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To write a good paragraph in communication, the writer first needs to decide upon his purpose or idea and to try to make it clear to his reader in a topic.

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Presentation on theme: "To write a good paragraph in communication, the writer first needs to decide upon his purpose or idea and to try to make it clear to his reader in a topic."— Presentation transcript:

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2 To write a good paragraph in communication, the writer first needs to decide upon his purpose or idea and to try to make it clear to his reader in a topic sentence. Then, almost immediately, he should develop his idea by presenting relevant supporting details. After that, he needs to give a logical conclusion to the idea just discussed to satisfy the reader psychologically. With all this, and with various other means of paragraph development, he organizes the paragraph and gives it an overall structure of unity. Sentence Functions in Paragraph Development

3 Examine the sample below to see how the topic sentence (TS) establishes the focus, how the developing sentences (DS) present the supporting details, and how the concluding sentence (CS) summarizes the main idea. Recent awareness of the energy shortage in America has brought the bicycle into renewed popularity. (TS) Citizens who own bikes find themselves pedaling to work and school rather than getting the car out of the garage. Owners of bicycle sales-and-repair shops find their business booming. Many cities have set aside bikeways for the convenience and safety of cyclists. Police reports show bicycle theft growing, and sellers of padlocks and chains for bike protection are making new profits. (DS) More and more Americans are discovering that pedal-pumping is cheaper than gas-pumping and that bicycles don t make smog. (CS) Sample Exercises

4 Exercise 16 Exercise 17

5 Ex. 16Identify the functions of the following sentences and rearrange them in logical order to form a continuous whole. The last sentence has been done for you. (Note: This paragraph, developed from the same topic sentence as in the sample, has a new focus the awareness of the energy shortage instead of the bicycle's new popularity.)

6 ____ People of all ages, in fact, are learning how to walk again. ____ Small cars, rather than huge gas-gulpers, are winning sales. ____ More and more Americans are beginning to treasure the limited energy supply in their daily life. ____ More and more people are riding buses and forming car pools to help reduce consumption of fuel, with some of the larger cities putting new push behind efforts to develop rapid-transit systems. 1. TS Recent awareness of the energy shortage in America has brought the bicycle into renewed popularity. Key

7 4. DS People of all ages, in fact, are learning how to walk again. 3. DS Small cars, rather than huge gas-gulpers, are winning sales. 5. CS More and more Americans are beginning to treasure the limited energy supply in their daily life. 2. DS More and more people are riding buses and forming car pools to help reduce consumption of fuel, with some of the larger cities putting new push behind efforts to develop rapid-transit systems. 1. TS Recent awareness of the energy shortage in America has brought the bicycle into renewed popularity.

8 Ex. 17Supply relevant supporting details to each of the following topic sentences and work out one reasonable conclusion for each of them. 1.Global warming is one of the most pressing environmental issues today. 2.Plastic wastes are becoming a serious environmental problem. Reference

9 Global warming is one of the most pressing environmental issues today. Cars and factories release large amounts of greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere each year. These gasses trap heat and make our atmosphere warmer and warmer. If we do not start to do something about it right now, we will suffer growing consequences such as floods and droughts, and vast coastal areas will be under water.

10 Plastic wastes are becoming a harmful environmental problem. Plastic products, such as bags, containers, boxes, etc. have brought us convenience, but they have also brought disastrous problems to our environment. As it is difficult to dispose of plastic wastes, they will pile up on the earth for tens, or even hundreds of years. Besides, plastics are the cause of many deaths of animals and fish because they mistake them for food. We must find a solution to plastic pollution before our earth is covered with plastics.

11 4. DS People of all ages, in fact, are learning how to walk again. 3. DS Small cars, rather than huge gas-gulpers, are winning sales. 5. CS More and more Americans are beginning to treasure the limited energy supply in their daily life. 2. DS More and more people are riding buses and forming car pools to help reduce consumption of fuel, with some of the larger cities putting new push behind efforts to develop rapid-transit systems. 1. TS Recent awareness of the energy shortage in America has brought the bicycle into renewed popularity.

12 A formal letter of invitation to a symposium, forum or conference is different from a personal letter. It is more like the announcement of an event, informing the recipient of the aim, topics and sponsor(s) of the event, and the place and time it is to be held. Usually a registration form and a list of topics are attached to it. Dates for papers, social events, and an introduction of local sightseeing tours, etc., are also stated. Letter of Invitation

13 Dear Colleague, We invite you to attend an international symposium, to be held in Stockholm, Sweden, in September 1998, on standards for the protection of public health and the environment relative to radioactive waste disposal. The organizers, the Stockholm Environment Institute, the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute and the United States Environmental Protection Agency, are pleased to be co-sponsors of this symposium. The disposal and storage of radioactive waste is an issue of major concern. Thus, there is an increasing need to discuss, develop and finally work out the fundamental standards for protection of public health and the environment. (To be continued on next page.) Sample

14 We are convinced that these standards will gain even more attention in the future. The aim of this symposium is to contribute significantly to the development and understanding of such standards. We hope that you will find topics of your interest and we are looking forward to seeing you in Stockholm. Sincerely yours, Nicholas Sonntag Executive Director Stockholm Environment Institute Lars-Erik Holm Director General The Swedish Radiation Protection Institute Lawrence W. Weinstock Acting Director U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Exercises

15 Ex. 18Write a letter of invitation to an international symposium on city garbage disposal, simulating the framework and structure of the sample letter as much as possible. Reference

16 Dear Colleague / Sir / Madam, We invite you to attend an international symposium on city garbage disposal to be held in Chengdu, China, in May 2003. The Environment Institute of China and the Chengdu Municipal Government are pleased to be co-sponsors of this symposium. The disposal of city garbage is an issue of major concern for every city in the world. Thus, there is an increasing need to discuss, exchange and develop effective ways for garbage disposal without doing any harm to the environment. (To be continued on next page.)

17 The aim of this symposium is to contribute significantly to the development of healthy environment in cities. We hope that you will find the topics of your interest and we are looking forward to seeing you in Chengdu. Sincerely yours, Qian Shenli Director Environment Institute of China Zhang Xilai Mayor Shudu Municipal Government

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