hunger for community...
The Great Society Between 1965 and 1968 more than 60 programs were passed Two of the most important were Medicare and Medicaid Medicare was especially important as it was for the elderly people In 1965 half of those over 65 had no health insurance Medicaid financed health insurance for those on welfare, living below the poverty line This led to entitlements, which meant that they were entitled to certain Americans.. Today they have become a permanent part of the United States budget
The Great Society Education was also important to Johnson who had once been a teacher The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 granted millions of dollars to public and private schools for textbooks, library materials and special education programs Also Project Head Start began which was aimed at improving the lives of preschoolers It was aimed at those who had never been given a proper start in education, those who hadnt even looked at a book Upward Bound was created to provide college preparation for low income teenagers See page 858
The Great Society Johnson also created the Department of Housing and Urban Development in 1965 Robert Weaver was the 1 st secretary and the first African American to serve in a cabinet Model Cities was a program created to give federal subsidies to cities around the nation. This supported a lot of funds: transportation, health care, housing and policing to name a few About 8 billion dollars was authorized for affordable housing for low and middle income people
The Great Society The Immigration Reform Act of 1965 also changed America This act limited the number of immigrants admitted to the USA each year: 170,000 from the Eastern Hemisphere and 120,000 from the Western This allowed for new people to come from all over where as before there was always preference given to those from Northern Europe The Great Society programs touched thousands if not millions of lives There has been some discussion lately about whether or not the Great Society was a success What do you think?
Some problems Some of the programs failed Some programs grew so quickly they couldnt be managed In cities and states some eligible groups of people began to expect immediate and life changing benefits There was a lack of funds, this was especially true when Vietnam began However, it did start people asking questions like how can the government help its disadvantaged members?
Life in the 1960s The sixties were the age of youth, as 70 million children from the post-war baby boom became teenagers and young adults. The movement away from the conservative fifties continued and eventually resulted in revolutionary ways of thinking and real change in the cultural fabric of American life. No longer content to be images of the generation ahead of them, young people wanted change. The changes affected education, values, lifestyles, laws, and entertainment. Many of the revolutionary ideas which began in the sixties are continuing to evolve today. FACTS about this decade. Population 177,830,000 Unemployment 3,852,000 National Debt 286.3 Billion Average Salary $4,743 Teacher's Salary $5,174 Minimum Wage $1.00 Life Expectancy: Males 66.6 years, Females 73.1 years Auto deaths 21.3 per 100,000 An estimated 850,000 "war baby" freshmen enter college; emergency living quarters are set up in dorm lounges, hotels and trailer camps
More During the sixties, college campuses became centers of debate and scenes of protest more than ever before. Great numbers of young adults, baby boomers, reaching military draft age (selective service)and not yet voting age (minimum voting age did not become 18 until 1971), caused a struggle which played out on many campuses as the country became more involved in the Vietnam War John F. Kennedys midnight speech at the Michigan Union in 1962, in which he proposed what would later become the Peace Corps, proved to be a catalyst for student empowerment. Students rallied behind the idea, excited to do their part to help the global community. This enthusiasm spread to concerns in the United States, concerns that ranged from local campus issues to US foreign policy.
Protests Teach-Ins In March of 1965 a group of professors decided to cancel class to protest the US occupation of Vietnam. The professors faced hostility from both Governor George Romney and University President Harlan Hatcher. In addition to opposition from the administration and state government, not all faculty agreed about striking. After a series of meetings, however, the majority of the faculty agreed upon the strike option. The teach-in on March 24 and 25 consisted of guest speakers, seminars, and films. Over 3,000 students attended and 200 faculty members showed their support. Although the teach-in was momentarily disrupted by a bomb scare, it proved overwhelmingly successful. Other schools across the country started using teach- ins on their own campuses, and at Michigan teach-ins were subsequently held on a wide range of topics such as the environment, drugs, and women's issues.
The War in Vietnam To stop the Communists in North Vietnam from taking over South Vietnam the United States decided to get involved. The war was largely a secret until 1965 when there was a troop surge to try to put an end to the problem Drafts were begun and college campuses like the University of Michigan worked to create protests and anti-war sentiment. What is a Draft? During the sixties, college campuses became centers of debate and scenes of protest more than ever before. Great numbers of young adults, baby boomers, reaching military draft age (selective service)and not yet voting age (minimum voting age did not become 18 until 1971), caused a struggle which played out on many campuses as the country became more involved in the Vietnam War
Protest Continued Draft Classification During the Vietnam War, the Selective Service Office of the United States requested that colleges and universities rank their male students to determine their eligibility for the draft. This was a system used during the Korean War, and participation was not mandatory. In fact, a formal request was not made until March 1966. Womens grades were not considered in the ranking process. All freshmen were automatically classified as 1-A until the completion of their first year of study. After that time, those students in the lower half of their class retained the 1-A ranking, while those in the upper half were reclassified as 2-S, and therefore received student deferments from the draft. Additionally the lower third of the sophomore men and the lower quarter of the junior men retained the 1-A status.
War Protest Continued In October 15, 1965, a group including many University of Michigan students staged a sit-in at the Selective Service office in Ann Arbor. The protestors were arrested, charged with trespassing, and subsequently convicted. Although they were given 15-20 day jail sentences and fines, the university re-classified 14 of the students as 1-A in apparent retaliation for the sit-in. While many appealed their sentences, one student, Bill Ayers, served his time and wrote an account of his tenure in jail, which was published in two installments on January 7 and 9, 1968 in the Michigan Daily. A group of teacher from the Department of Economics issued a statement opposing the student rankings, citing the inflation of the importance of grades and the discrepancies in grading practices between professors and departments as two of the many reasons why grades were an inappropriate measure of a student's eligibility for the draft. These teachers proposed that no grades be submitted for male students until the university ceased the rankings so that their grades would not be used for these purposes. Thousands of Draft Dodgers fled to Canada to avoid being drafted into the military to fight in Vietnam. Sit-ins
Draft Dodgers and more Some young men refused to be drafted and fled to Canada to avoid the draft If they were found they were arrested for not serving their country or the call for service There were also reports of soldiers in Vietnam who showed their disloyalty to the army by shooting their officers rather than obeying orders. This was largely blamed on LBJ along with the failures of the war thus he decided not to run for re-election in 1968. Robert Kennedy then decided that he would.
Assassinations Robert Kennedy planned to campaign in California because it was such an important state, key to winning an election. Kennedy had served as Attorney General under his brothers administration and was also a Senator As a Senator he looked to relieve poverty through legislation. Like his brother he was also devoted to human rights improvement around the world and traveled often to give speeches throwing his support towards this in different countries. Kennedy was also for ending the war in Vietnam. He had originally supported the Johnson administration in its efforts. However, Johnson continued to bomb North Vietnam and he was receiving little help from the Southern Vietnamese. Kennedy decided to break with the Johnson Administration in 1966.
More Kennedy said, "Are we like the God of the Old Testament that we can decide, in Washington, D.C., what cities, what towns, what hamlets in Vietnam are going to be destroyed?... Do we have to accept that?... I do not think we have to. I think we can do something about it." Kennedy was beloved and received an immense amount of support when he announced his candidacy for President on March 18 th, 1968. He was able to win important primaries in Nebraska and Indiana before traveling to California. He seemed to speak to people worldwide. Unfortunately, RFK was shot on June 5 th, 1968 in the Ambassador Hotel moments after announcing his victory in the state primary by Sirhan Sirhan who was a Palestinian immigrant. He died June 6 th, 1968. RFK assassination
Martin Luther King Martin Luther King was a leading person in the Civil Rights Movement He was famous for his organized peaceful protests. People everywhere loved him and respected him for bringing the issue of race to the forefront of the government Sadly, he was assassinated by James Earl Ray at Lorraine Motel in Memphis Tennessee while standing on a balcony of the 2 nd floor on April 4 th, 1968, almost 2 months to the day before RFK was killed. Abraham, Martin and John
Fads and more!!! The 1960's began with crew cuts on men and bouffant hairstyleson women. Men's casual shirts were often plaid and buttoned down the front, while knee-length dresses were required wear for women in most public places. By mid-decade, miniskirts or hot pants, often worn with go-go boots, were revealing legs, body wear was revealing curves, and women's hair was either very short or long and lanky. Men's hair became longer and wider, with beards and moustaches. Men's wear changed: Bright colors, double-breasted sports jackets, polyester pants suits with Nehru jackets, and turtlenecks were in vogue. By the end of the decade, ties, when worn, were up to 5" wide, patterned even when worn with stripes. Women wore peasant skirts or granny dresses and chunky shoes. Unisex dressing was popular, featuring bell bottomed jeans, love beads, and embellished t-shirts. Clothing was as likely to be purchased at surplus stores as boutiques. Blacks of both genders wore their hair in an afro
Music In 1960, Elvis returned to the music scene from the US Army, joining the other white male vocalists at the top of the charts; Frankie Vallie: Frankie Valli and the Four SeasonsFrankie Valli and the Four Seasons America was ready to change!!! The Tamla Motown Record Company came on the scene, specializing in black rhythm and blues, aided in the emergence of female groups such as Gladys Knight and the Pips: I Heard it through the grapevineI Heard it through the grapevine Martha and the Vandellas: HeatwaveHeatwave James Brown: I feel goodI feel good Jimi Hendrix: All along the watchtowerAll along the watchtower TheTemptations: My GirlMy Girl Bob Dylan helped bring about a folk music revival: Like a Rolling StoneBob DylanLike a Rolling Stone The Beach Boys began recording music that appealed to high schoolers: I Get AroundI Get Around The Beatles from England, burst into popularity with innovative rock music that appealed to all ages: I want to hold your handI want to hold your hand The Righteous Brothers were a popular white duo who used African American styling to create a distinctive sound: Unchained MelodyUnchained Melody
Acid and Psychedelic Rock Psychedelic Rock was started based on the need of the culture to attempt to recreate the mind altering experiences of psychedelic drugs like LSD Jefferson Airplane: The White RabbitJefferson Airplane: The White Rabbit Acid Rock was Acid rock is a form of psychedelic rock in which there are long instrumental solos and very few lyrics. In some songs music is improvised and there are no lyrics. The Doors: Light My FireThe Doors: Light My Fire
Works Cited A Decade of Dissent: Student Protests at the University of Michigan in the 1960s. http://bentley.umic h.edu/exhibits/diss ent/warresearch.p hp. November 2 nd, 2009. http://bentley.umic h.edu/exhibits/diss ent/warresearch.p hp Robert F. Kennedy Memorial. http://www.rfkmem orial.org/lifevision/ biography/ http://www.rfkmem orial.org/lifevision/ biography/ November 3 rd, 2009.