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INTRODUCING GOVERNMENT IN AMERICA CHAPTER 1. GOVERNMENT Institutions that make authoritative public policies for society as a whole Institutions that.

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Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCING GOVERNMENT IN AMERICA CHAPTER 1. GOVERNMENT Institutions that make authoritative public policies for society as a whole Institutions that."— Presentation transcript:

1 INTRODUCING GOVERNMENT IN AMERICA CHAPTER 1

2 GOVERNMENT Institutions that make authoritative public policies for society as a whole Institutions that make authoritative public policies for society as a whole Four key institutions at the national level (US): Four key institutions at the national level (US): Congress Congress President President Courts Courts Federal Agencies (bureaucracy) Federal Agencies (bureaucracy)

3 WHAT DOES GOVERNMENT DO? Maintain national defense Maintain national defense Provides public goods Provides public goods Police powers to provide order Police powers to provide order Provides public services Provides public services Collects taxes Collects taxes Socialize the young Socialize the young

4 POLITICS Whom we select as governmental leaders and what policies they pursue Whom we select as governmental leaders and what policies they pursue Political participation Political participation Ways in which people get involved Ways in which people get involved Single-issue groups Single-issue groups Interest groups whose members vote on a single issue and ignore all other aspects of a politicians agenda Interest groups whose members vote on a single issue and ignore all other aspects of a politicians agenda

5 THE POLICYMAKING SYSTEM Set of institutions and activities that link government, politics, & public policy Set of institutions and activities that link government, politics, & public policy Public Policy Public Policy Choice made by the government in response to its agenda Choice made by the government in response to its agenda Policy Agenda Policy Agenda List of serious problems the people want solved List of serious problems the people want solved Policy Impacts Policy Impacts The effect a policy has on the people and society The effect a policy has on the people and society

6 THE POLICYMAKING SYSTEM Linking Institutions Linking Institutions Political parties Political parties Elections Elections Interest groups Interest groups Media Media Policymaking Institutions Policymaking Institutions Established by Constitution Established by Constitution Congress Congress President President Courts Courts

7 WESTERN PHILOSOPHERS THEORIES OF GOVT Plato Plato Wrote The Republic Wrote The Republic Final purpose of the state is justice Final purpose of the state is justice First purpose is power First purpose is power All govts must maintain order All govts must maintain order Aristotle Aristotle Greatest happiness for the greatest number Greatest happiness for the greatest number Believed all citizens should participate in govt Believed all citizens should participate in govt Karl Marx Karl Marx Wrote Communist Manifesto Wrote Communist Manifesto Believed govt is reflection of economic forces Believed govt is reflection of economic forces

8 WESTERN PHILOSOPHERS THEORIES OF GOVT C. Wright Mills C. Wright Mills Wrote The Power Elite Wrote The Power Elite Believed the elite of the country should include generals and politicians Believed the elite of the country should include generals and politicians Max Weber Max Weber Created idea of bureaucracies/large govt Created idea of bureaucracies/large govt Montesquieu Montesquieu Believed in separation of powers and checks and balances Believed in separation of powers and checks and balances Thomas Hobbes Thomas Hobbes Wrote The Leviathon Wrote The Leviathon Believed humans are self-centered and society will be in chaos unless a master imposes his will by force Believed humans are self-centered and society will be in chaos unless a master imposes his will by force

9 WESTERN PHILOSOPHERS THEORIES OF GOVT John Locke John Locke Wrote Second Treatises of Government Wrote Second Treatises of Government Human state of nature is freedom and equality Human state of nature is freedom and equality No need for absolute power or ruler No need for absolute power or ruler Believed people were naturally good Believed people were naturally good Niccolo Machiavelli Niccolo Machiavelli Wrote The Prince Wrote The Prince Father of modern political science Father of modern political science Believed that men are ungrateful Believed that men are ungrateful Morality should never be a factor in leadership Morality should never be a factor in leadership It is better for leaders to be feared than loved It is better for leaders to be feared than loved Fear is maintained by punishment Fear is maintained by punishment The Ends justify the Means The Ends justify the Means

10 TYPES OF GOVERNMENT Monarchy Monarchy Hereditary Ruler having absolute power Hereditary Ruler having absolute power Autocracy Autocracy Government controlled by single individual Government controlled by single individual Oligarchy Oligarchy Govt controlled by small group of people Govt controlled by small group of people Constitutional Constitutional Govt limited by written document Govt limited by written document

11 TYPES OF GOVERNMENT Authoritarian Authoritarian Govt kept in check by other institutions Govt kept in check by other institutions Unitary Unitary All power belongs to a single central agency All power belongs to a single central agency Totalitarian Totalitarian Government controls every aspect of society Government controls every aspect of society Libertarian Libertarian Opposed to all govt action except when it is necessary to protect life and property Opposed to all govt action except when it is necessary to protect life and property Anarchy Anarchy Opposed to all govt action in any form Opposed to all govt action in any form

12 COW THEORY OF GOVERNMENT Socialism Socialism You have 2 cows. Give one to your neighbor You have 2 cows. Give one to your neighbor Communism Communism You have 2 cows. The government take both & promises you the milk You have 2 cows. The government take both & promises you the milk Fascism Fascism You have 2 cows. The government takes both and sells you the milk You have 2 cows. The government takes both and sells you the milk Naziism Naziism You have two cows. The government takes both and shoots you You have two cows. The government takes both and shoots you Capitalism Capitalism You have two cows. Sell one and buy a bull You have two cows. Sell one and buy a bull Bureaucratic Bureaucratic You have two cows. The government takes both, shoots one, milks the other, and pours the milk down the drain You have two cows. The government takes both, shoots one, milks the other, and pours the milk down the drain

13 DEMOCRACY Writers of the Constitution feared Democracy Writers of the Constitution feared Democracy Mob Rule Mob Rule Republic-Representative Democracy Republic-Representative Democracy Govt gets its power indirectly from people, who elect those who will govern Govt gets its power indirectly from people, who elect those who will govern Constitutional Democracy Constitutional Democracy recognized limits on those who govern and allows the voice of the people to be hears through free, fair & frequent elections recognized limits on those who govern and allows the voice of the people to be hears through free, fair & frequent elections Lincoln defined Democracy Lincoln defined Democracy Government of the people, by the people, and for the people Government of the people, by the people, and for the people Current Definition Current Definition Means of selecting policymakers and of organizing government so that policy represents and responds to the publics preferences Means of selecting policymakers and of organizing government so that policy represents and responds to the publics preferences

14 TRADITIONAL DEMOCRATIC THEORY Criteria essential for an ideal democratic process-Robert Dahl Criteria essential for an ideal democratic process-Robert Dahl Equality in voting Equality in voting Effective participation Effective participation Enlightened understanding Enlightened understanding Citizen control of the agenda Citizen control of the agenda Inclusion Inclusion Majority Rule v. Minority rights Majority Rule v. Minority rights

15 CONTEMPORY DEMOCRATIC THEORY Pluralist Theory Pluralist Theory Groups compete for control over public policy with no one group dominating Groups compete for control over public policy with no one group dominating Multiple access points dispersed among the various branches and levels of government Multiple access points dispersed among the various branches and levels of government Bargaining and Compromise Bargaining and Compromise Majorities rarely rule-all groups can be heard Majorities rarely rule-all groups can be heard Evidence=increase interest group activity Evidence=increase interest group activity

16 CONTEMPORY DEMOCRATIC THEORY Elite Theory Elite Theory Upper class elite rules Upper class elite rules Wealth is basis of class power Wealth is basis of class power Big Business has huge governmental power Big Business has huge governmental power

17 CONTEMPORY DEMOCRATIC THEORY Hyperpluralism Hyperpluralism Groups so strong that government is unable to act Groups so strong that government is unable to act Too many groups Too many groups Multiple ways to prevent policies and promote policies Multiple ways to prevent policies and promote policies When politicians try to make every group happy the result is confusing, contradictory policy or no policy at all When politicians try to make every group happy the result is confusing, contradictory policy or no policy at all

18 CHALLENGES TO DEMOCRACY Increased Complexity of Issues Increased Complexity of Issues Limited Participation Limited Participation Escalating Campaign Costs Escalating Campaign Costs Diverse political interests Diverse political interests Increased technology Increased technology

19 SCOPE OF AMERICAN GOVERNMENT Our national government Our national government spends more than $3.8 trillion annually spends more than $3.8 trillion annually employs nearly three million people (not including military=1.5 million) employs nearly three million people (not including military=1.5 million) owns one-third of the land in the US owns one-third of the land in the US Compared to other governments in similar countries, it does less and is smaller Compared to other governments in similar countries, it does less and is smaller Taxes its citizens less than other democratic nations Taxes its citizens less than other democratic nations

20 AMERICAN INDIVIDUALISM Dominant theme in American political culture Dominant theme in American political culture Developed from immigrants desire to escape government oppression Developed from immigrants desire to escape government oppression Helped limit the scope of American government Helped limit the scope of American government Remains highly valued in the US which results in a strong preference for free markets and limited government Remains highly valued in the US which results in a strong preference for free markets and limited government


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