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Presentation on theme: "DISCRIMINATION IN SPORT"— Presentation transcript:


2 Discrimination Discrimination occurs when a particular societal group is constrained or held back by factors that are not applied to the dominant group They receive less favorable treatment In a stratified society where stacking occurs, minority groups will be the ones who experience discrimination

3 Discrimination in Sport
The concept of targeting policy towards certain groups in order to raise participation levels reflects this social ranking Discrimination often occurs unofficially But is often part of an official policy – e.g. Apartheid in South Africa

4 Discrimination in Sport
ATTITUDES STEREOTYPES MYTHS DISCRIMINATION SELF FULFILLING PROPHECY The issues surrounding discrimination are to do with stereotypical images of groups of people and an imbalance of power and resources

5 TASK As we go through each group in society, fill in the discrimination in sport table, commenting on reasons for comparatively low participation and possible strategies for increasing participation


7 SOCIAL CLASS/WEALTH Refers to income, background, societal status and education The more money you have, the more opportunities you have in sport, whether taking part or watching You have a choice of many things, including whether to use private, voluntary or public facilities

8 SOCIAL CLASS/WEALTH In Britain, social class, wealth discrimination and the subsequent inequality has been around for a long time Pre-industrial times – different classes followed different sports Upper class – hunting Lower class – mob football Or they held different roles in sport Upper class – Patrons or sponsors Lower class – bare fist fighter

9 SOCIAL CLASS/WEALTH Industrial revolution – created the middle class (3 broad classes) Upper class – exclusiveness and privilege to hunt, shoot and fish Middle class – took part in sport for the love of the game and social reasons. Founded NGB’s and sports clubs Working class males – mainly spectators, some became professionals. This did not happen until the end of the 19C, when working and living conditions improved Working class females – suffered double discrimination – gender and social class

10 SOCIAL CLASS/WEALTH This 3 tier system is still evident today
Upper class can follow polo, or even golf as these are expensive Footballs hard core support is predominantly working class males Evidence shows lower socio-economic backgrounds lead to lower sports participation Due to cost, lower levels of health and fitness, low self esteem, lack of opportunities Working class could also feel ‘sport is not for me’ as there is a middle class culture surrounding sports centres


12 WOMEN The issue here is that gender stereotypes need to be broken and that girls and women need freedom to choose, and equal opportunities and provision to both participate and excel


14 WOMEN - ATTITUDES Gender roles are formed within societies
Each sex has socially accepted ways to behave There are stereotypical models for masculinity and femininity These stereotypes can lead to myths Females are supposed to be creative and sensitive Males are supposed to be aggressive, determined and confident This has an effect on how children are socialised, how they are to behave and fit in

15 WOMEN - ATTITUDES The images of males and females has an effect on participation in sport Competitive sport often has the characteristics of masculinity So, if women are involved in competitive sport, society often disapproves Society will support participation in gymnastics and dance, as they have attributes associated with femininity

16 WOMEN - MEDIA Women receive less than 5% of men’s coverage in national newspapers and are still under represented in all areas of the media The media creates a public image of sport and individuals It creates role models It influences finances

17 WOMEN - MEDIA The sporting audience is predominantly male
They prefer the power, speed and dynamism associated with traditional male sports Rather then the aesthetic and technical brilliance of some women's sports The majority of presenters, editors and sports journalists are also male, although we do now have the likes of Sue Barker and Gabby Logan

18 WOMEN - MEDIA Many newspapers and TV channels do not cover minority sports as they can not afford to be different We have the problem of self fulfilling prophecies The media create superstars who become role models and increase participation , but unless minorities receive airtime in the first place, the opportunity is lost Sports with large audiences attract media attention, advertising and sponsorship, which generate income and increase opportunities for excellence and interest by the masses. Sports will small audiences are consequently constrained

19 WOMEN - FUNDING In the British Open golf championship women get just 10% of male prize money It has been announced recently that the male winner at Wimbledon this year, will receive £30,000 more than the female winner If women receive less prize money for doing the same job as men, is that discrimination? If female sports receive less sponsorship than male sports their opportunities for development are clearly unequal and restricted

Do families, schools and communities discriminate? Do parents offer that same amount of support to their female as to their male children? Do schools work to make the image of girls PE upbeat, attractive and positive or are girls put off by asexual kit? Do communities offer the same opportunities for girls and boys? Could it be due to the fact that community sport has more fathers than mothers involved? Constraints to women's participation might be a lack of time and disposable income, access and timing of sessions


22 ETHNIC MINORITIES Racism stems from prejudice linked with the power of one racial group over another Although illegal, racism still exists on the grounds of colour, language and cultural differences PFA – set up a campaign in 1993 with the Commission for Racial equality to ‘Kick Racism out of football’ This is now called ‘Kick it Out’ The Sports Council and NGB’s encourage the fight against racism See handout

23 What can be done? 1993 – the then Sports Council wanted to:
Raise awareness of racial inequality in sport Increase sporting opportunities for black and ethnic minority people Improve skill levels in, and positive attitudes towards sport by black and ethnic minority people Increase the number of black and ethnic minority decision makers and organisers in sport Stereotypical thinking can be challenged Race-awareness training More opportunities can be provided for different cultural groups to pursue their own cultural activities LOOK AT THE SHEET ‘ETHNIC MINORITIES IN SPORT’


Society continues to discriminate against, handicap and impose barriers on disabled people Due to a significant number of disabled adults relying on benefits, many are financially disadvantaged, therefore affecting participation rates We must recognise discrimination and identify measures that could or have been taken to bring about fairer provision

26 British Population 6 million of the British population have some form of impairment. So, we can see that not all disabled people have the same needs

27 Background There are 7 national disability sports associations, which are united by the English Federation of Disability Sport People with disabilities have been considered as dependent and passive rather than independent and self governing This is probably due to the fact they have been supported by carers and professionals

28 Background It has been realised that attitudes, assumptions, myths and stereotyping along with inadequately designed environments all impose limitations on disabled people

29 WHAT HAS BEEN ACHIEVED? 1989 Government report – ‘Building on Ability’ – emphasis on ability rather than disability It provided recommendations for NGB’s, Local Authorities, the media and disability sports organisations. Themes included: Integration Specialist training for coaches Adequate provision of facilities at local level The promotion of positive images of disabled sportsmen and women

30 WHAT HAS BEEN ACHIEVED? ‘Building on Ability’ – aims:
Increase participation of people with disabilities at all levels on the performance pyramid Ensure equality of access to facilities, competitions, training and coaching

31 WHAT HAS BEEN ACHIEVED? There has been a shift towards inclusive rather than exclusive or segregated provision Campaigns such as Everybody Active and Pro-Motion have raised awareness Access has been improved due to the Disabled Persons Act 1981 – minimum access requirements in sports facilities

32 WHAT HAS BEEN ACHIEVED? Technology has improved – efficient wheelchairs and other equipment Improved training and coaching techniques Specialist sports centres – Ludwig Guttman sports centre in Stoke Mandeville Paralympics – raises awareness of elite sport for people with disabilities and provides positive role models – Tanni Grey However, it still receives limited coverage

33 Awareness Disabled people still need to be aware of what is available for them – facilities and organisations Teachers need to be aware that children with disabilities need to learn basic movement abilities which can be developed into sports specific skills Sports organisers need to be aware of the specific challenge facing disabled people

34 Attitudes Need to be challenged
Misconceptions about people with disabilities need to be corrected Individual differences and abilities need to be emphasised

35 Access Many issues need to be considered:
Toilet and changing facilities, ramps, lifts, wide car parking spaces, hand rails on stair flights, lever taps on wash basins, automatic doors, non slip floors, signs in Braille

36 Funding Unemployment amongst disabled people is particularly high
Disabled people who are employed can earn on average only 80% of the salaries of able bodied peers Sports organisations must continue to invest in provision for disabled people

37 Adaptation and Modification
In some sports, disabled athletes can compete with able bodied athletes e.g. archery However, some sports need to be adapted to make them accessible e.g. wheelchair basketball and tennis Some games are specifically designed for people with disabilities

38 Adapting team games Disability Sport England have suggested the following ways: Use larger, smaller lighter coloured balls and shorter handled racquets and sticks Lower net height and limit playing areas Increase team numbers Use foam equipment to limit bounce height Use bean bags and other easy grip equipment

39 The issue of sport, ability & disability
ATTITUDES (abolish myths and provide awareness training) AWARENESS (facilities, teaching, knowledge) FUNDING (money available, investment in programmes ADAPTION & MODIFICATION (integrate, but treat people as individuals) What is needed to bring about equality of access and opportunity? ACCESS (How suitable is the environment?) SCHOOL PE (Integration or separation?)

40 Disability and School PE
As a result of the Education Act (1988) many disabled young people have been integrated into mainstream schools There are both advantages and disadvantages to integration or separation in PE

41 Integration ADVANTAGE DISADVANTAGE Increases awareness
Could lead to bullying A better reflection of society, which integrates rather than separates It is expensive to get specialist teachers for each school and difficult for 1 PE teacher to cope with great diversity of abilities in 1 class It is expensive to provide for adapting and modifying sports and providing specialist facilities

42 Separation Advantages Disadvantages
Specialist teachers focus on specific needs Disabled children are more likely to see themselves as different Specialist equipment is more likely to be available Might make it harder for integration in later life All levels of the performance pyramid more easily established Presumes that all disabilities are the same Reduces opportunities for disabled children to mix with able bodied children when, in many cases, the disability is irrelevant

43 Older People What’s the issue?
Traditionally a low or non involvement in sport by older people in the UK Sport should be for all on an equal level But, media portray sport for younger people Older people are seen to have the role of spectator or administrative volunteer As we have seen, combined inequalities increase constraints, so that elderly women, elderly people on low incomes and elderly people from ethnic minority groups will suffer greater limitations to participation

44 Sport for all – 50+ All to play for
This was introduced in 1983, it encouraged participation by emphasising the benefits of sports participation Benefits Social – sport can increase self confidence, be enjoyable and lead to friendships Psychological – participation can give focus to older people who may feel lost after forced retirement or redundancy Health – Participation can aid cardio-vascular function, strength and flexibility and can increase a sense of well being

45 Problems May be put off because of the idea sport is for the young
Few leaders and coaches in the older age range Younger instructors may be unclear of the abilities and needs of their clients or may not specialise in working with older people If older people have been ill or injured they need to be cautious and seek advice from specialist coaches They may be no or little provision for older people in the community Older people may have limited money to spend They may find it difficult to become active again after a number of years

46 Young People Issues In 1960 the Wolfenden Report identified a gap of non participation when people progressed from school and childhood to work and adulthood School children must have a positive experience of PE to ensure continued participation in physical activity when they leave school They must have their individual needs and abilities catered for so that all levels of the performance pyramid are accessible

47 Young People Issues associated with young people and sport are the moral questions of an emphasis on sportsmanship or gamesmanship in competitive sport for young people, while those associated with elite performers are: The advantages and disadvantages of early specialisation The dangers of some intense training methods An awareness of the needs for child protection in the light of some evidence of abuse by coaches

48 Discrimination in Sport
Look at the headings opportunity, provision and esteem Under the headings, what could effect participation and what could be done to increase participation Complete worksheet


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