2Cell TissueCell: smallest structural unit of living matter capable of functioning independentlyTissue: A collection of cells in an organism that have similar structure and functionCell->Tissue->Organ->Organ System ->Organism
4The Two Main Layers of Skin The upper barrier layer (epidermis)The epidermal layers provide the barrier layer, which resists bacterial entry and prevents fluid and electrolyte loss.The lower, much thicker, dermis.The dermis is well vascularized (veins, arteries, and capillaries) and also contains receptors for touch, temperature and pain.
5Sports and soft tissue injuries: About 95 percent of sports injuries are due to minor trauma involving soft tissue injuries -- bruises, muscle pulls, sprains, strains, and cuts or abrasions.
8How are puncture wounds different? There are two risks with puncture wounds.First, a wound infection can occur because of dirt pushed deep into the skin by the object (typically a nail) puncturing the tissue.
9Puncture WoundsThe second problem that can occur is an infection of the bone.If a nail penetrates deep into the foot, it can hit a bone and introduce bacteria into the bone.
10Puncture WoundThis risk is especially great if the nail has gone through a pair of tennis shoes.The foam in tennis shoes can harbor a bacteria (Pseudomonas) that can lead to serious infection in the tissues.
19BlisterA bubble like collection of fluid beneath or within the epidermis of the skin.
20Callus1. A localized firm thickening of the upper layer of skin as a result of repetitive friction.2. The hard new bone substance that forms in an area of bone fracture. Bony callus is part of the bone repair process.
23SprainsAbout one-third of all sports injuries are classified as sprains, a partial or complete tear of a ligament –Ligament- a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that connects the ends of bones and stabilizes the joint.
25Signs and Symptoms of a Sprain a feeling that a joint is "loose" or unstableinability to bear weight because of painloss of motionthe sound or feeling of a "pop" or "snap" when the injury occurredswelling (edema)Sometimes ecchymosis will appear several days later.
28Strains A strain is a partial or complete tear of a muscle or tendon. Muscle tissue is made up of cells that contract and make the body move.A tendon consists of tough connective tissue that attaches muscles to bones
34Hematoma Chicago defenseman Sami Lepisto Chicago defenseman Sami Lepisto: blocked slapshot.
35TreatmentTreatment for soft tissue injuries usually consists of R.I.C.E.Rest, Ice, Compression (wrapping with elastic bandages), and Elevation of the injured arm, hand, leg or foot.P.R.I.C.E.S. –Protection….Support
36Sports and Skeletal injuries: A sudden, violent collision with another player, an accident with sports equipment, or a severe fall can cause skeletal injuries in the athlete, including fractures.Fractures constitute a low 5 to 6 percent of all sports injuries. Most of these breaks occur in the arms and legs. Rarely are the spine and skull fractured.
38DislocationA dislocation is a separation of two bones where they meet at a joint.A dislocated bone is no longer in its normal position.A dislocation may also cause ligament or nerve damage or blood vessel damage.
45Bony Callus Formation 1. Hematoma forms at break 2. Fibrocartilaginous callus will fill the space3. Bony callus formed by osteoblasts.4. Osteoblasts build new compact bone and osteoclasts create new medullary cavity.
47ReductionReturning displaced or dislocated bones to their normal location
48SHOULDER REDUCTION Sedation Apply traction and counter traction Lift humeral head into the glenoidTHIS IS DONE BY TRAINED PROFESSIONALS ONLY!
49Stress FractureStress fractures occur frequently because of continuing overuse of a joint.The main symptom of a stress fracture is pain.The most frequent places stress fractures occur are the tibia (the larger leg bone below the knee), fibula (the outer and thinner leg bone below the knee), and foot.
51Grades of InjuryA first degree sprain is a tear of a minimum number of fibers of the ligament.A second degree sprain is a partial rupture and a disruption of more fibers but with some instability.A total rupture is a complete disruption of the ligament resulting in joint instability. It is a very severe injury and is also referred to a third degree sprain.
52Grades The varying grades of sprain can be compared to a stretch of a thick rubber band that is put on a sustained or increasing stretch.Starting with the tear of a few individual fibers more and more fibers give way, till the rubber band tears across totally.
61Chronic and AcuteChronic injuries are caused by continuous stress over a long period of timei.e. Golfers elbow, tennis elbow, shin splintsAcute are caused by sudden stressi.e. Fractures, strains, sprains, concussion
62How to prevent injuries Use correct equipment / clothingEnvironmentCorrect techniqueRules / officialsWarm up / cool downEqual opponents
63Soft Tissue OPEN or CLOSED Open – skin damaged i.e. Cuts, blisters, grazesClosed – no external bleeding i.e. Bruises, strains, sprains, dislocations, cartilage damage
64Hard Tissue Bone damage OPEN (compound) or CLOSED (simple) Usually accompanied by bruising and swelling (vessel damage)Lots of pain (damaged nerves)
65Stress Fractures Most bone injuries are acute Stress fracture is Chronic and is a crack along the length of the boneShin splints are a form of stress fractures.
66Categories of injuries SOFT TISSUE / HARD TISSUEOPEN / CLOSEDACUTE / CHRONICExamplesA closed hard tissue injury…An open soft tissue injury…A closed soft tissue injury…An acute soft tissue injury…A chronic hard tissue injury…
67Treatment – soft tissue Rest – stop immediatelyIce – blood vessels contract to stop further swellingCompression – reduce swelling (not too tight)Elevation – blood flow reduced as working against gravity
68Prevention Procedures for Blood-Borne Pathogens Hepatitis B Virus ImmunizationAll persons with potential exposure to blood-borne pathogensProtective EquipmentGlovesEye guardsMasksGownsResuscitation devicesPersonal HygieneHand washingTowelettesNo application of cosmeticsDisinfectionDisinfect all surfacesBiohazardous containersSharpsLinenDisposableNo eating at work stations
69For the Following Pictures: Identify the following:SOFT TISSUE / HARD TISSUEOPEN / CLOSEDACUTE / CHRONICLOCATION ON BODY: A/P,M/L,etcSTRUCTURES: BONES,LIGAMENTS, etc.