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Return to Menu Return to Menu Passage A Passage A Passage B.

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Presentation on theme: "Return to Menu Return to Menu Passage A Passage A Passage B."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Return to Menu Return to Menu Passage A Passage A Passage B

3 Passage A Think About ItThink About ItThink About ItThink About It Read About ItRead About ItRead About ItRead About It Talk About ItTalk About ItTalk About ItTalk About It Write About ItWrite About ItWrite About ItWrite About It

4 1. What do you know about die-hard football fans? 1. Die-hard football fans are those who love the football too much. Their love affair with a team makes them pay less attention to their work, their study, or even their families. Their self-esteem soars with victory and plummets in defeat, sometimes affecting their lives long afterwards. Reference:

5 2. Do you have any favorite sports or other recreational activities? Yes, I do. And I think almost everyone has his or her own favorite sports or recreational activities, such as reading, watching TV, playing basketball, watching basketball games and playing cards. Reference:

6 3.What is your attitude toward football fans? Although I am not a hard-core football fan, I like to watch a football match. But the football match is just a game, and to me it is a kind of light-hearted display of athletic prowess. Everyone has his or her own life. We can have our hobbies but we should not go too far. Reference:

7 Read About It Language PointsLanguage PointsLanguage PointsLanguage Points Content AwarenessContent AwarenessContent AwarenessContent Awareness Language FocusLanguage FocusLanguage FocusLanguage Focus

8 Die-hard football fans hit the heights when their team wins and reaches the depths of despair when they lose. Scientific studies show the love affair with a team may be as emotionally intense as the real thing, and that team clashes have gladiatorial power.intenseclashes Is It Healthy to Be a Football Supporter? Why Fans Know the Score Whats going on? Why do fervent fans have hormonal surges and other psychological changes while watching games? Why does fans self-esteem soar with victory and plummet in defeat, sometimes affecting their lives long afterwards? Why do people feel so drawn to form such deep ties to teams? Is avidly rooting for a team good or bad for your health? You may find the answers surprising.soarWhy do people feel so drawn to form such deep ties to teams? rooting for

9 THE FAN'S PERSONALITY Psychologists oftenPsychologists often portray die-hard fans as lonely misfits searching for self-esteem by identifying with a team, but a study suggests the opposite. It reveals that football fans suffer fewer bouts of depression and alienation than people who never watch Match Of The Day. Hard-core fans also demonstrate a fierce and unbreakable bond.portraydie-hard fans as lonely misfits searching for self-esteem by identifying with a teamHard-core fans also demonstrate a fierce and unbreakable bond It's possible toIt's possible to trace the roots of fan psychology to a primitive time when warriors fighting to protect their tribes were the true representatives of their race. In modern times, so the theory goes, professional sportsmen are warriors of a city or country fighting a stylized war waged on a football pitch.tracethe roots of fan psychology to a primitive time representatives professional

10 IT'S WAR OUT THERE Some confrontations on the pitch are gladiatorial. In this respect, our sports heroes are our gladiators. A football match, especially between rival teams, isnt some light-hearted display of athletic prowess. The self is emotionally involved in the outcome because whoever you're rooting for represents YOU. So professional footballers seem to recreate the intense emotions in some fans that tribal warfare aroused in their forebears. It could even be that these emotions have fuelled the explosion in the popularity of sports over the past 20 years.confrontationsinvolvedSo professional footballers seem to recreate the intense emotions in some fans that tribal warfare arousedin their forebears. STATUS BY PROXY So, through football matches, it becomes possible to gain respect from your rivals, albeit vicariously. This means you can be highly regarded not for your own achievement, but through your connection to a team that wins. Or, if you like, by your connection to individual footballers for their skill, such as midfielder David Beckham, winger Ryan Giggs, and striker Thierry Henry.connection

11 The connection, however, can be fickle. Bragging sports fans tend to claim credit for their teams success, saying we won to describe a victory, but distance themselves from a teams failure, saying they lost describing a defeat. LOYAL TO THE END A raft of studies has found that highly-identified fans both men and women are unlikely to abandon a team when its doing badly. Anyone whos read Fever Pitch by Nick Hornby knows that this is true of the ardent Arsenal fan. Not only that, they tend to blame their teams failures on a biased referee or on bad luck, rather than on Arsenals mistakes or the other teams skill. Its not surprising that these avid fans get more psychologically aroused at games and spend more money on tickets and merchandise.abandonbiased

12 IS TESTOSTERONE A FACTOR? Testosterone levels in male fans rise markedly after a victory but drop just as sharply after a defeat. Apparently the same pattern has been documented in male animals who fight over a female. Biologists think that the human animal may have evolved this way to end conflicts quickly. If so, it provides an interesting biological explanation of football hooliganism after big matches. Science backs up this theory. Testosterone levels were measured in 21 Italian and Brazilian men in Atlanta before and after Brazils victory over Italy in soccers 1994 World Cup. The Brazilians testosterone rose 28 per cent on average, while the Italians levels dropped 27 per cent.documented conflictsbacks up

13 CAN BEING A FAN DAMAGE YOUR HEALTH? Yes, it can. Indeed it can be fatal. The tension felt by football fans during penalty shoot-outs can trigger heart attacks and strokes in male spectators. On the day Holland lost to France in Euro 96, deaths there from heart attacks and strokes rose by 50 per cent GROUP IDENTITY Being an ardent fan could be simply the desire to belong to a group or a society a need once answered by religion and politics. This explains why some fans remain loyal through thick and thin, and despite the repeated failure of their teams. Surrounding yourself at a

14 match with people who so clearly espouse your own enthusiasms, and identifying your tribal membership with hats, scarves, Mexican waves and songs, makes you feel you belong as little else does. Whats more, youre part of a group where no questions are asked, explanations are unnecessary and where you can always rely on support. With so many traditional institutions like religion and family beginning to break down, the football crowd is the perfect family. A HEALTHIER OUTLOOK? In most cases, a deep attachment to a team is healthy. Several studies show that an intense interest in a team can stave off depression and foster feelings of self-worth and belonging. That applies to all ardentattachment foster

15 sports fans. All human beings including football fans share the basic psychological need to belong. Without religion, without family, something has to answer that need. Today football, above all other sports, fills that crucial void.crucial (871 words)

16 intense intense adj. extreme in degree, strength, or size extreme in degree, strength, or size Examples He was sweating due to the intense heat.He was sweating due to the intense heat. The military on both sides are involved in intense battle.The military on both sides are involved in intense battle.

17 clash clash n. a conflict, as between opposing or irreconcilable ideasa conflict, as between opposing or irreconcilable ideas Examples Within the government, there was a clash of views.Within the government, there was a clash of views. There have been a number of clashes between police in riot gear and demonstrators.There have been a number of clashes between police in riot gear and demonstrators.

18 soar v. ascend suddenly above the normal or usual levelascend suddenly above the normal or usual level Examples The temperature in the south will soar to 40ºC.The temperature in the south will soar to 40ºC.

19 root for support support Example She is being rooted for by friends in her effort to surmount the tragedy;She is being rooted for by friends in her effort to surmount the tragedy;

20 portray v. depict or describe in words depict or describe in words Example Dickens portrays his characters to the life.Dickens portrays his characters to the life. The book portrays life long ago.

21 trace to have origins; be traceable have origins; be traceable Example They traced the criminal to a house in the city.They traced the criminal to a house in the city. The custom traces to the time of the Warring States.The custom traces to the time of the Warring States.

22 representative representative n. One that serves as a delegate or an agent for another One that serves as a delegate or an agent for another Examples The representatives were all amazed by what had happened in theThe representatives were all amazed by what had happened in the

23 professional adj of, relating to, engaged in, or suitable for a profession of, relating to, engaged in, or suitable for a profession Examples A lawyer is a professional man.

24 confrontation n. the act of confronting or the state of being confronted, especially face to face. Examples a nuclear confrontationa nuclear confrontation The commission remains so weak that it will continue to avoid confrontation with the government.The commission remains so weak that it will continue to avoid confrontation with the government.

25 involve v. engage as a participantengage as a participant Example He involved the bystanders in his dispute with the police.He involved the bystanders in his dispute with the police.

26 arouse v. stir up; excitestir up; excite Example The odd sight aroused our curiosity.The odd sight aroused our curiosity.

27 connection: connection: n. an association or a relationshipan association or a relationship Example There appeared to be no connection between the two crimes.There appeared to be no connection between the two crimes. Do you believe that there's a connection between smoking and heart disease?Do you believe that there's a connection between smoking and heart disease?

28 Example The scheme's investors, fearful of bankruptcy, decide to abandon the project.The scheme's investors, fearful of bankruptcy, decide to abandon the project. He abandoned his wife and went away with all their money. abandon abandon v. withdraw one's support or help from; desert

29 biased biased adj. marked by or exhibiting bias; prejudicedmarked by or exhibiting bias; prejudiced Example They gave a biased account of the trial.They gave a biased account of the trial.

30 document v. support with evidence or decisive information Examples document one's claimdocument one's claim document a thesisdocument a thesis He documented his dealing with the patient very carefully.He documented his dealing with the patient very carefully.

31 conflict v. 1). a state of disharmony between incompatible or antithetical persons, ideas, or interests; a clash1). a state of disharmony between incompatible or antithetical persons, ideas, or interests; a clash Examples Fortunately analysis is not the only way to resolve inner conflicts.Fortunately analysis is not the only way to resolve inner conflicts. 2). be in or come into opposition; differ2). be in or come into opposition; differ Examples All these actions by the NATO conflicted with the universally accepted international laws.All these actions by the NATO conflicted with the universally accepted international laws.

32 back up support, help, aidsupport, help, aid Example The new evidence backed up my argument.The new evidence backed up my argument. Will you back me up against the others?

33 attachment n. a bond, as of affection or loyalty Example Some models come with an attachment for dusting.Some models come with an attachment for dusting. When you send you can also send a file as an attachment and that file can be a graphic.When you send you can also send a file as an attachment and that file can be a graphic.

34 foster v. promote the growth and development of; cultivatepromote the growth and development of; cultivate Example Frequent cultural exchange will certainly help foster friendly relations between our two universities.Frequent cultural exchange will certainly help foster friendly relations between our two universities.

35 crucial adj. extremely significant or importantextremely significant or important Examples He had administrators under him but he made the crucial decisions himself.He had administrators under him but he made the crucial decisions himself. Improved consumer confidence is crucial to an economic revival.Improved consumer confidence is crucial to an economic revival.

36 Why do people feel so drawn to form such deep ties to teams. Why are people so attracted by the teams which they form such deep ties to? Words to learn: portray Paraphrase

37 Psychologists often portray die-hard fans as lonely misfits searching for self-esteem by identifying with a team. Psychologists often describe die-hard fans as ones who are disturbingly different from others and who are searching self-esteem by belonging to a team. Paraphrase

38 Hard-core fans also demonstrate a fierce and unbreakable bond. Hard-core fans also show an ardent and unbreakable link. Paraphrase

39 It's possible to trace the roots of fan psychology to a primitive time. It's possible to have origins of fan psychology in the earliest stage. Words to learn: trace Paraphrase

40 So professional footballers seem to recreate the intense emotions in some fans that tribal warfare aroused in their forebears. As tribal warfare stirs up the intense emotions in their forebears, professional footballers seem to recreate the same intense emotions in some fans. Words to learn: aroused Paraphrase

41 Passage B Think About ItThink About ItThink About ItThink About It Read About ItRead About ItRead About ItRead About It

42 Before reading Passage B, discuss the pictures below with your friends If I have a job… If I have nothing to do…

43 Before reading Passage B, discuss the pictures below with your friends If I know how to play… If I have a degree...

44 1. What kind of person do you think is a healthy person? Think about it A healthy person, in general, is a person with high morale and low depression.

45 Think about it 2.Where does pressure usually come from? Give examples. The pressure on a person is usually caused by tasks that are slightly beyond his/her reach. For example, some people want to advance in their professions, and climbing the career ladder can cause pressure.

46 Think about it 3. Do you think that a working man is a happier, healthier man? Why or why not? Yes, I do. Work is good for men, and a successful and accomplished man is a healthy and happy man.

47 Read About It Language PointsLanguage PointsLanguage PointsLanguage Points Content AwarenessContent AwarenessContent AwarenessContent Awareness Language FocusLanguage FocusLanguage FocusLanguage Focus Reading Skill PracticeReading Skill PracticeReading Skill PracticeReading Skill Practice Translating Skill PracticeTranslating Skill PracticeTranslating Skill PracticeTranslating Skill Practice

48 OK, youre only 30-years-old or maybe even 40 or 50 and are already fantasizing about retiring. Youve got the (fill in the blank: stock options, trust fund, rich wife) in place and now the only question is when. Whats the best time to devote yourself full-time to golf?optionsin placedevote A working man is a healthy man A dreadful thought, perhaps particularly if working for a living has never agreed with you. But epidemiological analyses of every variety have long concluded that men who retire early dont live as long as men who keep working late into geezerhood.concluded

49 Given the opportunity to fill our days with nothing but recreational activity, we get in trouble get beaned by a shanked golf ball, fall off a fishing boat after a beer too many, that kind of thing.nothing butget in trouble Anything that removes us too much from the nurturing world of women is simply bad for our health.Anything that removes us too much from the nurturing world of women is simply bad for our health. Thats not to say that we dont suffer some ill effects from work. Men are the victims of more than 90 percent of all job-related accidents. Our highly competitive instincts also propel us to advance in our professions and climbing the ladder can be stressful (although interestingly, most CEOs are in excellent health; theyre highly resilient, born leaders).competitive Any job in which the tasks are slightly beyond our reach is going to cause stress along with the high blood pressure, depressed immunity and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. But, then, raising children is stressful. Unemployment is really stressful. Vacations can be stressful. Driving in Milan is even a nightmare.along with

50 The point is that, in terms of the picture, not working, whether by choice or not, is worse for us than working. This has always been true, but now there are some modern wrinkles on this truism that reflect changing gender roles.in terms but now there are some modern wrinkles on this truism thatreflect changing gender roles. REWARDS OF SUCCESS Work is good for men especially if the proper conditions are in place. For instance and this is not likely to sit well with social egalitarians men who are married to homemaker wives are more likely to have upwardly mobile careers. Thats the conclusion of the Cornell University Retirement and Well-Being Study, which also found the converse to be true: Men married to women who work full-time are more likely to have downwardly mobile careers. From other data, we know that a successful and accomplished man is a healthy and happy man.and this is not likely tosit well withsocial egalitarians mobile

51 A recent Scottish study also points to the effects changing gender roles are having on mens working life. The increased number of women in both part-time and full-time work, the researchers say, may indirectly be responsible for rising rates of suicide and depression in men, at least in the British Isles. For men, the resultant loss of status as sole financial provider for the family and the perceived loss of social status could all be risk factors for depression. Family life also affects the benefits a man obtains from work. After having a baby, American men work longer hours, particularly if the child is a boy.

52 We can only guess that having a son increases the value of marriage and family for men, says Shelly Lundberg, a psychologist at the University of Washington, an economics professor who did the research. Using data from the U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics, he found that the birth of a first son generated an average increase in a mans work time of 84 hours every year after the boys birth the equivalent of more than two additional weeks on the job. Men added only 31 hours after having a daughter. They also discovered a fatherhood premium that raised mens hourly wages by about 5 percent every time they fathered a child.generated equivalent RETIRE? Research repeatedly has shown that a working family man with more disposable income is a happier, healthier man.

53 Still not convinced? The findings of people who study retirement suggest some good reasons not to retire. For one thing, newly retired men experience more marital conflict than non-retired men. Your wife simply finds it stressful to wonder whether youve been beaned by a golf ball or bobbing in the ocean next to your empty beer can. The good news is that you can regain whatever you may have lost by retiring and then going back to work. Psychologists Jungmeen E. Kim and Phyllis Moen of Cornell found that men who retire often gain a new lease on life when they decide to go back to work.men who retire often gaina new lease on lifewhen they decide to go back to work.

54 The good news is that you can regain whatever you may have lost by retiring and then going back to work. Psychologists Jungmeen E. Kim and Phyllis Moen of Cornell found that men who retire often gain a new lease on life when they decide to go back to work. Post-retirement employment appears to be beneficial for their psychological well-being, says Kim. Those who are retired and re- employed report the highest morale and lowest depression. And men who are retired and not re-employed experience the lowest morale and most depression.

55 Their study of 534 married men and women between 50 and 74 found the work-status links to morale and depression were regardless of age, income and health. regardless of So suck it up, buddy, and plan to work until you drop. Its one prescription for longevity that is known to work.So suck it up, buddy, and plan to work until you drop. 833 words

56 options options n. choice, the power or freedom to choose choice, the power or freedom to choose Examples There are three options open for us in that matter.There are three options open for us in that matter. The government has two options, to reduce spending or to increase taxes..The government has two options, to reduce spending or to increase taxes..

57 in place fitting ones shoes; being able to be used fitting ones shoes; being able to be used Example With everything in place, she started the slide show.With everything in place, she started the slide show. The proposal is not quite in place.

58 devote oneself to apply oneself to, take up with apply oneself to, take up with Example Nurses devote themselves to the care of the sick.Nurses devote themselves to the care of the sick. After he retires, he will devote himself to gardening.After he retires, he will devote himself to gardening.

59 conclude v. arrive at by the process of reasoning; infer on the basis of convincing evidence 1) arrive at by the process of reasoning; infer on the basis of convincing evidence Example The jury concluded that the defendant was innocent.The jury concluded that the defendant was innocent. We concluded not to wait any more. 2) finish, end 2) finish, end Example We concluded the meeting at 6 pm that night.We concluded the meeting at 6 pm that night.

60 nothing but simply simply Example There was nothing but water.There was nothing but water. He is nothing but a scoundrel.He is nothing but a scoundrel.

61 get in trouble have a problem; have difficulty have a problem; have difficulty Example We get in trouble; this is no time for contention.We get in trouble; this is no time for contention.

62 competitive competitive adj. liking competition or inclined to compete liking competition or inclined to compete Examples He is a highly competitive sales representative.He is a highly competitive sales representative. There are a lot of competitive games on weekends.There are a lot of competitive games on weekends.

63 along with together with together with Examples Jack packed an atlas along with other books.Jack packed an atlas along with other books. Along with the letters there are answers written by people who are supposed to know how to solve such problems.Along with the letters there are answers written by people who are supposed to know how to solve such problems.

64 in terms of according to according to Examples Facilities are planned and programmed in terms of their interrelationships, instead of evolving haphazardly.Facilities are planned and programmed in terms of their interrelationships, instead of evolving haphazardly.

65 reflect v. form an image of; mirror form an image of; mirror Examples Baseball reflects America's history.Baseball reflects America's history.

66 sit well with suit suit Examples This candidate does not sit well with our qualifications.This candidate does not sit well with our qualifications.

67 mobile adj. capable of moving or of being moved readily from place to place capable of moving or of being moved readily from place to place Example The mobile medical team will soon be here.The mobile medical team will soon be here.

68 generate v. bring into being; give rise to bring into being; give rise to Example When coal burns, it generates heat.When coal burns, it generates heat.

69 equivalent adj. something that is essentially equal to anothersomething that is essentially equal to another Examples Some American words have no British equivalent.Some American words have no British equivalent.

70 new lease on life an opportunity to improve one's circumstances or outlookan opportunity to improve one's circumstances or outlook Example The election has given the government a new lease on life.The election has given the government a new lease on life. Plastic surgery has given many persons a new lease on life.

71 regardless of in spite of Example He says what he thinks, regardless of other people's feelings.

72 Anything that removes us too much from the nurturing world of women is simply bad for our health. It is not good to our health for us to go far away from the caring and loving world of women. Paraphrase

73 … but now there are some modern wrinkles on this truism that reflect changing gender roles. …but now, because of the effects changing gender roles, there are some challenges on this truism. Paraphrase Words to learn: reflect

74 …and this is not likely to sit well with social egalitarians.. …and this may not suit social egalitarians. Paraphrase Words to learn: sit well with

75 … men who retire often gain a new lease on life when they decide to go back to work. when retired men decide to go back to work, they often get new excitement and interest in life. Paraphrase Words to learn: a new lease on life

76 So suck it up, buddy, and plan to work until you drop… So go on working, friend, and plan to work until you cannot Paraphrase


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