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Depression in children

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Presentation on theme: "Depression in children"— Presentation transcript:

1 Depression in children
Dr.Ksh. Chourjit Singh Prof. of Pediatrics Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal National Chairperson, Growth & Development Chapter, IAP National Executive Board Member Advisor HIV/AIDS in Children Task Force, Manipur State. Past President, East Zone, IAP President, NNF, Manipur State Branch

2 Introduction Depression in school-age children and adolescents remain a long-overlooked Health problem As prevalent as in adults Common cold of mental illness – Clinical Depression Specially in childhood – is a major health problem

3 Severity of Problem 5% children at any given time
1% of Pre-school children 2% of school-age children 5% of adolescents are affected 25-50% of all children & adolescents in Psychiatric treatment are for depression & its related problems More common in boys than girls – 5:1 school-age children Adolescent girls than boys - 2:1

4 Severity of Problem …. Untreated Depression can be taken as important cause of suicide in adolescents, even adults

5 Why depression in young ?
A) Risk factors Children referred to mental health providers for school problems Children with medical problems Asthma Diabetes Epilepsy Many chronic childhood diseases

6 Why depression in young ? …….
Law and order problems Frequent bandh/ strikes Frequent school closures Ethnic group clashes Insecure feelings Conflict environment Watching television a lot i.e. more than 6 hours a day

7 Risk factors ….. Rural vrs Urban children Sexually harassed children
Children with family history of depression Genetically potential What is happening in an individual child’s life

8 B) Why depression runs in families
Genetics Even if a child never contacts with depressed parents, child may also likely to be depressed Marital difficulties Broken family/ marital problems Divorce plus depression in parents Parenting problems Hard to be good parent when depressed Parenting problems whether from parents or from child

9 C) Can experience depression at any age – Presentation?
Shortly after birth & very young Failure to thrive Disrupted attachments to others Developmental delays Social withdrawal Separation anxiety Sleeping and eating problems

10 C) Chance of depression at any age…
Between 6-12 years of age Fatigue Sadness Inability to feel pleasure Irritability & Insomnia Lack of self esteem Stomach ache and headache

11 C) Chance of depression at any age…
Hallucinations Agitation & extreme fears Weight changes Difficulty with school work Apathy Lack of Motivation Social withdrawal

12 C) Chance of depression at any age…
Adolescent Over-sleeping Socially isolated Acting out in self destructive ways Sense of hopelessness Despairing thoughts Weight changes

13 Future of depressed school-age children
If untreated in time – affects the children School performance and learning Social interaction and development of normal peer relationships Self-esteem and life skill acquisition Parent-child relationship & sense of bonding

14 Future of depressed school-age children….
Lack of trust – can lead to Substance abuse Disruptive behaviour Violence and Aggression Legal troubles and even suicide Depression thinking can become part of a child’s developing personality, leaving long-term effects in place for the rest of the child’s life.

15 Behavioural changes – What?
Professional attention decreases Classroom disruption Expulsion from school School failure Injury to themselves or others Symptoms ADHD Truancy Delinquency

16 Stress in students leading to depression
Parental pressure to perform and to stand out among other children If not come up to expectations Frustration Physical stress Aggression Undesirable complexes

17 Stress in students leading to depression…
Under-Performers Negative traits Shyness Unfriendliness Jealousy World to loner

18 Over-scheduling a student’s life
Non-availability of time for extra-curricular activities after school No proper place for ventilation & breathing space Unwanted learning like music, painting or outstanding in sports Too many crammed schedule & unmindful of the children’s choice Unadjusted school systems and tremendous amount of homework – spending their evenings, weekends and vacations

19 Over-scheduling a student’s life…
Loss of interest in studies Under-perform due to excess academic pressure Students often carry enormous amount of anxiety and negative personal traits & massive attention problems Non-effortless learning Physio-Psychological transition of students Mainly affected elementary to Junior High School

20 Diagnostic Points Transient depression or sadness
Impairment in child’s ability to function Two types Dysthymic disorder Major depressions Dysthymic disorder – less severe but lasts longer Chronic depression/Irritability > 1 year

21 Diagnostic Points …. Onset about 7 years of age
2-6 symptoms within 5 years Leads to major depression/ Double depression Untreated Dysthymic disorder will experience Remission within 6 years Prevalence of depression increases with age – 5 percent of all teens

22 What can be done Diagnostic evaluation – success to treatment
All disorders be discovered and addressed Medication Mood stabilisers Anti-anxiety Anti-depressants Stimulants

23 What can be done… Individual therapy
Often beneficial for patients & specially help with issues Family conflicts Self-esteem Relaxation strategies Mood and anger control Better communication

24 School environment Interaction School Counsellor Principal
Psychologist Teachers and Parents Psycho-educational treatment Speech and occupational therapy

25 School environment… Counselling Curriculum modification
Resource classes Behavioural modification system Self-contained classrooms

26 Home/ Parental environment
Family and Home modification\ Homely life environment

27 Family therapy Defining Family members role and responsibility
Better communication & behavioural Reward systems

28 Let children learn to pace themselves.
Don’t overload your child with too many after-school activities and responsibilities. Let children learn to pace themselves. Don’t enrol them in every class along and don’t expect them to be first in everything.

29 Thank you

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