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Interventions for Sleeping Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders By Corine van Staalduinen.

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1 Interventions for Sleeping Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders By Corine van Staalduinen

2 Overview About me About me Goals Goals Why is this topic important? Why is this topic important? Common sleeping problems in children with ASD Common sleeping problems in children with ASD Possible causes of sleeping problems Possible causes of sleeping problems Types of interventions Types of interventions Practical application Practical application Whats next? Whats next?

3 About Me Early family influences. Early family influences. Undergraduate degree in Psychology at Brock University, Ontario. Undergraduate degree in Psychology at Brock University, Ontario. Started as a behaviour interventionist in summer of Started as a behaviour interventionist in summer of M. Ed in Special Education with concentration in autism and developmental disabilities at UBC. M. Ed in Special Education with concentration in autism and developmental disabilities at UBC.

4 Goals 1. To increase knowledge and skills related to providing interventions to young children with autism spectrum disorders 2. To increase knowledge and skills in the area of functional behaviour assessment and positive behaviour support 3. To increase knowledge of the principles of applied behaviour analysis

5 Why is this topic important? Prevalence rates of 41-86% for sleeping problems in children with ASD have been reported (Goodlin-Jones, Tangs, Liu, & Anders, 2008; Liu, Hubbard, Fabes, & Adam, 2006; Richdale & Prior, 1995; Wiggs & Stores, 2004). Prevalence rates of 41-86% for sleeping problems in children with ASD have been reported (Goodlin-Jones, Tangs, Liu, & Anders, 2008; Liu, Hubbard, Fabes, & Adam, 2006; Richdale & Prior, 1995; Wiggs & Stores, 2004). Sleeping problems predicted more intense symptoms of autism (Schreck, Mulick, & Smith 2004). Sleeping problems predicted more intense symptoms of autism (Schreck, Mulick, & Smith 2004). Sleep problems in children with ASD are a significant predictor of maternal stress (Hoffman et al., 2008). Sleep problems in children with ASD are a significant predictor of maternal stress (Hoffman et al., 2008).

6 Why is this topic important? Parents of children with ASD report higher rates of sleep problems for themselves than parents of typically developing children (Lopez-Wagner, Hoffman, Sweeney, & Hodge, 2008). Parents of children with ASD report higher rates of sleep problems for themselves than parents of typically developing children (Lopez-Wagner, Hoffman, Sweeney, & Hodge, 2008). More severe sleeping problems in children with ASD was related to higher rates of sleep problems in their parents (Lopez-Wagner et al., 2008). More severe sleeping problems in children with ASD was related to higher rates of sleep problems in their parents (Lopez-Wagner et al., 2008). Parents of children with ASD wake up earlier and sleep fewer hours per night than parents of typically developing children (Meltzer, 2008). Parents of children with ASD wake up earlier and sleep fewer hours per night than parents of typically developing children (Meltzer, 2008).

7 Common Sleeping Problems in Children with ASD Bedtime resistance Bedtime resistance Insomnia Insomnia Parasomnias (interruption of sleep after falling asleep, e.g. nightmares) Parasomnias (interruption of sleep after falling asleep, e.g. nightmares) Sleep breathing disorders (e.g. sleep apnea). Sleep breathing disorders (e.g. sleep apnea). Morning rise problems Morning rise problems Daytime sleepiness (Liu et al., 2006) Daytime sleepiness (Liu et al., 2006) Night-waking (Hoffman et al., 2005). Night-waking (Hoffman et al., 2005). Shorter sleep duration (Giannotti, Cortesi, Cerquiglini, & Bernabei, 2006). Shorter sleep duration (Giannotti, Cortesi, Cerquiglini, & Bernabei, 2006). Unwillingness to fall asleep in own bed (Williams, Sears, & Allard, 2004). Unwillingness to fall asleep in own bed (Williams, Sears, & Allard, 2004). Rapid eye movement (REM) dysfunction (Schreck, 2001). Rapid eye movement (REM) dysfunction (Schreck, 2001).

8 Possible Causes of Sleeping Problems Sleeping problems in children with ASD are not related to intellectual functioning (Richdale, 1999). Sleeping problems in children with ASD are not related to intellectual functioning (Richdale, 1999). Poor sleep hygiene (Malow et al., 2009). Poor sleep hygiene (Malow et al., 2009). Daytime, evening, and bedtime habits that influence sleep. Daytime, evening, and bedtime habits that influence sleep. E.g. low level of exercise during the day, consuming foods or drinks containing caffeine after dinner, not having a regular bedtime routine, etc. E.g. low level of exercise during the day, consuming foods or drinks containing caffeine after dinner, not having a regular bedtime routine, etc. Medication use (Liu et al., 2006). Medication use (Liu et al., 2006). Hypersensitivity (Liu et al., 2006). Hypersensitivity (Liu et al., 2006). Comorbid epilepsy, ADHD, asthma, allergies, gastrointestinal problems (Liu et al., 2006). Comorbid epilepsy, ADHD, asthma, allergies, gastrointestinal problems (Liu et al., 2006). Melatonin regulation may be abnormal (Richdale, 1999). Melatonin regulation may be abnormal (Richdale, 1999). Anxiety/Fear (Richdale, 1999). Anxiety/Fear (Richdale, 1999).

9 Types of Sleep Interventions Melatonin Melatonin Light therapy Light therapy Chronotherapy Chronotherapy Behavioural interventions Behavioural interventions

10 Melatonin Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland that causes drowsiness. Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland that causes drowsiness. Melatonin levels rapidly increase in the evening, peak in the middle of the night and decreases during the second half of the night. Melatonin levels rapidly increase in the evening, peak in the middle of the night and decreases during the second half of the night. Melatonin is not considered a drug, so it is not regulated by the FDA. Melatonin is not considered a drug, so it is not regulated by the FDA. No side effects have been reported in children with ASD. No side effects have been reported in children with ASD. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial of melatonin with 7 children with ASD and sleep problems, melatonin significantly reduced sleep latency, number of night wakings and increased total sleep time (Garstang & Wallis, 2006). In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial of melatonin with 7 children with ASD and sleep problems, melatonin significantly reduced sleep latency, number of night wakings and increased total sleep time (Garstang & Wallis, 2006). Two other studies obtained similar results (Giannotti et al., 2006; Wasdell et al., 2008) Two other studies obtained similar results (Giannotti et al., 2006; Wasdell et al., 2008)

11 Light Therapy Bright light suppresses the secretion of melatonin, thereby decreasing drowsiness (individuals should be exposed to bright light in the morning and afternoon, not in the evening) (Richdale, 1999). Bright light suppresses the secretion of melatonin, thereby decreasing drowsiness (individuals should be exposed to bright light in the morning and afternoon, not in the evening) (Richdale, 1999). No studies have been conducted to assess the effectiveness of light therapy in reducing sleep problems in children with ASD. No studies have been conducted to assess the effectiveness of light therapy in reducing sleep problems in children with ASD.

12 Chronotherapy Chronotherapy involves systematically delaying bedtime on successive nights until the individual is falling asleep at an appropriate time. Chronotherapy involves systematically delaying bedtime on successive nights until the individual is falling asleep at an appropriate time. Capitalizes on circadian drift (human circadian cycles last 25 hours; when time cues are absent we tend to fall asleep an hour later every day). Capitalizes on circadian drift (human circadian cycles last 25 hours; when time cues are absent we tend to fall asleep an hour later every day). It is actually easier to change sleep onset from 2 a.m. to 10 p.m. by gradually increasing bedtime than by making bedtime earlier. It is actually easier to change sleep onset from 2 a.m. to 10 p.m. by gradually increasing bedtime than by making bedtime earlier. Irregular sleep onset times, night and early wakings and short sleep times were successfully treated with chronotherapy in an 8-year old girl with autism and mental retardation (Piazza, Hagopian, Hughes, & Fisher, 1998). Irregular sleep onset times, night and early wakings and short sleep times were successfully treated with chronotherapy in an 8-year old girl with autism and mental retardation (Piazza, Hagopian, Hughes, & Fisher, 1998).

13 Behavioural Interventions Almost all of the studies using behavioural interventions include establishing a bedtime routine. Almost all of the studies using behavioural interventions include establishing a bedtime routine. A bedtime routine should consist of specific activities conducive to sleep. A bedtime routine should consist of specific activities conducive to sleep. For example, taking a bath, brushing teeth, changing into pajamas, read bedtime story, turn off the light and go to sleep. For example, taking a bath, brushing teeth, changing into pajamas, read bedtime story, turn off the light and go to sleep. There are no studies examining the effectiveness of this component by itself (Schreck, 2001). There are no studies examining the effectiveness of this component by itself (Schreck, 2001).

14 Behavioural Interventions Non-graduated extinction (Schreck, 2001). Non-graduated extinction (Schreck, 2001). Parents ignore all crying and screaming at bedtime and during the night. They keep the bedroom door closed and do not respond. Parents ignore all crying and screaming at bedtime and during the night. They keep the bedroom door closed and do not respond.

15 Behavioural Interventions Graduated extinction (Schreck, 2001). Graduated extinction (Schreck, 2001). If the child engages in problem behaviour at bedtime, the parents ignore it for a pre-set time period (e.g. 5 minutes). If the child engages in problem behaviour at bedtime, the parents ignore it for a pre-set time period (e.g. 5 minutes). If the child continues to cry, the parents re-settle the child with as little attention as possible and leaves the room again. If the child continues to cry, the parents re-settle the child with as little attention as possible and leaves the room again. Continue this procedure until the child falls asleep. Continue this procedure until the child falls asleep. Used because parents feel uncomfortable letting their child tantrum for long periods of time. Used because parents feel uncomfortable letting their child tantrum for long periods of time. Based on specific criteria for different classifications of evidence-based treatment effectiveness, extinction (graduated and non-graduated) was deemed a possibly efficacious ABA intervention for sleep problems by Schreck in Based on specific criteria for different classifications of evidence-based treatment effectiveness, extinction (graduated and non-graduated) was deemed a possibly efficacious ABA intervention for sleep problems by Schreck in 2001.

16 Behavioural Interventions Stimulus fading (Schreck, 2001). Stimulus fading (Schreck, 2001). Used to eliminate co-sleeping. Used to eliminate co-sleeping. Involves gradually and systematically moving a co-sleeper (usually a parent) farther away from the childs bed. Involves gradually and systematically moving a co-sleeper (usually a parent) farther away from the childs bed. On the first night, the parent sleeps on a bed or mattress beside the childs bed. On the first night, the parent sleeps on a bed or mattress beside the childs bed. On subsequent nights, the parent is moved farther from the childs bed until he or she is out of the childs room. On subsequent nights, the parent is moved farther from the childs bed until he or she is out of the childs room. One study showed effectiveness of stimulus fading in eliminating co-sleeping and reducing night wakings in a 5 year old boy with autism (Howlin, 1984, as cited in Schreck, 2001). One study showed effectiveness of stimulus fading in eliminating co-sleeping and reducing night wakings in a 5 year old boy with autism (Howlin, 1984, as cited in Schreck, 2001).

17 Behavioural Interventions Faded bedtime with and without response cost (Piazza, Hagopian, Hughes, & Fisher, 1998). Faded bedtime with and without response cost (Piazza, Hagopian, Hughes, & Fisher, 1998). 1) Take baseline data to calculate average sleep onset time 2) Set initial treatment bedtime a half hour later 3) If child falls asleep within 15 minutes, set bedtime for next night a half hour earlier 4) If child does not fall asleep within 15 minutes, remove from for 1 hour (response cost) and set bedtime for next night a half hour later OR do not remove child from bed (no response cost) but move bedtime half an hour later the subsequent night (Schreck, 2001). 5) Gradually adjust bedtime until child is falling asleep at appropriate bedtime

18 Behavioural Interventions Faded bedtime with and without response cost Faded bedtime with and without response cost At least 3 studies have shown the effectiveness of faded bedtime without response cost in reducing sleeping problems in children with ASD (Christodulu & Durand, 2004; Durand & Christodulu, 2004; Piazza & Fisher, 1991, as cited in Schreck, 2001) At least 3 studies have shown the effectiveness of faded bedtime without response cost in reducing sleeping problems in children with ASD (Christodulu & Durand, 2004; Durand & Christodulu, 2004; Piazza & Fisher, 1991, as cited in Schreck, 2001) One study demonstrated that faded bedtime with response cost was more effective than without response cost (Piazza, Fisher, & Sherer, 1997, as cited in Schreck, 2001). One study demonstrated that faded bedtime with response cost was more effective than without response cost (Piazza, Fisher, & Sherer, 1997, as cited in Schreck, 2001).

19 Behavioural Interventions Social Stories (Gray, 1995, as cited in Moore, 2004). Social Stories (Gray, 1995, as cited in Moore, 2004). Carol Gray developed social stories to help children with ASD understand social behaviours and teach them how to behave in specific situations. Carol Gray developed social stories to help children with ASD understand social behaviours and teach them how to behave in specific situations. Social stories should be short ( words) Social stories should be short ( words) Explain subtle social cues and socially acceptable behaviour Explain subtle social cues and socially acceptable behaviour Emphasis on perspective of child and perspective of others Emphasis on perspective of child and perspective of others Includes descriptive sentences, directive sentences, perspective sentences and control sentences. Includes descriptive sentences, directive sentences, perspective sentences and control sentences. For every directive or control sentences there should be 2-5 descriptive or perspective sentences. For every directive or control sentences there should be 2-5 descriptive or perspective sentences. Childrens language comprehension should be taken into account. Childrens language comprehension should be taken into account.

20 Behavioural Interventions Social Stories Social Stories Co-sleeping and night-wakings were successfully eliminated with a social story, graduated extinction and reinforcement in a 4- year old boy with ASD. Delayed sleep latency was reduced from 1-2 hours to 30 minutes. Co-sleeping and night-wakings were successfully eliminated with a social story, graduated extinction and reinforcement in a 4- year old boy with ASD. Delayed sleep latency was reduced from 1-2 hours to 30 minutes. Graduated extinction was only loosely followed by his mother so it is likely that the social story had some positive effects on the childs sleeping behaviour (Moore, 2004). Graduated extinction was only loosely followed by his mother so it is likely that the social story had some positive effects on the childs sleeping behaviour (Moore, 2004).

21 Practical Application of Behavioural Intervention George (pseudonym) is a 5 year old boy with autism George (pseudonym) is a 5 year old boy with autism Mother is Japanese, father is Canadian Mother is Japanese, father is Canadian Mother is a flight attendant – frequently away at night Mother is a flight attendant – frequently away at night Has a younger brother (2 years old) Has a younger brother (2 years old) Live in one bedroom apartment Live in one bedroom apartment

22 Practical Application continued Has a different bedtime routine and sleeping arrangements when mom is home compared to when she is away Has a different bedtime routine and sleeping arrangements when mom is home compared to when she is away When mom is not home there is a strict bedtime routine: When mom is not home there is a strict bedtime routine: Both kids in bath at 6 PM (6:30 on weekends) Both kids in bath at 6 PM (6:30 on weekends) Teeth brushed in tub and G. is given melatonin drops Teeth brushed in tub and G. is given melatonin drops G. gets out first, is dressed in pajamas and helps get his younger brother dressed. G. gets out first, is dressed in pajamas and helps get his younger brother dressed. Younger brother sleeps on a mattress on the floor and G. lies across dads waist and is rocked to sleep in about 10 minutes. Younger brother sleeps on a mattress on the floor and G. lies across dads waist and is rocked to sleep in about 10 minutes. Dad cannot leave the room all night or G. will wake up. There are no problem behaviours during bedtime routine, but he wakes up frequently at night and needs to be rocked back to sleep. Wakes up very early (between 3:30 and 5:30) and doesnt go back to sleep. Dad cannot leave the room all night or G. will wake up. There are no problem behaviours during bedtime routine, but he wakes up frequently at night and needs to be rocked back to sleep. Wakes up very early (between 3:30 and 5:30) and doesnt go back to sleep.

23 Practical Application continued When mom is home When mom is home Both kids in bath between 6:30-7 PM on weekdays and 7-8 PM on weekends. Both kids in bath between 6:30-7 PM on weekdays and 7-8 PM on weekends. Brush teeth in bath OR after Brush teeth in bath OR after Melatonin drops after bath Melatonin drops after bath Kids get out at the same time Kids get out at the same time Dressed in pajamas Dressed in pajamas G. engages in frequent crying and screaming after bath time G. engages in frequent crying and screaming after bath time Mom, G. and younger brother sleep on mattress in living room while dad sleeps in bedroom. Mom, G. and younger brother sleep on mattress in living room while dad sleeps in bedroom. G. is rocked to sleep across moms waist. G. is rocked to sleep across moms waist. Wakes up when younger brother cries or when mom gets up to go to bathroom. However, goes back to sleep quickly (doesnt need to be rocked back to sleep). Wakes up around 6:30-7 AM. Wakes up when younger brother cries or when mom gets up to go to bathroom. However, goes back to sleep quickly (doesnt need to be rocked back to sleep). Wakes up around 6:30-7 AM.

24 Practical Application Continued Ideal sleeping arrangements are defined differently by mom and dad Ideal sleeping arrangements are defined differently by mom and dad Dad would like to sleep in the bedroom with mom and have kids sleep in bunk bed in a room that is currently a very small office. Hed like to be able to read a bedtime story to G. Dad would like to sleep in the bedroom with mom and have kids sleep in bunk bed in a room that is currently a very small office. Hed like to be able to read a bedtime story to G. Mom would like everybody to sleep in the bedroom, with mom and dad on the bed and the kids on a mattress on the floor. Mom would like everybody to sleep in the bedroom, with mom and dad on the bed and the kids on a mattress on the floor.

25 Functional Assessment Interview G. only slept by himself for a few weeks when he was approximately 2 years old. At the time they used non- graduated extinction (ignoring crying, but checking on him every 10 minutes). G. only slept by himself for a few weeks when he was approximately 2 years old. At the time they used non- graduated extinction (ignoring crying, but checking on him every 10 minutes). After a trip to Japan, where he was allowed to sleep with his parents, he again started crying when put to bed by himself at home. After a trip to Japan, where he was allowed to sleep with his parents, he again started crying when put to bed by himself at home. Mom was too traumatized from previous experience to want to try again. Mom was too traumatized from previous experience to want to try again.

26 Functional Assessment Interview Problem behaviours that parents expect to see if they leave the bedroom are: Problem behaviours that parents expect to see if they leave the bedroom are: Leaving bedroom Leaving bedroom Whining Whining Crying Crying Screaming Screaming Self-injury (hitting head with open hand or fist) Self-injury (hitting head with open hand or fist) Vomiting Vomiting They expect behaviour to escalate the longer they refuse to rock him to sleep They expect behaviour to escalate the longer they refuse to rock him to sleep

27 Functional Assessment Observation I wanted to observe bedtime routine both when mom was home and when she was not home to see if there were any differences in behaviours. I wanted to observe bedtime routine both when mom was home and when she was not home to see if there were any differences in behaviours. We planned to videotape each scenario so that my presence would not change Georges behaviour. We planned to videotape each scenario so that my presence would not change Georges behaviour. I instructed the parents to put George to bed and to leave the bedroom a few times to see if George would actually engage in problem behaviour when they left. I instructed the parents to put George to bed and to leave the bedroom a few times to see if George would actually engage in problem behaviour when they left. If problem behaviour was mild they would leave 3 times, then rock him to sleep as they normally would. If problem behaviour was mild they would leave 3 times, then rock him to sleep as they normally would. If problem behaviour was severe, they could immediately rock him to sleep as they normally would. If problem behaviour was severe, they could immediately rock him to sleep as they normally would.

28 Functional Assessment Observation First videotaping was scheduled on a night when both mom and Georges younger brother would be away. First videotaping was scheduled on a night when both mom and Georges younger brother would be away. Dad put G. to bed and left the room. G. screamed and cried for a few seconds, got out of bed (occasionally whimpering) and went to the living room after a few minutes. Dad put him back in bed and G. stayed in bed and fell asleep within 10 minutes. Dad put G. to bed and left the room. G. screamed and cried for a few seconds, got out of bed (occasionally whimpering) and went to the living room after a few minutes. Dad put him back in bed and G. stayed in bed and fell asleep within 10 minutes. G. continued to fall asleep independently over the next few nights when mom was away. G. continued to fall asleep independently over the next few nights when mom was away. No intervention needed for falling asleep. However, he still wakes up easily (dad eventually does need to go to sleep in same bed) and wakes up early. No intervention needed for falling asleep. However, he still wakes up easily (dad eventually does need to go to sleep in same bed) and wakes up early.

29 Temporary Behavioural Intervention Plan Dad wanted this behaviour to continue when mom came home. Dad wanted this behaviour to continue when mom came home. We hypothesized Georges behaviour would be more challenging when mom was home, because his daytime behaviour is more challenging when mom is home (her attention is very reinforcing to him). We hypothesized Georges behaviour would be more challenging when mom was home, because his daytime behaviour is more challenging when mom is home (her attention is very reinforcing to him). We also expected that mom might not be able to handle his challenging behaviour and would quickly give in. We also expected that mom might not be able to handle his challenging behaviour and would quickly give in. We decided to ask mom to take Georges younger brother down to the apartment building lobby for about 15 minutes in the evening until G. fell asleep. We decided to ask mom to take Georges younger brother down to the apartment building lobby for about 15 minutes in the evening until G. fell asleep. Once falling asleep independently was more firmly established they would start putting G. to bed together. Once falling asleep independently was more firmly established they would start putting G. to bed together.

30 Temporary Intervention When mom came home she had a jetlag and wanted to go to sleep early so she decided not to leave the apartment. When mom came home she had a jetlag and wanted to go to sleep early so she decided not to leave the apartment. They put George to bed and he immediately came out. They put George to bed and he immediately came out. Dad immediately decided that this was not the time to use extinction, because mom was too tired to deal with problem behaviour. Dad immediately decided that this was not the time to use extinction, because mom was too tired to deal with problem behaviour. If they had used extinction for half an hour and given up after that, it would only teach him that he needs to engage in problem behaviour for half an hour and then he would get what he wants. If they had used extinction for half an hour and given up after that, it would only teach him that he needs to engage in problem behaviour for half an hour and then he would get what he wants.

31 Summary Statement From the functional assessment interview and functional assessment observation, I developed the following hypothesis: From the functional assessment interview and functional assessment observation, I developed the following hypothesis: Setting Event Antecedent Problem Behaviour Maintaining Consequence Mom leaving frequently Not feeling tired Mom leaving bedroom Leaving bed/ room WhiningCryingScreaming (Self-injury, vomiting?) Attention – Mom rocks him to sleep and stays in bed with him

32 Positive Behaviour Support Plan PBS plan is a long-term plan with two phases PBS plan is a long-term plan with two phases During phase 1, George will continue to fall asleep independently when his mom is not home. Dad values this behaviour. During phase 1, George will continue to fall asleep independently when his mom is not home. Dad values this behaviour. Dad will start to gradually delay bedtime by 10 minutes each day, until he is going to sleep at a more age-appropriate time (approximately 8 PM). Dad will start to gradually delay bedtime by 10 minutes each day, until he is going to sleep at a more age-appropriate time (approximately 8 PM). When George wakes up at night, dad will no longer rock him back to sleep. He will ignore G until he goes back to sleep by himself. When George wakes up at night, dad will no longer rock him back to sleep. He will ignore G until he goes back to sleep by himself. However, George will continue to sleep with his mom and younger brother when his mom is home. Mom values sleeping in the same room with her kids. However, George will continue to sleep with his mom and younger brother when his mom is home. Mom values sleeping in the same room with her kids. Mom will structure bedtime routine (bath, brush teeth, pajamas, etc.) the same way as dad to eliminate crying/screaming during bedtime routine. Mom will structure bedtime routine (bath, brush teeth, pajamas, etc.) the same way as dad to eliminate crying/screaming during bedtime routine.

33 Positive Behaviour Support Plan Continued During phase 2, sleeping arrangements will change. Dad will clean out the small office space and purchase a bed for George. During phase 2, sleeping arrangements will change. Dad will clean out the small office space and purchase a bed for George. George will sleep in this new small bedroom. Mom and dad will sleep in the big bedroom and the younger brother will sleep on a mattress on the floor in the big bedroom. George will sleep in this new small bedroom. Mom and dad will sleep in the big bedroom and the younger brother will sleep on a mattress on the floor in the big bedroom. Both mom and dad made compromises on sleeping arrangements. Both mom and dad made compromises on sleeping arrangements.

34 Positive Behaviour Support Plan Continued Setting event strategies Setting event strategies Set bedtime at 8 PM Set bedtime at 8 PM No napping No napping Cannot change the fact that mom leaves frequently Cannot change the fact that mom leaves frequently Antecedent strategies Antecedent strategies Structured bedtime routine Structured bedtime routine Will start including bedtime story in routine Will start including bedtime story in routine Read social story about how big boys sleep by themselves Read social story about how big boys sleep by themselves Teaching Strategies Teaching Strategies Teach appropriate behaviour through Sleeping by myself social story Teach appropriate behaviour through Sleeping by myself social story Teach calming strategies during behaviour intervention sessions (taking deep breath, squeezing hands, closing eyes). Teach calming strategies during behaviour intervention sessions (taking deep breath, squeezing hands, closing eyes).

35 Positive Behaviour Support Plan Continued Consequence Strategies (graduated extinction) Consequence Strategies (graduated extinction) If G. does not engage in problem behaviour, his parents will check on him every 10 minutes until he falls asleep and provide whispered praise for staying in bed. If he does not disturb them at night, they will praise him in the morning and provide his favourite breakfast. If G. does not engage in problem behaviour, his parents will check on him every 10 minutes until he falls asleep and provide whispered praise for staying in bed. If he does not disturb them at night, they will praise him in the morning and provide his favourite breakfast. If G. whines, cries, or screams, they will ignore the behaviour and keep bedroom door closed. They will check on him every 10 minutes, providing as little attention as possible. If G. whines, cries, or screams, they will ignore the behaviour and keep bedroom door closed. They will check on him every 10 minutes, providing as little attention as possible. If G. leaves bedroom, they will tell him its bedtime and put him back to bed without additional comments or eye contact and repeat this procedure as many times as necessary. If G. leaves bedroom, they will tell him its bedtime and put him back to bed without additional comments or eye contact and repeat this procedure as many times as necessary. If G. vomits or engages in destructive or other dangerous behaviour, they will stop the procedure. If G. vomits or engages in destructive or other dangerous behaviour, they will stop the procedure.

36 Whats next? I will take EPSE 593 (Design and Analysis of Research with Small Samples and Single Subjects) in September. I will take EPSE 593 (Design and Analysis of Research with Small Samples and Single Subjects) in September. I plan on taking the BCBA exam in March I plan on taking the BCBA exam in March Start my own behaviour consulting company. Start my own behaviour consulting company.

37 References Buschbacher, P., Fox, L., & Clarke, S. (2004). Recapturing desired family-routines: A parent- professional behavioral collaboration. Research & Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 29, Christodulu, K. V. & Durand, V. M. (2004). Reducing bedtime disturbance and night waking using positive bedtime routines and sleep restriction. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 19, Durand, V. M., & Christodulu, K. V. (2004). Description of a sleep-restriction program to reduce bedtime disturbances and night waking. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6, Garstang, J. & Wallis, M. (2006). Randomized controlled trial of melatonin for children with autistic spectrum disorders and sleep problems. Child: Care, Health & Development, 32, Giannotti, F., Cortesi, F., Cerquiglini, A., Bernabei, P. (2006). An open-label study of controlled-release melatonin in treatment of sleep disorders in children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, Hoffman, C. D., Sweeney, D. P., Gilliam, J. E., Apodaca, D. D., Lopez-Wagner, M. C., & Castillo, M. M. (2005). Sleep problemsand symptomology in children with autism. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 20, Hoffman, C. D., Sweeney, D. P., Lopez-Wagner, M. C., Hodge, D., Nam, C. Y., & Botts, B. H. (2008). Children with autism: Sleep problems and mothers stress. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 23, Liu, X., Hubbard, J. A., Fabes, R. A., & Adam, J. B. (2006). Sleep disturbances and correlates of children with autism spectrum disorders. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 37, Lopez-Wagner, M. C., Hoffman, C. D., Sweeney, D. P., & Hodge, D. (2008). Sleep problems of parents of typically developing children and parents of children with autism. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 169,

38 Malow, B. A., Crowe, C., Henderson, L., McGrew, S. G., Wang, L., Song, Y., & Stone, W. L. (2009). A Sleep habits questionnaire for children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Child Neurology, 24, Meltzer, L. J. (2008). Brief report: Sleep in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 33, Moore, P.S. (2004). The use of social stories in a psychology service for children with learning disabilities: A case study of a sleep problem. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 32, Piazza, C. C., Hagopian, L. P., Hughes, C. R., & Fisher,W. W. (1998). Using chronotherapy to treat severe sleep problems: A case study. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 102, Richdale, A. L. (1999). Sleep problems in autism: Prevalence, cause, and intervention. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 41, Richdale, A. L., & Prior, M. R. (1995). The sleep/wake rhythm in children with autism. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 4, Schreck, K. A. (2001). Behavioral treatments for sleep problems in autism: Empirically supported or just universally accepted? Behavioral Interventions, 16, Schreck, K. A., Mulick, J. A., & Smith, A. F. (2004). Sleep problems as possible predictors of intensified symptoms of autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 25, Wasdell, M. B., Jan, J. E., Bomben, M. M., Freeman, R. D., Rietveld, W. J., Tai, J., Hamilton, D., & Weiss, M. D. (2008). A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of controlled release melatonin treatment of delayed sleep phase syndrome and impaired sleep maintenance in children with neurodevelopmental disabilities. Journal of Pineal Research, 44, Wiggs, L. & Stores, G. (2004). Sleep patterns and sleep disorders in children with autistic spectrum disorders: Insights using parent report and actigraphy. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 46, Williams, P. G., Sears, L. L., Allard, A. (2004). Sleep problems in children with autism. Journal of Sleep Research, 13,


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