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Funding for Biotechnology in Africa Diran Makinde NEPAD: West Africa Biosciences Network Dakar, Senegal Oxford Conference on Innovation and Technology.

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Presentation on theme: "Funding for Biotechnology in Africa Diran Makinde NEPAD: West Africa Biosciences Network Dakar, Senegal Oxford Conference on Innovation and Technology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Funding for Biotechnology in Africa Diran Makinde NEPAD: West Africa Biosciences Network Dakar, Senegal Oxford Conference on Innovation and Technology Transfer for Global Health. University of Oxford, UK September 2007

2 Introduction Inequalities in health and food security keep widening between developed and developing countries, esp. SSA e.g. infant mortality rate, TB prevalence, food production rate less than population growth rate. Inequalities in health and food security keep widening between developed and developing countries, esp. SSA e.g. infant mortality rate, TB prevalence, food production rate less than population growth rate. Safe development & application of biotech to address these face a number of challenges Safe development & application of biotech to address these face a number of challenges

3 Biotechnology in Africa Challenges Inadequate resources to develop and safely apply biotechnology (human, infrastructure, and funding) Inadequate resources to develop and safely apply biotechnology (human, infrastructure, and funding) Inadequate policies and legal frameworks (biosafety, IPR, Strategies) Inadequate policies and legal frameworks (biosafety, IPR, Strategies) Addressing the Challenges Skills/expertise; Institutions; and Context Skills/expertise; Institutions; and Context NEPAD Biosciences Initiative: 4 regional hubs and a growing no of nodes to mobilise Africas scarce S&T infrastructure, expertise, financial resources and international funding for research and to generate innovations in agric, health, etc NEPAD Biosciences Initiative: 4 regional hubs and a growing no of nodes to mobilise Africas scarce S&T infrastructure, expertise, financial resources and international funding for research and to generate innovations in agric, health, etc Support each Network to prepare IP Protection Guidelines Support each Network to prepare IP Protection Guidelines

4 ... NEPAD Biosciences Initiative NABNet, Cairo, Egypt WABNet. Dakar, Senegal BecANET. Nairobi, Kenya SANBio. Pretoria, South Africa

5 Factors determining the future of biotech in Africa Proactive policy Proactive policy Africa deciding for Africa Biosafety legislation and institutions Biosafety legislation and institutions Ability to assess the technology for ourselves Scientific capacity building Scientific capacity building Ability to appropriate and adapt biotechnology IPR regimes IPR regimes Protect and encourage private investment Public awareness and acceptance Public awareness and acceptance Credible competent communication

6 Biosafety Status in sub-Saharan Africa

7 8/05/01 Monsanto Company Confidential Agenda None Guideline Enforced Status: January 2004 Overview of biosafety regulation in Africa Pilot studies Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia UNEP/ GEF projects Senegal, Mali, Guinea-Conakry, Siera Leone, Mali, Togo, Benin, Niger, Algeria, Congo, Botswana, Rwanda, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Mozambique, Madagascar Mauritius

8 Biotech in Africa: Key Role Players AU-NEPAD Biosciences AU-NEPAD Biosciences FARA FARA REC- ECOWAS, EAC, SADC REC- ECOWAS, EAC, SADC SROs- CORAF/WECARD, ASARECA, SROs- CORAF/WECARD, ASARECA, Institutions - Universities, NARIs, CGIAR Centres Institutions - Universities, NARIs, CGIAR Centres Intergovernmental- AAB (Algeria), ABPD, USAID/PBS, AATF, World Bank, Intergovernmental- AAB (Algeria), ABPD, USAID/PBS, AATF, World Bank, NGOs - ABSF, AfricaBio, ISAAA, A-Harvest and many others in each country. NGOs - ABSF, AfricaBio, ISAAA, A-Harvest and many others in each country.

9 NEPAD Biosciences Initiative Flagship R&D Programmes: Biodiversity, Biotechnology & Indigenous Knowledge Energy, Water & Desertification Material Sciences, Manufacturing, Laser & Post-harvest Technologies Mathematical Sciences Information, Communication & Space Science Technologies.

10 NEPAD: Policy Processes African Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators Initiative- to monitor Africas scientific and technological development; useful in formulating, adjusting and implementing STI policies. African Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators Initiative- to monitor Africas scientific and technological development; useful in formulating, adjusting and implementing STI policies. High level Panel on Modern Biotechnology- to facilitate open & informed regional multi-stakeholder dialogue associated with /raised by rapid development of modern biotechnology. High level Panel on Modern Biotechnology- to facilitate open & informed regional multi-stakeholder dialogue associated with /raised by rapid development of modern biotechnology.

11 Priority Areas Food security; nutrition, healthcare, & environmental sustainability Centre Focus: BecANet: Animal biotech (Central Africa- Forest technology) SANBio: Health biotech WABNet: Crop biotech NABNet: Bio-pharmaceuticals

12 Biotech Funding South Africa Scenario South Africa Scenario - GDP US$ 11,400 - GDP US$ 11,400 -Formal R&D Expenditure 0.87% -Formal R&D Expenditure 0.87% -Companies contribution1.8% sales revenue -Companies contribution1.8% sales revenue -Knowledge economy: key ingredient innovation- capacity to innovate internally and absorb external innovation with impact on the economy and society -Knowledge economy: key ingredient innovation- capacity to innovate internally and absorb external innovation with impact on the economy and society Developed new mechanisms for public funding of R&D -Technology and Human Resources for Industry Programme (THRIP) -Technology push: 3 BRICs of $240 million/year -HSRCs Centre for Science Technology & Innovation Indicators in collaboration with NRF, NACI, & CHE to provide strategic intelligence and analysis to support policy. Source: OECD- Review of the South Africas Innovation Policy (2007)

13 Biotech Funding Sub-Saharan Africa Scenario Sub-Saharan Africa Scenario - Gross expenditure on R&D less than 0.3% (some 0%) - International donors provide 75% of NARIs budgets - Govts. contribution to NARIs inadequate, irregular and late and do not take into account seasonal agric production cycles (Wakiibi and Youdouwei, 2007) (Wakiibi and Youdouwei, 2007) - Bilateral Donors: EU, DFID, USAID, DANIDA, GTZ, SIDA, CIDA, etc - Foundations: Rockefeller Foundation, BMGF, Gatsby Trust Foundation, IFS, KirkHouse Trust (AATF for agric biotech research and Training in Africa) - World Bank - Africa Development Bank - Others: IDRC, IFAD, MAE (France), CTA, etc

14 Political will versus Financial Commitments Political will for biotech is in Africa but no fund to support the knowledge-based development. Political will for biotech is in Africa but no fund to support the knowledge-based development. Funding is less than $250,000/year in most AU countries. Funding is less than $250,000/year in most AU countries. Out of a total $250 million spent each year in biotech R&D in the developing countries about 20% comes directly through the Future Harvest Centres linked to the CG Centres. Out of a total $250 million spent each year in biotech R&D in the developing countries about 20% comes directly through the Future Harvest Centres linked to the CG Centres. RSA - $300 million/annum for biotech RSA - $300 million/annum for biotech Nigeria- $263 million/annum through NABDA Nigeria- $263 million/annum through NABDA AMCOST developing legal instruments for African Science & Innovation Facility (ASIF) a distinct funding scheme for S&T in Africa in partnership with AU-NEPAD, ADB, and WB.

15 Other sources/possible sources of fund for R&D AU : Maputo Declaration 10% of Agric GDP to R&D AMCOST: 1% of GDP to S&T Others: Agro-industry-wide levies e. g. Kenya small charge on tea, coffee and sugar. Agro-industry-wide levies e. g. Kenya small charge on tea, coffee and sugar. Gains from National Lotteries. Gains from National Lotteries. Restructuring and Redefining public expenditure to cater for S&T Research. Restructuring and Redefining public expenditure to cater for S&T Research. Banking & financial reforms to promote technological innovations. Banking & financial reforms to promote technological innovations. Capital markets through Venture Capitals. Capital markets through Venture Capitals.

16 Conclusions With NEPAD, it is business unusual With NEPAD, it is business unusual Universities & NARIs in the AU need to be re- invented for innovations and PPP; piecemeal change will not do Universities & NARIs in the AU need to be re- invented for innovations and PPP; piecemeal change will not do AU leaders must significantly increase public investments in biotech R&D. Failure to do so will impair the continents capacity to stay connected to global advances in biotech and to transfer, adapt and exploit life sciences knowledge for the benefit of all citizens. AU leaders must significantly increase public investments in biotech R&D. Failure to do so will impair the continents capacity to stay connected to global advances in biotech and to transfer, adapt and exploit life sciences knowledge for the benefit of all citizens. (AU-NEPAD Doc. Freedom to Innovate, 2007 )


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