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One logical way to develop a paragraph is to arrange the supporting details on the basis of the order of time, from the beginning to the middle to the.

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Presentation on theme: "One logical way to develop a paragraph is to arrange the supporting details on the basis of the order of time, from the beginning to the middle to the."— Presentation transcript:

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2 One logical way to develop a paragraph is to arrange the supporting details on the basis of the order of time, from the beginning to the middle to the end. This kind of chronological organization is typical of a sequence in which earlier occurrences precede later ones. In this way the writer virtually leads the reader step by step to the completion of an event by well-placed words of transition or clear-cut instructions. Paragraph Development by Chronological Sequence

3 Examine the following sample paragraph and identify the order of time with the help of the words in red that signal transition. Sample Exercises

4 On May 20th, 1927, just after ten to eight in the morning, Lindberghs spirit of St Louis struggled into the air from a New York airfield. For several hours the weight of the petrol prevented the young pilot from flying more than a few feet above the wave- tops. Night came and thick fog covered up the stars. Lindbergh flew steadily on, hoping that his course was the right one. He struggled to keep awake, checking the fuel all the time to keep his mind active. Throughout the next day the spirit of St Louis flew on over the seemingly limitless sea. Then a fishing boat appeared, and, an hour later, land. It was Ireland. Lindbergh set a compass course for Paris. By ten oclock the lights of Frances capital were shining beneath him. Tired, unshaved, suddenly hungry, the flying hero came down to Le Bourget airport, and landed in front of a huge crowd of wildly cheering people. After 34 hours of continuous piloting, the flight of miles was over.

5 Exercise 16 Exercise 17

6 Ex. 16Read the following paragraph. For each of its blanks choose the appropriate time connector from those given below, to join the main ideas together.

7 V.S. Naipaul, a writer in search of roots and winner of Nobel Prize for literature in 1999, was born in Trinidad 1)______________, the son of an Indian civil servant. In his childhood, he was first educated in his hometown and then Oxford University, where he studied literature. There he met Pat and they got married 2)________________. 3)__________________, he has been based in England yet spent much time traveling around the world. Travels 4)___________________ have taken him around the world on a quest for home and for roots. Sir V.S. Naipaul, now 69, was knighted ( ) by Queen Elizabeth 5)________________. A critic wrote the following about him: He is the wanderer who tries to go home, but is not taken in and is accepted by another home only so long as he admits he is a lodger there. Key since the 1950sin 1990 in 1955 over three decadesin 1933

8 V.S. Naipaul, a writer in search of roots and winner of Nobel Prize for literature in 1999, was born in Trinidad 1)______________, the son of an Indian civil servant. In his childhood, he was first educated in his hometown and then Oxford University, where he studied literature. There he met Pat and they got married 2)________________. 3)__________________, he has been based in England yet spent much time traveling around the world. Travels 4)___________________ have taken him around the world on a quest for home and for roots. Sir V.S. Naipaul, now 69, was knighted ( ) by Queen Elizabeth 5)________________. A critic wrote the following about him: He is the wanderer who tries to go home, but is not taken in and is accepted by another home only so long as he admits he is a lodger there. since the 1950sin 1990 in 1955 over three decadesin 1933 in 1933 in 1955Since the 1950s over three decades in 1990

9 Ex. 17Write a paragraph on one of the following topics, using some of the time connectors given. later onsuddenlyformerafterwardnow latteryears agosome time laterin the first placeearlier oncein the next place beforeoftenfurther nextyesterdayfurthermorefirsttoday meanwhilesecondtomorrowpreviouslythird thenwhenin the pastat lastthereafter 1. Important events of the week / month / year / last century Your own life story so far. Reference

10 Important events of the week The Tuesday evening news reported a forest fire in Northern China. Hundreds of firemen had been sent to the spot. The fire was threatening to be out of control as flames were fanned by high winds in the following two days. Yesterday 8000 residents of a nearby town had to leave their homes as the fire was approaching rapidly. The cause of the fire is unknown so far.

11 An award certificate usually states to whom, for what, by what organization(s) and at what time it is awarded. The certificate also bears the signature of the jury chairman or chief judge, and the seal of the awarding organization. Besides, the laureates nationality is stated if it is an international contest. Award Certificate Sample Exercises

12 13th International Biology Olympiad Latvia – Riga, Jurmala July 7 – 14, 2002/9/4 Certificate This is to certify that Hongyu Fu from the Peoples Republic of China has participated in the 13th International Biology Olympiad as a Competitor and won the gold medal. Indrikis Muiznieks The Jury Chairman Prof. Dr. Indrikis Muiznieks

13 Ex. 18Use the information given below to complete the following award certificate. Reference Person to be awarded: Cliff Barner (Australia) Award: Silver Medal Awarding Organization: Euro Science Institute Activity: the 2nd Contest for Young Scientists Time: September 2002 Chief judge: David Helmer (Professor of Cambridge University)

14 2nd Contest for Young Scientists September 2002 Certificate This is to certify that Cliff Barner from Australia has participated in the 2nd Contest for Young Scientists as a Competitor and won the silver medal. David Helmer Chief Judge Prof. David Helmer


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