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Presentation on theme: "SOCIETAL ISSUES IN COUNSELING"— Presentation transcript:

Paul Pedersen University of Alabama at Birmingham Dept of Human Studies

2 1.1 The culture-centered premise of counseling
behaviors are learned and displayed in a cultural context accurate assessment, meaningful understanding and appropriate intervention are context dependent the cultural context of counseling is complicated

3 1.2.  The cultural context

4 1.3. Multiculturalism has evolved from a method to a theory
emphasizing both the parts and the whole the generic application of culture making all theories culture-centered

5 1.4. The broad definition of culture
ethnographic, demographic, status and affiliation within-group differences exceed between-group differences emic and etic are two perspectives of the same reality culture is the complex totality of the environment culture is dynamic according to what is salient

6 1.5. The culturally encapsulated counselor
defines reality according to one set of assumptions is insensitive to cultural variations among individuals protects unreasoned assumptions without proof seeks technique-oriented short-term solutions refuses to evaluate contrary viewpoints

7 1.6. Defining balance in the client's cultural context
the rule of opposites reconciles discord in harmony reflects the organimic systems of holistic health

8 1.7. Examples of balance in counseling
positive implications of negatives negative potentials of positives tolerance for ambiguity resist simple solutions sensitivity to complicated collective forces sensitive to changes in the client sensitivity to changes in the counselor ability to adjust interviewer influence ability to maintain harmony in the interview

9 1.8. Implications of balance in counseling
knowledge must go beyond rationality to include feelings relationships are important westernized perspectives are incomplete change is not inevitably positive we do not control our environment recovery skills get us out of trouble training of counselors must become more inclusive more emphasis on culture is need among counselors research has failed to develop  multicultural  theory

10 1.9. Underlying assumptions of culture-centered counseling
culture controls behavior each culture interprets counseling differently values are constructed by cultures behavior is displayed in a cultural context the same cultural context is experienced differently cultural patterns give meaning to cultural contexts aggregate data can lead to stereotyping as the cultural context changes behaviors also change only when the context has changed will individuals change meaning is constructed in each cultural context

11 1.10. Describing cultural identity

12 2.1. Managing culturally learned assumptions
people are both similar and different at the same time culture is complex and not simple behaviors are not meaningful data not all racism is intentional we are vulnerable to cultural encapsulation inclusion is balanced with exclusion medical model is balanced with educational model clients depend on their own internal dialogue first

13 2.2. The cross-cultural trade off for conflict management

14 3.1. The historical context of culture
began in  17th  and  18th  century Europe to defend colonialism distinguished civilized people from savage primitives

15 3.2. The recent popularity of culture in the social sciences
awareness of consequences of development need for a  postcolonial  perspective social sciences have been internationalized national liberation movements have increased cross cultural psychology has developed activist social scientists of the  60s  are in power interdisciplinary cooperation has become more popular new forms of cultural diversity have emerged educational exchanges have increased a growing interest in indigenous psychology

16 3.3.  The "racial" context race has been discredited as a scientific construct race continues important as a sociopolitical construct as few as 3 races and as many as 37 have been suggested Philippe  Rushton 's (1988) Asian-Blacks-Whites Arthur Jensen's (1992) intelligence research Hernsteins  (1994) bell curve racism is prejudice plus power to impose it Pinderhuges  (1984) on the nature of powerlessness

17 3.4. The Contact Hypothesis
when groups come together under favorable conditions positive consequences occur when groups come together under unfavorable conditions negative consequences occur most spontaneous group contact is under unfavorable conditions

18 3.5. High Context cultures and Low Context cultures
some cultures put more emphasis on context than others most developed cultures are low context HC  is where the information is internalized concrete LC is where information is in the depersonalized abstract

19 3.6. The five stages of culture shock and the U-curve
initial contact honeymoon stage disintegration and self blame reintegration and anger integration of similarities and differences biculturalism

20 3.7. The ideological context of "explicit" moral exclusion
biased evaluations with unflattering comparisons derogation disparaging and denigrating fear of contamination expanding the target to legitimize victimization accelerating harm doing in destructive acts approving and condoning destructive behavior reducing moral standards to accept harmful behavior blaming the victim self-righteous comparisons desecration to demonstrate contempt

21 3.8. The ideological context of "implicit" moral exclusion
group think  transcendent ideologies to glorify the group deindividuation  and anonymity moral engulfment to replace ethics psychological distancing technical orientation double standards unflattering comparisons

22 3.8. The ideological context of "implicit" moral exclusion (continue)
euphemisms displacing responsibility to higher authorities diffusing responsibility to the collective concealing the effects glorifying violence normalizing violence temporal containment by making exceptions

23 3.9 The future context alternatives
authoritarian future chaotic future pluralist future learning the facility for our own survival chaos and complexity theory of nonlinear self-organizing dynamics

24 4.1 The Westernization of counseling
counseling is spreading from west to east with modernization and urbanization a one directional approach to reduce pain Western is a political not a geographical term Westernization is also scientific acculturation Western are more  idiocentric  and competitive Non-Western cultures more  collectivistic  the dangers of  pathologizing  mystical experiences the rise of " Easternization "

25 4.2. Non-Western assertions
reincarnation individual self and cosmic SELF de-emphasize individualism with social relationships constructive dependency interdependence in parent-child relationships Japanese emphasis on obligation and self-sacrifice

26 4.2. Non-Western assertions (continue)
parents model social behavior patterns personality patterns learned from roles paradoxical personality patterns the constructive role of rigid authority experience as well as logic provide data life is dialectical balance of opposites everything is political

27 5.1. The spiritual counselor inside the person
counselors with a secular orientation are disadvantaged inside the person resources are important globally talk therapy is the exotic choice

28 5.2. The rationale for counselors knowing about religion
a high percentage of the population is religious people in crisis tend to rely more on spiritual therapy is not exclusively a secular process therapists are typically less religious than clients therapists are typically not well informed about religion

29 5.3. The role of alternative therapies based on spiritual sources
50% of U.S. 75% of Europe and 80% of world relies on alternative therapies healing is following the straight path illness is being "tangled" requiring "straightening" self-righting mechanisms conventional and alternative therapies complementary

30 5.4. The cosmology of the Toba Bataks
cosmos includes underworld, middleworld  and upperworld  time has quality as well as quantity space is not neutral the symbol is the thing it symbolizes all things have religious/spiritual meaning the need to take care of one's  tondi 

31 6.1 Counseling the international student
neither overemphasize nor underemphasize differences orientation is a continuous process learn the culture-specific skills of students students may bring in a companion for counseling peer support is extremely important help students monitor their own culture shock follow up students after their return home

32 7.1. Family therapies across cultures
interlocking pathologies when problems are entangled fusion occurs when family members can not act independently pseudomutuality  refers to loss of boundaries

33 7.2. Major theories of family therapy
Object Relations Theory Bowen Theory Structural Family Therapy Communication Theory

34 7.3. Increased problems for families
working mothers experience guilt conflict in redefining responsibility wife's career outside the home is demanding media-driven pressure successful families experience pain in mobility increased conflict and legal problems in families parental roles increasingly differentiated

35 7.4. Alternatives for multicultural families
single parent families increasing blended families are reconstituted through divorce extended or joint families with relatives and in-laws augmented families include nonrelatives  nonfamily shared households nonfamily sole person households homeless

36 7.5. Factors to consider in bicultural families
issues of racism and poverty value conflicts between majority and minority most minority families are bicultural many minorities have experienced oppression common bounds of language symbolize belonging class differences complicate cultural differences

37 7.6. A racial/cultural interaction model for family therapy
within group and between group differences important dynamic changes at all levels racial/cultural identity role of the counselor cultural issues when minority clients are matched with majority counselors

38 7.7 The five most frequently used models of ethnic identity
dominant majority model transitional model moves toward dominant culture alienation model seeks to make adjustments multidimensional model presumes multilevel transition bicultural model presumes joint membership the orthogonal model presumes multiple memberships

39 7.8. Characteristics of the orthogonal model
cultures may associate without competition or isolation minority cultures need not be eliminated or absorbed a permanent  multicultural  society need not be a melting pot value conflicts are not insurmountable cultural conflict may be a positive force people less militant when survival not the issue interaction of majority and minority may be constructive economic advantages of cooperation existing models of orthogonal relationships

40 7.9. Ho'oponopono family gatherings
pule or prayer of opening kukulu   kumuhana  reaching out to the disruptive person hala  is describing the problem mahiki  is untangling ho'omalu  is the sanction of silence mihi  where the wrongdoer asks forgiveness kala where the wrongdoer is brought back into the group pani  is the religious prayer of closing

41 8.1. Complexity in culture-centered counseling
clear and separate identification of counselor views clear and separate identification of client views see the other's actions from the other viewpoint listen and store information for later shift topics label feelings identify support systems identify alternative solutions define criteria for evaluation generate new insights

42 8.2. Varieties of training models
classroom model attribution training cultural awareness training cognitive behavior modification experiential training interactional  training with resource persons

43 8.3. Barriers to skill training
comparability and  generalizability  is difficult clients are fitted to the technique transfer from the laboratory to the real world defining the limits of skills skills training is Westernized focuses on changing the individual rather than the context can violate rights of privacy hard to identify reinforcing events or rewards too expensive

44 8.4. Intrapsychological counseling
introjection (like imaginary playmate) identification (imitate someone else) incorporation (bluer distinction between self and others) cognitive therapies focus on internal dialogue Gestalt focuses on good-me-bad-me Psychodrama focuses on alter ego Conjoint family therapy focuses on pathogenic coalitions

45 8.5. The Triad Training Model works best when:
includes positive and negative feedback simulated interviews of real situations safe context train the  procounselor  and  anticounselor  feedback to trainee is immediate and continuous resource persons are articulate and authentic counselor trainee can focus on the client spontaneous and not scripted videotaped debriefing brief interview of 8-10 minutes

46 8.6. The role of the anticounselor
forces counselor to see client's perspective articulates the unspoken impolite messages forces counselor to examine defensiveness immediately identifies inappropriate interventions forces the counselor to focus attention

47 8.7. Distractions that an anticounselor might do
build on positive side of problems distract or sidetrack the counselor obstruct communication annoy the counselor exaggerate differences between counselor and client demand immediate results communicate privately with the client identify scapegoats attack the counselor's credibility

48 8.8. The role of the procounselor
resource for the counselor to consult provider of explicit information provides a partner for the counselor helps counselor stay on track provides beneficial feedback

49 8.9. Supports the procounselor might do
restate or reframe message in a positive fashion keep the interview on track offer approval or reinforcement call attention to priority items reinforce significant client statements suggest alternative strategies to the counselor

50 9.1. The Awareness-Knowledge-Skill framework
awareness of basic underlying assumptions facts and information of knowledge skills for taking appropriate action

51 9.2. Using the intrapersonal cultural grid
identify a significant behavior or action identify expectations behind that behavior identify values behind each expectation identify the culture teachers of those values

52 9.4. The Three Dimensional Model

53 9.5. The interpersonal cultural

54 10.1. Three general perspectives of ethics
relativism absolutism contextual/universalism

55 10.2. Philosophical premises of ethics
principle of altruism principle of responsibility principle of justice principle of caring

56 10.3. Ethical guidelines for cross-cultural research
significant involvement is correct criteria for informed and free consent ultimate responsibility with the researchers what is the benefit of the research and to whom advisory principles rather than a strict code continuous reformulation of guidelines

57 10.4. Ethical violations are often unintentional
color blindness overly color conscious transfer good or bad feelings from elsewhere by client transfer good or bad feelings from elsewhere by counselor misinterpret cultural ambivalence client might see counselors implicit bias counselor might misinterpret nondisclosure

58 10.5. Rest's six stages of moral development
obedience, "do what you are told" instrumental egoism, "let's make a deal" interpersonal concordance "be considerate to make friends" law and duty, "obey the law and it will protect you" consensus building, "the duty to follow due process" nonarbitrary  cooperation "be rational and impartial

59 10.6. Systematic biases in the ethical codes
individualism is favored client must adjust to the system or majority an elitist bias favoring the more powerful provider oversimplification of cultural issues assumed absolute standards of right and wrong what is good for the counselor is good for everyone

60 11.1. Culture-centered controversies
is counseling culturally encapsulated? are counseling measures culturally biased? should culture be defined narrowly or broadly? can you measure  ethno -racial cultural identity? should similarities or differences be emphasized? are professional ethical guidelines adequate?

61 12.1. New research is required in the following areas
accurate epidemiological data development of identity models historical influences on counseling how to control and manage prejudice the developmental progress of White cultures a balanced perspective

62 12.1. New research is required in the following areas (continue)
more emphasis on within-group differences a bicultural or  multicultural  identity development community-based samples primary prevention programs accurate tests and measures a balance of  emic  and  etic 

63 12.2. Models of culture-centered counseling
culture-specific models culture-general models culture-free/culture-fair models culture deficit models relativism and absolutism

64 12.3. Changes for the future of society
demographic stable world population reduce the environmental impact of technology economic transition to the "real" costs social transition through supranational alliances institutional transition to focus on global problems informational transition to educate the masses

65 12.4. Changes for the future of counseling
increased awareness of revolutionary change generic understanding of culture pressure by minority groups separate identities for each special interest group counseling theories adapted to different cultures

66 12.4. Changes for the future of counseling (continue)
counseling methods adapted to different cultures counseling more globally popular more participation by non-Western cultures cultural encapsulation is challenged counseling becomes  multidisciplinary  counseling becomes more readily available counselors forced to adapt or be left behind

67 12.5 The culture-centered alternative for counseling
tolerance of ambiguity increases a balance of pain and pleasure is accepted indigenous counseling becomes more important counseling will focus on restoring balance to clients individuals are seen in the collective cultural context intuition will become a source of information

68 12.5 The culture-centered alternative for counseling (continue)
higher states of consciousness will be achieved problems will be viewed in the cosmic context social responsibility will become more important both similarities and differences will become important more emphasis on the historical context counselors will become more aware of their own biases


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