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It focuses on locations of various types in a spatial order that starts the reader to move in a certain direction from one place to another. Usually this.

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Presentation on theme: "It focuses on locations of various types in a spatial order that starts the reader to move in a certain direction from one place to another. Usually this."— Presentation transcript:

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2 It focuses on locations of various types in a spatial order that starts the reader to move in a certain direction from one place to another. Usually this kind of arrangement requires the reader to follow where the events take place. To indicate the spatial relationships, compass points, geographical terms and space- related prepositions, etc. are needed accordingly. Paragraph Development by Space

3 Read the following sample paragraph and identify the spatial sequence in describing the development and spread of the earlier American civilization. Sample Exercises

4 By the time Columbus reached the New World in 1492, the civilization of the native Americans had reached a level of culture that included personal wealth, fine buildings, expert craftsmanship, and religions. Continuing archaeological excavations tell us what little we know about the extent of the earliest immigrants. The most advanced cultures developed in what is now Mexico and Peru. Many of the surrounding peoples in Central America, South America and North America also reached complex states of civilization, but were largely isolated from each other and from greater civilizations of (To be continued on next page.)

5 the continents. Widely separated peoples reached similar stages of development independently but during the same periods of time. For instance, the mound builders made burial and ceremonial sites in several places in what is now the eastern U.S., Central Mexico, and on the Gulf of Mexico, all at about the same time. Men settled down to plant crops, especially maize, in Peru, Central America, and the eastern U.S. again during the same period. But from the earliest archaeological evidence of men in America, we know that they ranged over the entire hemisphere, from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego.

6 Exercise 16 Exercise 17

7 Ex. 16Read the paragraph carefully, paying special attention to spatial and chronological signals, and complete the following exercises.

8 The word university comes from the Latin word universitas meaning the whole The modern definition of a university is an institution that teaches and examines students in many branches of advanced learning, awarding degrees and providing facilities for academic research. The origins of universities can be traced back to the Middle Ages, with the earliest European centers at Bologna, Italy, for law, founded in The first universities in England were established at Oxford in 1185 and at Cambridge in By comparison, the oldest universities in the U.S.A. are at Harvard, founded in 1636, and Yale, established in The English university (to be continued on the next page)

9 in London was not founded until However, it was in the 1960s that the largest single expansion of higher education took place in Britain. One of the largest university developments was the foundation of the Open University in It is a nonresidential university which provides for life-long education of various backgrounds with part-time degree and other courses. It uses a combination of correspondence courses, television, radio broadcasts and the Internet, and summer schools for organization on a regional basis. Exercises

10 Fill each of the blanks with a spatial or a chronological term. InstitutionLocationTime European centersBologna, Italy1088 England1185 Cambridge 1636 Yale 1836 Open University Oxford England1209 HarvardU.S.A 1701 The English Univ.London Britain1969

11 Ex. 17Complete the following brief introduction to foods popular over the United States with the help of the map and information given.

12 PlacePopular Food Texas, SWMexican food Florida, SEoranges California WChinese food Georgia, SE fried chicken Chicago, Ncheese and beef Maine, NElobster

13 Restaurants As the United States is known as a nation of all nations, its foods are also international. If you come from China, youll find __________________________________________________. For those who favor spicy Mexican food, _________________________________. Though KFC (Kentucky Fried Chicken) is a Kentucky-based corporation and has its restaurants all over the world, Georgia __________________________________________________________. If you prefer seafood, Maine ___________________________________ ___________ For the lovers of cheese and beef, Chicago ______________________. Well, after you have had a meal of your favorite food, what about a fruit dessert _______________________? Key Place Texas, SW Florida, SE California W Georgia, SE Chicago, N Maine, NE Popular Food Mexican food oranges Chinese food fried chicken cheese and beef lobster

14 Restaurants As the United States is known as a nation of all nations, its foods are also international. If you come from China, youll find __________________________________________________. For those who favor spicy Mexican food, _________________________________. Though KFC (Kentucky Fried Chicken) is a Kentucky-based corporation and has its restaurants all over the world, Georgia __________________________________________________________. If you prefer seafood, Maine ___________________________________ ___________ For the lovers of cheese and beef, Chicago ______________________. Well, after you have had a meal of your favorite food, what about a fruit dessert _______________________? your familiar Chinese food everywhere in California Mexican food are all over Texas is more likely to come to mind when fried chicken is mentioned is the place to enjoy cheap and delicious lobsters is their paradise of Florida oranges Place Texas, SW Florida, SE California W Georgia, SE Chicago, N Maine, NE Popular Food Mexican food oranges Chinese food fried chicken cheese and beef lobster

15 A call for papers to a symposium, forum or conference usually but not always includes the purpose of the event, preferred topics of the papers, and the guidelines for the papers. Call for Papers Sample Exercises

16 (to be continued on the next page) CALL FOR PAPERS International Symposium on Current Development of Biology Sponsored by Japanese Institute of Biology Tomaba, Megurku, Tokyo , Japan Tel: Fax: Authors are invited to submit manuscripts that demonstrate original unpublished research in all areas of biology. Topics of interest include but are not limited to: 1. Genes responsible for diseases; 2. Cloning of human tissues; 3. Fertility of endangered species; 4. Birth control. Important dates: March, 31: submission deadline for papers April, 7: notification of acceptance To stay informed about the current state, visit out website at:

17 (to be continued on the next page) Guidelines below are provided to ensure that all papers will be in a consistent format. 1. Sheets for Papers and Typing Prepare the manuscripts in A4 paper, sheet size 297 mm x 210 mm. The size of characters should be 10 points of Times. All text is to be single- spaced. Left and right justified typing is preferred. Each page must be typed on a high quality computer printer. 2. Length All manuscripts (with the exception of Invited Papers) are limited to 8 single- spaced pages, including the Title Block, abstract, figures, tables and references. 3. Abstract Write a concise abstract (limited to 300 words), which presents in short the content and, very important, in words understandable also to the non- specialists. 4. References References should be cited in the text, and listed in alphabetical order in the reference section.

18 (to be continued on the next page) 5. Copyright If your article contains any copyrighted illustrations or imagery, please include a statement of copyright. It is the authors?responsibility to obtain any necessary copyright permission.

19 Ex. 18Use the information given below to write a call for papers, including submission guidelines. Reference Conference: The Indian Conference on Computer Graphics Sponsor: Premier Academic Institutions Theme: Recent advances in computer image processing Paper length: 12 single-spaced pages including references, figures, tables, etc. Sheets for Papers: 8.5 x 11 inch pages Paper judgment: On originality, technical strength, significance, quality of presentation, interest and relevance to the conference attenders Copies accepted: Both hard copy and electronic submission Paper originality: Papers may not appear in or be considered for another conference Publication: The best papers from the conference may be considered for publication in Electronic Graphics.

20 CALL FOR PAPERS The Indian Conference on Computer Graphics Sponsored by Premier Academic Institutions Theme: Recent advances in computer image processing. Submitted manuscripts may not exceed 12 single-spaced pages of text using 12-point size type on 8.5 x 11 inch pages. References, figures, tables, etc. should be included in the total of twelve pages of the text. Either hardcopy or electronic submissions will be accepted. Submissions will be judged on originality, technical strength, significance, quality of presentation, interest and relevance to the conference attendees. Submitted papers may not have appeared in or be considered for another conference. The best papers from the conference may be considered for publication in Electronic Graphics.


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