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Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1: What is Biology? Unit 2: EcologyEcology Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Unit 4: Genetics Unit 5: Change Through Time.

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Presentation on theme: "Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1: What is Biology? Unit 2: EcologyEcology Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Unit 4: Genetics Unit 5: Change Through Time."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1: What is Biology? Unit 2: EcologyEcology Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Unit 4: Genetics Unit 5: Change Through Time Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Unit 7: Plants Unit 8: Invertebrates Unit 9: Vertebrates Unit 10: The Human Body

4 Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1: What is Biology? Chapter 1: Biology: The Study of Life Unit 2: EcologyEcology Chapter 2: Principles of EcologyPrinciples of Ecology Chapter 3: Communities and Biomes Chapter 4: Population Biology Chapter 5: Biological Diversity and Conservation Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Chapter 6: The Chemistry of Life Chapter 7: A View of the Cell Chapter 8: Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle Chapter 9: Energy in a Cell

5 Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 4: Genetics Chapter 10: Mendel and Meiosis Chapter 11: DNA and Genes Chapter 12: Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics Chapter 13: Genetic Technology Unit 5: Change Through Time Chapter 14: The History of Life Chapter 15: The Theory of Evolution Chapter 16: Primate Evolution Chapter 17: Organizing Lifes Diversity

6 Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Chapter 18: Viruses and Bacteria Chapter 19: Protists Chapter 20: Fungi Unit 7: Plants Chapter 21: What Is a Plant? Chapter 22: The Diversity of Plants Chapter 23: Plant Structure and Function Chapter 24: Reproduction in Plants

7 Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 8: Invertebrates Chapter 25: What Is an Animal? Chapter 26: Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms Chapter 27: Mollusks and Segmented Worms Chapter 28: Arthropods Chapter 29: Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates

8 Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 9: Vertebrates Chapter 30: Fishes and Amphibians Chapter 31: Reptiles and Birds Chapter 32: Mammals Chapter 33: Animal Behavior Unit 10: The Human Body Chapter 34: Protection, Support, and Locomotion Chapter 35: The Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 36: The Nervous System Chapter 37: Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion Chapter 38: Reproduction and Development Chapter 39: Immunity from Disease

9 Unit Overview – pages 32-33 Ecology Principles of Ecology Communities and Biomes Population Biology Biological Diversity and Conservation

10 Chapter Contents – page vii Chapter 2 Principles of EcologyPrinciples of Ecology 2.1: Organisms and their EnvironmentOrganisms and their Environment 2.1: Section CheckSection Check 2.2: Nutrition and Energy FlowNutrition and Energy Flow 2.2: Section CheckSection Check Chapter 2 SummarySummary Chapter 2 AssessmentAssessment

11 Chapter Intro-page 34 What Youll Learn You will describe ecology and the work of ecologists. You will identify important aspects of an organisms environment. You will trace the flow of energy and nutrients in the living and nonliving worlds.

12 2.1 Section Objectives – page 35 Distinguish between the biotic and abiotic factors in the environment. Section Objectives: Compare the different levels of biological organization and living relationships important in ecology. Explain the difference between a niche and a habitat.

13 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 What affects the environment also affects you. Understanding what affects the environment is important because it is where you live. Sharing the World

14 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 The study of plants and animals, including where they grow and live, what they eat, or what eats them, is called natural history. These data reflect the status or health of the world in which you live. Studying nature

15 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 The branch of biology that developed from natural history is called ecology. Ecology is the study of interactions that take place between organisms and their environment. What is ecology?

16 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Scientific research includes using descriptive and quantitative methods. Most ecologists use both descriptive and quantitative research. Ecological research They obtain descriptive information by observing organisms.

17 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 They obtain quantitative data by making measurements and carrying out controlled experiments in the field and in the laboratory. Ecological research

18 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 The biosphere is the portion of Earth that supports living things. It extends from high in the atmosphere to the bottom of the oceans. The Biosphere

19 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Although it is thin, the biosphere supports a diverse group of organisms in a wide range of climates. Living things are affected by both the physical or nonliving environment and by other living things. The Biosphere

20 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 The nonliving parts of an organisms environment are the abiotic factors. Examples of abiotic factors include air currents, temperature, moisture, light, and soil. The nonliving environment: Abiotic factors

21 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Ecology includes the study of features of the environment that are not living because these features are part of an organisms life. The nonliving environment: Abiotic factors The nonliving environment: Abiotic factors Abiotic factors have obvious effects on living things and often determine which species survive in a particular environment.

22 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 The nonliving environment: Abiotic factors The nonliving environment: Abiotic factors This graph shows how the plants glucose (food) production is affected by temperature. 5 10 15 Food Production in Salt Bush 10 20 30 40 50 Temperature (°C) Food production (mg of glucose/hr)

23 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 The living environment: Biotic factors A key consideration of ecology is that living organisms affect other living organisms. All the living organisms that inhabit an environment are called biotic factors. All organisms depend on others directly or indirectly for food, shelter, reproduction or protection.

24 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Levels of Organization Ecologists study individual organisms, interactions among organisms of the same species, interactions among organisms of different species, as well as the effects of abiotic factors on interacting species. Ecologists have organized the living world into levelsthe organism by itself, populations, communities, and ecosystems.

25 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Organism An individual living thing that is made of cells, uses energy, reproduces, responds, grows, and develops.

26 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Interactions within populations A population is a group of organisms, all of the same species, which interbreed and live in the same area at the same time.

27 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Interactions within populations Members of the same population may compete with each other for food, water, mates, or other resources. Competition can occur whether resources are in short supply or not.

28 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Interactions within communities Just as a population is made up of individuals, several different populations make up a biological community.

29 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Interactions within communities A biological community is made up of interacting populations in a certain area at a certain time.

30 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Interactions within communities A change in one population in a community may cause changes in the other populations. Some of these changes can be minor, such as when a small increase in the number of individuals of one population causes a small decrease in the size of another population.

31 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Interactions within communities Other changes might be more extreme, as when the size of one population grows so large it begins affecting the food supply for another species in the community.

32 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Ecosystem Populations of plants and animals that interact with each other in a given area and with the abiotic components of that area.

33 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Biotic and abiotic factors form ecosystems An ecosystem is made up of interacting populations in a biological community and the communitys abiotic factors. There are two major kinds of ecosystems terrestrial ecosystems and aquatic ecosystems.

34 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Biotic and abiotic factors form ecosystems Terrestial ecosystems are those located on land. Table 2.1 Examples of Ecosystems Terrestrial Ecosystems Forest Old farm field Meadow Yard Garden plot Empty lot Compost heap Volcano site Rotting log Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Pond Lake Stream Estuary Salt water (marine) Ocean Estuary Aquarium Other Sites for Ecosystems Human body Skin Intestine Mouth Buildings Mold in walls, floors, or basement Ventilation systems Bathrooms Food Any moldy food Refrigerator

35 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Biotic and abiotic factors form ecosystems Aquatic ecosystems occur in both fresh- and saltwater forms. Table 2.1 Examples of Ecosystems Terrestrial Ecosystems Forest Old farm field Meadow Yard Garden plot Empty lot Compost heap Volcano site Rotting log Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Pond Lake Stream Estuary Salt water (marine) Ocean Estuary Aquarium Other Sites for Ecosystems Human body Skin Intestine Mouth Buildings Mold in walls, floors, or basement Ventilation systems Bathrooms Food Any moldy food Refrigerator

36 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Biotic and abiotic factors form ecosystems Freshwater ecosystems include ponds, lakes, and streams.

37 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Biotic and abiotic factors form ecosystems Saltwater ecosystems, also called marine ecosystems, make up approximately 70 percent of Earths surface.

38 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Organisms in Ecosystems A habitat is the place where an organism lives out its life.

39 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Organisms in Ecosystems Habitats can change, and even disappear. Habitats can change due to both natural and human causes.

40 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Niche Although several species may share a habitat, the food, shelter, and other essential resources of that habitat are often used in different ways. A niche is the role or position a species has in its environmenthow it meets its specific needs for food and shelter, how and where it survives, and where it reproduces in its environment.

41 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Niche A species niche, therefore, includes all its interactions with the biotic and abiotic parts of its habitat. It is thought that two species cant exist for long in the same community if their niches are the same.

42 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Symbiosis The relationship in which there is a close and permanent association between organisms of different species is called symbiosis. Simbiosis means living together. Three kinds of symbiosis are recognized: mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism.

43 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Mutualism A symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit is called mutualism.

44 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Commensalism Commensalism is a symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other species is neither harmed nor benefited.

45 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Parasitism Some interactions are harmful to one species, yet beneficial to another. A symbiotic relationship in which a member of one species derives benefit at the expense of another species (the host) is called parasitism.

46 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Parasitism Parasites have evolved in such a way that they harm, but usually do not kill the host species.

47 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Parasitism A predator is a type of consumer. Predators seek out and eat other organisms.

48 Section 2.1 Summary – pages 35 - 45 Parasitism Predation is found in all ecosystems and includes organisms that eat plants and animals. The animals that predators eat are called prey.

49 Section 1 Check Question 1 The study of interactions that take place between organisms and their environment is __________. D. biology C. ecology B. symbiosis A. abiosis

50 Section 1 Check The answer is C. Ecology is a branch of biology that developed from natural history.

51 Section 1 Check Question 2 Which of the following is found in the biosphere? D. constellation Orion C. the Sun B. maria A. ozone layer

52 Section 1 Check The answer is A. The biosphere is the portion of Earth that supports living things and extends high into Earth's atmosphere. Maria are dark- colored regions on the moon.

53 Section 1 Check Question 3 Which of the following is a biotic factor? D. light C. earthworm B. soil A. moisture

54 Section 1 Check The answer is C. Biotic factors are all the living organisms that inhabit an environment.

55 Section 1 Check Question 4 A(n) __________ is a group of organisms, all of the same species, which interbreed and live in the same place at the same time. D. habitat C. ecosystem B. population A. biological community

56 Section 1 Check The answer is B. Communities and ecosystems are comprised of more than one species. Habitat refers to the place an organism lives.

57 Section 2 Objectives – page 46 Section Objectives Trace the path of energy and matter in an ecosystem. Compare how organisms satisfy their nutritional needs. Analyze how matter is cycled in the abiotic and biotic parts of the biosphere.

58 Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57 How Organisms Obtain Energy One of the most important characteristics of a species niche is how it obtains energy. Ecologists trace the flow of energy through communities to discover nutritional relationships between organisms.

59 Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57 The producers: Autotrophs The ultimate source of the energy for life is the sun. Plants use the suns energy to manufacture food in a process called photosynthesis.

60 Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57 The producers: Autotrophs Other organisms in the biosphere depend on autotrophs for nutrients and energy. These dependent organisms are called consumers. An organism that uses light energy or energy stored in chemical compounds to make energy-rich compounds is a producer, or autotroph.

61 Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57 The consumers: Heterotrophs Heterotrophs include organisms that feed only on autotrophs, organisms that feed only on other heterotrophs, and organisms that feed on both autotrophs and heterotrophs. An organism that cannot make its own food and feeds on other organisms is called a heterotroph.

62 Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57 The consumers: Heterotrophs A heterotroph that feeds only on plants is an herbivore. Heterotrophs display a variety of feeding relationships.

63 Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57 The consumers: Heterotrophs Some heterotrophs eat other heterotrophs. Animals such as lions that kill and eat only other animals are carnivores.

64 Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57 The consumers: Heterotrophs Scavengers eat animals that have already died.

65 Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57 The consumers: Heterotrophs Some organisms, such as bacteria and fungi, are decomposers.

66 Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57 The consumers: Heterotrophs Decomposers break down the complex compounds of dead and decaying plants and animals into simpler molecules that can be more easily absorbed.

67 Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57 Flow of Matter and Energy in Ecosystems Autotrophs First-order heterotrophs Third-order heterotrophs Second-order heterotrophs Decomposers

68 Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57 Food chains: Pathways for matter and energy In a food chain, nutrients and energy move from autotrophs to heterotrophs and, eventually, to decomposers. A food chain is a simple model that scientists use to show how matter and energy move through an ecosystem.

69 Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57 Food chains: Pathways for matter and energy A food chain is drawn using arrows to indicate the direction in which energy is transferred from one organism to the next. berries mice black bear

70 Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57 Food chains: Pathways for matter and energy Most food chains consist of two, three, or four transfers. The amount of energy remaining in the final transfer is only a portion of what was available at the first transfer. A portion of the energy is given off as heat at each transfer.

71 Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57 Trophic levels represent links in the chain Each organism in a food chain represents a feeding step, or trophic level, in the passage of energy and materials. A first order heterotroph is an organism that feeds on plants, such as a grasshopper.

72 Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57 Trophic levels represent links in the chain A second order heterotroph is an organism that feeds on a first order heterotroph. A food chain represents only one possible route for the transfer of matter and energy through an ecosystem.

73 Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57 Food webs Ecologists interested in energy flow in an ecosystem may set up experiments with as many organisms in the community as they can. The model they create, called a food web, shows all the possible feeding relationships at each trophic level in a community.

74 Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57

75 Energy and trophic levels: Ecological pyramids An ecological pyramid can show how energy flows through an ecosystem. The base of the ecological pyramid represents the autotrophs, or first trophic level. Higher trophic levels are layered on top of one another.

76 Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57 Energy and trophic levels: Ecological pyramids The pyramid of energy illustrates that the amount of available energy decreases at each succeeding trophic level. Pyramid of Energy Heat 0.1% Consumers 1% Consumers 10% Consumers 100% Producers Parasites, scavengers, and decomposers feed at each level.

77 Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57 Energy and trophic levels: Ecological pyramids The total energy transfer from one trophic level to the next is only about ten percent because organisms fail to capture and eat all the food energy available at the trophic level below them.

78 Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57 Energy and trophic levels: Ecological pyramids Some of the energy transferred at each successive trophic level enters the environment as heat, but the total amount of energy remains the same.

79 Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57 Energy and trophic levels: Ecological pyramids A pyramid of numbers shows that population sizes decrease at each higher trophic level. Pyramid of Numbers Fox (1) Birds (25) Grasshoppers (250) Grasses (3000)

80 Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57 Energy and trophic levels: Ecological pyramids Biomass is the total weight of living matter at each trophic level. A pyramid of biomass represents the total weight of living material available at each trophic level. Pyramid of Biomass 1 kilogram of human tissue 10 kilograms of beef 100 kilograms of grain

81 Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57 Cycles in Nature Matter, in the form of nutrients, moves through, or is part of, all organisms at each trophic level. But matter is cycled and is not replenished like the energy from sunlight. There is a finite amount of matter.

82 Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57

83 The carbon cycle From proteins to sugars, carbon is the building block of the molecules of life. Linked carbon atoms form the frame for molecules produced by plants and other living things. Organisms use these carbon molecules for growth and energy.

84 Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57

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86 The nitrogen cycle Nitrogen in the atmosphere Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the nodules on roots of leguminous plants fix atmospheric nitrogen. Nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria Some excess nitrogen evaporates from soil. Nitrogen compounds released into soils and acted upon by soil bacteria Released to the atmosphere Assimilated by plants Urine from animals Dead plant matter Decomposing organisms Decomposersbacteria and fungibreak down tissues and wastes and nitrogen- containing compounds are released. Converted to other nitrogen compounds by soil bacteria

87 Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57 The phosphorus cycle In the phosphorus cycle, phosphorus moves between the living and nonliving parts of the environment.

88 Section 2.2 Summary – pages 46 - 57

89 Section 2 Check Which of the following is a producer? Question 1 D. herbivore C. decomposer B. heterotroph A. autotroph Nucleus Chloroplast Mitochondrion Eyespot Flagellum Pellicle Contractile vacuole

90 Section 2 Check The answer is A. Organisms that make energy- rich compounds are producers, or autotrophs. Nucleus Chloroplast Mitochondrion Eyespot Flagellum Pellicle Contractile vacuole

91 Section 2 Check In a food chain, nutrients and energy move from __________ to __________. Question 2 D. decomposers, autotrophs C. heterotrophs, autotrophs B. autotrophs, heterotrophs A. autotrophs, autotrophs

92 Section 2 Check The answer is B. The first level in all food chains is made up of producers. berries mice black bear

93 Section 2 Check A model of all the possible feeding relationships at each trophic level in a community is a(n) __________. Question 3 D. food web C. food matrix B. food chain A. food pathway

94 Section 2 Check Chihuahuan raven Honey mesquite (pods eaten by beetles) Pronghorn antelope Gambel quail Jackrabbit Desert tortoise Prickly pear cactus Long-tail weasel Coyote (top carnivore) Roadrunner Kangaroo rat (seed eater) ants Texas horned lizard Red spotted toad Mexican whiptail lizard Mojave rattlesnake

95 Section 2 Check The answer is D. A food web is a more realistic model than a food chain, because most organisms depend on more than one other species for food.

96 Chapter Summary – 2.1 Natural history, the observation of how organisms live out their lives in nature, led to the development of the science of ecology the study of the interactions of organisms with one another and with their environments. Organisms and Their Environment

97 Chapter Summary – 2.1 Organisms and Their Environment Ecologists classify and study the biological levels of organization from the individual to ecosystem. Ecologists study the abiotic and biotic factors that are a part of an organisms habitat. They investigate the strategies an organism is adapted with to exist in its niche.

98 Chapter Summary – 2.2 Autotrophs, such as plants, make nutrients that can be used by the plants and by heterotrophs. Heterotrophs include herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, and decomposers. Nutrition and Energy Flow Food chains are simple models that show how energy and materials move from autotrophs to heterotrophs and eventually to decomposers.

99 Chapter Summary – 2.2 Food webs represent many interconnected food chains and illustrate pathways in which energy and materials are transferred within an ecosystem. Energy is transferred through food webs. The materials of life, such as carbon and nitrogen, are used and reused as they cycle through the ecosystem. Nutrition and Energy Flow

100 Chapter Assessment Question 1 Which of the following is a biological community? D. the factors interacting in an aquatic ecosystem C. the abiotic factors in the environment B. the tadpoles living in a pond A. the organisms living in your backyard today

101 The answer is A. A biological community consists of all the populations of different species that live in the same place at the same time and does not include abiotic factors. Changes in one of these populations may cause changes in the other populations of the community. Chapter Assessment

102 Question 2 A(n) __________ is the place where an organism lives out its life. D. community C. habitat B. niche A. environment

103 The answer is C. A species' habitat is the place where it lives and its niche is the role it plays in its environment, including interactions with abiotic factors. Chapter Assessment

104 Question 3 Compare commensalism and parasitism. Haustorium Host cell Fungal hypha

105 Both commensalism and parasitism are examples of symbiosis, in which organisms of different species live in close association, benefiting one species. In parasitism, one species derives benefit at the expense of the other, but in a commensal relationship the second species is not harmed. Chapter Assessment

106 Question 4 Which of the following models best illustrates heat released at each trophic level of an ecosystem? D. pyramid of biomass C. pyramid of energy B. food web A. food chain

107 Chapter Assessment Pyramid of Energy Heat 0.1% Consumers 1% Consumers 10% Consumers 100% Producers Parasites, scavengers, and decomposers feed at each level. The answer is C. The pyramid of energy shows energy available. Organisms at each trophic level use some energy in food for metabolism and some is given off as heat. The total amount of energy remains the same in accordance with the law of conservation of energy.

108 Chapter Assessment Question 5 Compare the amount of energy available in the biosphere to the amount of matter here.

109 Both energy and matter are conserved: they may be transformed, but are not destroyed. However, sunlight is the primary source of all the energy utilized and transferred in the biosphere. It is always being replenished by the sun. Chapter Assessment In contrast, there is a finite amount of matter in the biosphere, which is cycled and not replenished.

110 Chapter Assessment Question 6 Which of the following does not cycle into the atmosphere? D. water C. carbon B. nitrogen A. phosphorus

111 The answer is A. Phosphorus moves between the living and nonliving parts of the environment, but does not enter the atmosphere as a gas. Chapter Assessment

112 Rain washes phosphates from the land. Phosphate weathers from rock. Animal wastes Plant wastes Soil decomposers act on plant and animal wastes. Short-term Cycle Long-term Cycle Phosphates released into soil,. Phosphates become available for plants again. Phosphates leach into streams from soil. Decaying materials containing phosphates settle out into streams and oceans. Geologic process of uplifting occurs over millions of years. Phosphate enters streams and oceans from weathering rocks, runoff, and leaching, from soil. New rock forms from sedimentation. Phosphate becomes locked in rocks.

113 Chapter Assessment Question 7 Which type of organism consumes both plant and animal products? D. omnivore C. predator B. carnivore A. herbivore

114 The answer is D. Humans are omnivores and eat a variety of foods that include both plant and animal materials. The figure shows recommended food servings for good health. Chapter Assessment

115 Question 8 Which of the following relationships is an example of mutualism? B. orchids aided by growing on large plants neither harming nor benefiting the larger plants A. Ants feeding on nectar of acacia trees while protecting the trees from other animals.

116 Chapter Assessment Question 8 Which of the following relationships is an example of mutualism? D. lions preying on zebras C. ticks obtaining nutrients from a host animal

117 The answer is A. Ants and acacia trees both benefit from living in close association. Chapter Assessment

118 Question 9 Compare a niche to a population. Answer A population is a group of organisms of the same species that live in the same place at the same time. A niche is the role a species has in its environment, and includes all its interactions with biotic and abiotic parts of its habitat.

119 Chapter Assessment Question 10 How does water on Earth's surface get back into the atmosphere? Precipitation Evaporation Runoff Groundwater Transpiration Evaporation Condensation Oceans

120 The processes of evaporation of water in lakes and oceans and transpiration by plants both put water vapor into the air. Chapter Assessment Precipitation Evaporation Runoff Groundwater Transpiration Evaporation Condensation Oceans

121 Chapter Assessment Photo Credits Corbis Digital Stock Harris Biological Supplies, LTD NOAA PhotoDisc Alton Biggs

122 To advance to the next item or next page click on any of the following keys: mouse, space bar, enter, down or forward arrow. Click on this icon to return to the table of contents Click on this icon to return to the previous slide Click on this icon to move to the next slide Click on this icon to open the resources file.

123 End of Chapter 2 Show


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