Presentation on theme: "Congenital Heart Disease. Incidence of 1% in general population. VSD is most common CHD TOF is most common cyanotic CHD TGA is most common cyanotic CHD."— Presentation transcript:
Incidence of 1% in general population. VSD is most common CHD TOF is most common cyanotic CHD TGA is most common cyanotic CHD presenting in infancy Etiology:Multifactorial inheritance 90%. Chromosomal 5% Single mutant gene 3% Environmental 2% Incidence and Etiology
CHD in Chromosomal Aberrations IncidenceMost common lesion Trisomy 2150%VSD or A-V canal Trisomy 1890+%VSD Trisomy 1390%VSD XO Turner35%CoA
CHD in Single Mutant Gene Syndromes Marfan’sAortic aneurysm Noonan’sPS, ASD Williams’Supravalvular AS Holt-OramASD, VSD NFPS, CoA
Teratogens and CHD Frequency Most common Alcohol25-30% VSD Phenytoin2-3% PS,AS,CoA,PDA Lithium10% Ebstein Rubella35% PPS, PDA Diabetes3-5% Hypertrophic septum TGA, VSD, CoA (Incidence can be as high as 30-50% in poorly controlled DM) Lupus50% 3rd degree heart block PKU25-50% TOF, VSD, ASD
Cyanotic CHD with Decreased Pulmonary Blood Flow 1. Tetralogy of Fallot 2. Tricuspid Atresia
Tetralogy of Fallot 1. VSD 2. Pulmonary artery stenosis 3. Overriding aorta 4. Right ventricular hypertrophy
Tetralogy of Fallot Incidence of total CHD Age at presentation Clinical Auscultation Most common cyanotic CHD Usually by 6 months Cyanosis Cyanotic spells (squatting) Harsh systolic murmur Softer if worsening obstruction
TOF treatment 1. For cyanotic spells:Knee-chest position Morphine sulfate Vasoconstrictors Propranolol 2. Iron for anemia 3. Surgical a. PalliationBlalock-Taussig Waterston shunt Pott’s operation b. Corrective at 1-5 years of age
Tricuspid Atresia 1. Normally related great arteries (69%) With small VSD and PS (most common). Intact septum with pulmonary atresia Large VSD without PS 2. D-transposition of great arteries (28%) 3. L-transposition of great arteries (4%) Types
Tricuspid Atresia Incidence: Age at presentation Clinical –No obstruction pulmonary blood flow –Obstruction pulmonary blood flow Rare Infancy, depending on pulmonary blood flow Congestive heart failure Similar to VSD Cyanosis Variable More intense cyanosis as ductus closes
Tricuspid Atresia Auscultation:Systolic murmur with single S2 Radiology:Variable Decreased pulmonary vasculature
Treatment Tricuspid Atresia 1. PGE1 to keep ductus open 2. Balloon septostomy if no VSD 3. Surgical a. Palliation systemic-pulmonary shunt (PS) pulmonary artery banding (large VSD) b. Corrective Fontan
Transposition of the Great Vessels D-type D-transposition, complete transposition, most common form -Aorta arises from the right ventricle. -Pulmonary artery arises from the left ventricle. -PDA is the only connection between systemic and pulmonary circulations, although VSD in 40%.
Transposition of the Great Vessels L-type L-transposition, also called corrected transposition -Both ventricles and great vessels are transposed
D-TGA Incidence Age presentation Clinical Auscultation Radiology EKG 8% of all CHD Male:female 2:1 Newborn, when ductus closes Cyanosis within 1st 48 hrs if no VSD CHF when large left to right shunts Loud single S2, no murmur Egg-on-a-string heart Increased pulmonary vasculature, depending on size shunt RVH
Treatment for D-TGA 1. Prostaglandin E 2. Surgical a. Atrial septostomy if no VSD (Rashkind, Blalock - Hanlon etc.) b. Anatomical correction (Jatene’s operation)
TAPVR types 1. Supracardiac emptying in the left vertical vein (most common type 80-90%) which subsequently drains into the SVC 2. Cardiac emptying into the coronary sinus or right atrium 3.Infradiaphragmatic emptying into vertical vein that descends through diaphragm into portal vein and or IVC
TAPVR Incidence Age at presentation Clinical findings EKG Radiology 2% Newborn Rapid cyanosis in the infra- diaphragmatic type Non-obstructive similar to ASD plus mild cyanosis RVH “Snowman” configuration Diffuse reticular opacities Looks like HMD without air bronchograms!
TAPVR Associations Treatment Polysplenia Asplenia (3/4 patients also TAPVR) Surgical ligation of anomalous vein
Acyanotic CHD with Increased Pulmonary Blood Flow (left to right shunt lesions) 1. ASD 2. VSD 3. PDA
ASD Incidence Types Age presentation Clinical Auscultation EKG Treatment 10% CHD Ostium secundum (most common) Sinus venosus defect Ostium primum (AV canal) Varies Mostly asymptomatic Slender body build Widely split and fixed S2! + SEM RAD and RVH No SBE coverage needed! Surgery for large shunts
VSD Incidence Types Age presentation Most common CHD (20%) Coexists with other lesions in 5% Membranous (80%) Muscular (10%) Large - at age 2-3 months with congestive failure Small to moderate - usually asymptomatic
VSD Clinical Auscultation Congestive heart failure if large Poor weight gain Systolic thrill with holosystolic murmur at LLSB Diastolic murmur with large shunts and loud P2 with pulmonary hypertension Diastolic rumble at apex indicates CHF
VSD EKG Radiology Associations Complications 1. normal if small VSD 2. LAE-LVH if moderate 3. LAE-BVH if large 4. RVH-PVOD Increased vascularity with larger shunts and enlargement cardiac size Holt-Oram syndrome, Down’s, Trisomy 13, Trisomy 18 Eisenmenger’s Syndrome (shunt reverses to right left)
Treatment VSD 1. Spontaneous closure of small VSD’s 2. Medical therapy (diuretics, digitalis) 3. Pulmonary artery banding 4. Surgical placement of patch over VSD 5. SBE prophylaxis
PDA ClinicalPremature infants - Congestive heart failure Term infants - usually asymp murmur Pulm. Vasculature Increased RadiologyDependent on size of shunt Left atrial enlargement often present Massive bulge at left upper mediastinum in large shunts TreatmentPremature infants - Indomethacin Ligation and division of the ductus Prostaglandin E infusion maintains ductal patency when needed
Acyanotic CHD with Pulmonary Venous Congestion or Normal Blood Flow (Pressure Load) 1. Coarctation Aorta 2. Aortic Stenosis 3. Hypoplastic Left Heart 4. Pulmonary Stenosis
Coarctation of the Aorta Incidence:5% of CHD Clinical:Preductal or infantile type presents in young child with CHF and LE pulses Adult type presents with hypertension and difference in arm and leg pulses Radiology:Rib notching - starts age 6-8 Associations:Often isolated Turner’s, NF, William’s, Sturge-Weber Treatment:Primary repair Prostaglandin E to infants
Aortic Stenosis Clinical:Most asymptomatic Angina Syncope - may be fatal Pulm. Vasc.:Normal Associations:Williams’ Syndrome Treatment:Medical Surgical No high impact sports
Hypoplastic Left Heart Incidence:8% of all CHD, most common cause for early cardiac death Age at present.:Immediately at birth or first weeks Clinical:1st presentation is usually not cyanosis, but signs of shock Pulm. Vasc.:Increased Radiology:Large cardiac silhouette Treatment:Prostaglandin E Norwood procedure (high mortality)
Mitral Valve Prolapse Facts More common in girls May be inherited as autosomal dominant trait with variable expression Common in Marfan’s Dominant signs are ausculatory; late systolic apical murmur preceded by a click PVC’s may be a complication Non progressive in children Endocarditis prophylaxis indicated only in substantiated cases, usually those with mitral insufficiencies
Blalock-Taussig shunt. The subclavian artery is transected and anastomosed in a end-to-side fashion to the ipsilateral pulmonary artery. Usually the subclavian artery opposite to the arch is used.
The Modified Blalock-Taussig shunt now uses a Goretex graft (green) to connect the subclavian artery to the pulmonary artery. This preserves the subclavian artery.
Potts shunt is where a side-to-side anastomosis is made between the descending aorta and the pulmonary artery.
The Waterston-Cooley shunt is similar to the Potts shunt. A side to side anastomosis or window is created between the pulmonary artery and the ascending aorta. The difference is that it is the ascending aorta (Waterston-Cooley) rather than the descending aorta which is anastomosed to the pulmonary artery (Potts).
Pearls Bounding pulses; think PDA or AV fistula. Widely fixed split second heart tone; think ASD. No pre- and postductal saturation differences –when there is total mixing of deoxygenated venous blood with oxygenated pulmonary blood in the heart; such as -total anomalous pulmonary venous return -truncus arteriosus
Pearls Pre- and post-ductal saturation differences –post-ductal saturation is higher in TGA –all other congenital heart anomalies without total mixing in the heart have a lower post- ductal saturation