2CAUSES OF THE WARHistorians have traditionally cited four long-term causes of the First World WarMILITARISM – The growth of nationalism and imperialism led to increased military spendingALLIANCE SYSTEM – By 1907 Europe was divided into two armed campsIMPERIALISM – Economic and political control over weaker nationsNATIONALISM – a devotion to the interests and culture of one’s nationMAIN
3MILITARISMEmpires had to be defended and European nations increased military spending enormously in the late 19th and early 20th centuryBy 1890 the strongest nation militarily in Europe was GermanyGermany had a strong army and built up a navy to rival England’s fleetFrance, Italy, Japan and the United States quickly joined in the naval buildup
4Battleships were being stockpiled by European nations, Japan and America in the late 19th and early 20th century
5ALLIANCE SYSTEMBy 1907 there were two major defense alliances in EuropeThe Triple Entente, later known as the Allies, consisted of France, Britain, and RussiaThe Triple Alliance, later known as the Central Powers, consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy (Soon joined by the Ottoman EmpireTRIPLE ENTENTEFRANCEBRITAINRUSSIA
7IMPERIALISM For many centuries, European nations built empires Colonies supplied European nations with raw materials and provided markets for manufactured goodsAs Germany industrialized it competed directly with France and BritainMajor European countries also competed for land in Africa
9NATIONALISMOften nationalism led to rivalries and conflicts between nationsAdditionally, various ethnic groups resented domination by others and wanted independenceRussia and Austria-Hungary disagreed over the treatment of Serbs in central EuropeGermany was allied with Austria-Hungary while Russia, France and Britain were partners
11THE SPARK: AN ASSASSINATION The Balkan region was considered “the powder keg of Europe” due to competing interests in the areaRussia wanted access to the Mediterranean SeaGermany wanted a rail link to the Ottoman EmpireAustria-Hungary, which had taken control of Bosnia in 1878, accused Serbia of subverting its rule over BosniaFinally, in June of 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne was gunned down by a Serbia radical igniting a diplomatic crisisThe Archduke is assassinated in Sarajevo in June 1914
12THE FIGHTING BEGINSThe Alliance system pulled one nation after another into the conflict – The Great War had begunOn August 3, 1914, Germany invaded Belgium, following a strategy known as the Schlieffen PlanThis plan called for a quick strike through Belgium to Paris, FranceNext, Germany would attack RussiaThe plan was designed to prevent a two-front war for GermanyThe Schliefflen Plan
13THE WAR BECOMES A STALEMATE Unable to save Belgium, the Allies retreated to the Marne River in France where they halted the German advance in September of 1914Both sides dug in for a long siegeBy the spring of 1915, two parallel systems of deep trenches crossed France from Belgium to SwitzerlandThere were 3 types of trenches; front line, support, and reserveBetween enemy trenches was “no man’s land” – an area pockmarked with shell craters and filled with barbed wireBritish soldiers standing in mud
15German SoldiersThe conditions in these trenches were horrific; aside from the fear of bombardment, soldiers also had to contend with the mud, flooding and disease associated with living in such a harsh environment.
16Trench Warfare: Basic Info. New weapons used seemed to be made more for defense; so trenches were made for the soldiers protection.There are two sides.Middle = No Man’s Land.
23A picture of soldiers going The British government wanted to encourage men to enlist for war.They said the war would be safe, hardly any fighting, a good lark and over by Christmas.They used advertising posters to encourage this idea!A picture of soldiers going‘Over the Top’
24The reality of ‘going over the top’ was very different!
25Soldiers were expected to carry all of their equipment with them at all times. They were supposed to keep it clean and in good condition
26How the uniform and equipment changed after just three weeks in the trenches…
27Posters always showed men ready and willing to fight. They never showed the boredom of the trenches or actual fighting taking place.Why do you think the government showed no fighting?
33The soldiers had very little decent food, and what food they had was often attacked by rats. These rats were the size of small rabbits and badgers because they had fed on the decomposing bodies of dead soldiers.
37FIRST BATTLE OF THE SOMME During the First Battle of the Somme - which began July 1, 1916 and lasted until mid-November – the British suffered 60,000 casualties the first dayFinal casualties for the First Battle of the Somme totaled 1.2 million, yet only 7 miles of ground was gainedThis bloody trench warfare, in which armies fought for mere yards of ground, lasted for three yearsGas attacks were common features of trench life and often caused blindness and lung disease
38AMERICANS QUESTION NEUTRALITY In 1914, most Americans saw no reason to join a struggle 3,000 miles away – they wanted neutralitySome simply did not want their sons to experience the horror of warfareGerman-Americans supported Germany in World War IHowever, many American felt close to the British because of a shared ancestry and languageMost importantly, American economic interests were far stronger with the AlliesFrench propaganda poster portrayed the Germans as inhuman and impacted American attitudes toward the Germans
39THE WAR HITS HOMEDuring the first two years of the war, America was providing (selling) the allied forces dynamite, cannon powder, submarines, copper wire and tubing and other war materialBoth the Germans and British imposed naval blockades on each otherThe Germans used U-boats (submarines) to prevent shipments to the North AtlanticAny ship found in the waters around Britain would be sunkGerman U-boat 1919
40THE LUSITANIA DISASTER United States involvement in World War I was hastened by the Lusitania disasterThe Lusitania was a British passenger liner that carried 1,198 persons on a fateful trip on May 7, 1915A German U-boat sank the British passenger liner killing all aboard including 128 American touristsThe Germans claimed the ship was carrying Allied ammunitionAmericans were outraged and public opinion turned against Germany and the Central PowersMay 7, 1915
421916 ELECTIONThe November 1916 election pitted incumbent Democrat Woodrow Wilson vs. Republican candidate Supreme Court justice Charles Evans HughesWilson won a close election using the slogan, “He kept us out of war”That slogan would prove ironic because within a few months the United States would be embroiled in World War IWilson
43AMERICA EDGES CLOSER TO WAR Several factors came together to bring the U.S. into the war;1) Germany ignored Wilson’s plea for peace2) The Zimmerman Note, a telegram from the German foreign minister to the German Ambassador in Mexico, proposed an allianceGermany promised Mexico a return of their “lost territory” in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona3) Next came the sinking of four unarmed U.S. merchant ships by German subs(Zimmerman note)Encoded message from Germany to Mexico
44Zimmerman note intercepted by a British agent and decoded
45AMERICA DECLARES WARA light drizzle fell on Washington on April 2, 1917, as senators, representatives, ambassadors, members of the Supreme Court, and other guests crowded into the Capital building to hear Wilson deliver his declaration of warWilson said, “The world must be safe for democracy”Congress passed the resolution a few days later
46SECTION 2: AMERICAN POWER TIPS THE BALANCE America was not ready for war – only 200,000 men were in service when war was declaredCongress passed the Selective Service Act in May of 1917By the end of 1918, 24 million had signed up and almost 3 million were called to dutyAbout 2 million American troops reached Europe
47FRESH U.S. SOLDIERS JOIN FIGHT After 2 ½ years of fighting, the Allied forces were exhaustedOne of the main contributions of the Americans was fresh and enthusiastic troopsAmerican infantry were nicknamed “doughboys” because of their white beltsMost doughboys had never ventured far from the farms or small towns they lived in
48NEW WEAPONS USEDMachine Guns – Guns could now fire 600 rounds per minuteThe Tank – New steel tanks ran on caterpillar treadsAirplanes – Early dogfights resembled duals, however by 1918 the British had a fleet of planes that could deliver bomb loadsPoison Gas – mustard gas was used to subdue the enemy
49Famous poem by Wilfred Owen about the evils of mustard gas Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum est (1917)Bent double, like old beggars under sacks, Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge, Till on the haunting flares we turned our backs, And towards our distant rest began to trudge. Men marched asleep. Many had lost their boots, But limped on, blood-shod. All went lame, all blind; Drunk with fatigue; deaf even to the hoots Of gas-shells dropping softly behind. Gas! Gas! Quick, boys! An ecstasy of fumbling, Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time, But someone still was yelling out and stumbling And floundering like a man in fire or lime. Dim through the misty panes and thick green light, As under a green sea, I saw him drowning. In all my dreams, before my helpless sight, He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning. If in some smothering dreams, you too could pace Behind the wagon that we flung him in. And watch the white eyes writhing in his face, His hanging face, like a devil's sick of sin; If you could hear, at every jolt, the blood Come gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs, Obscene as cancer, bitter as the cud Of vile, incurable sores on innocent tongues, My friend, you would not tell with such high zest To children ardent for some desperate glory, The old Lie: Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori.Famous poem by Wilfred Owen about the evils of mustard gas
51AMERICAN TROOPS GO ON THE OFFENSIVE When Russia surrendered to the Germans in 1917, it allowed the Central Powers to focus on the Western FrontBy May, the Germans were within 50 miles of ParisThe Americans arrived and immediately played a major role in pushing the Germans backIn July and August the Americans helped the Allies win the Second Battle of the MarneMen of the 42nd Division during the Second Marne. These men were killed by artillery fire just 5 minutes after this photo was taken
52AMERICAN WAR HEROAlvin York, a blacksmith from Tennessee, originally sought an exemption from the war as a Conscientious ObjectorYork eventually decided it was morally acceptable to fight if the cause was rightOn October 8, 1918, armed with only a rifle and a revolver, York killed 25 Germans and (with six doughboys) captured 132 prisonersUpon his return home he was promoted to Sergeant and hailed a heroThe manThe movie
53GERMANY COLLAPSES, WAR ENDS GERMANY COLLAPSES; THE GREAT WAR ENDSGERMANY COLLAPSES, WAR ENDSOn November 3, 1918, Germany’s partner, Austria-Hungary, surrendered to the AlliesThat same day, German sailors mutinied against their governmentOther revolts followed, and Germany was too exhausted to continueSo at the eleventh hour, on the eleventh day, of the eleventh month of 1918, Germany signed a truce ending the Great WarWar ends 11/11/18
55Casualties % of Mobilized CountriesTotal MobilizedKilled & DiedWoundedPrisoners & MissingTotal CasualtiesCasualties % of MobilizedAllied PowersRussia12,000,0001,700,0004,950,0002,500,0009,150,00076.3France8,410,0001,357,8004,266,000537,0006,160,800British Empire8,904,467908,3712,090,212191,6523,190,23535.8Italy5,615,000650,000947,000600,0002,197,00039.1United States4,355,000126,000234,3004,500364,8008.2Japan800,00030090731,2100.2Romania750,000335,706120,00080,000535,70671.4Serbia707,34345,000133,148152,958331,10646.8Belgium267,00013,71644,68634,65993,06134.9Greece230,0005,00021,0001,00017,00011.7Portugal100,0007,22213,75112,31833,29133.3Montenegro50,0003,00010,0007,00020,00040.0Total42,188,8105,152,11512,831,0044,121,09022,104,20952.3Central PowersGermany11,000,0001,773,7004,216,0581,152,8007,142,55864.9Austria-Hungary7,800,0001,200,0003,620,0002,200,0007,020,00090.0Turkey2,850,000325,000400,000250,000975,00034.2Bulgaria87,500152,39027,029266,91922.222,850,0003,386,2008,388,4483,629,82915,404,47767.4Grand Total65,038,8108,538,31521,219,4527,750,91937,508,68657.6
56US Causalities Major Wars Number ServingBattle DeathsDisease & AccidentsWoundedTotal CasualtiesRevolutionary WarNA4,4356,188War of 1812286,7302,2604,505Mexican War78,7181,73311,5504,15217,435Civil War2,213,363140,414224,097281,881646,392Spanish-American War306,7603852,0611,6624,108World War I4,743,82653,51363,195204,002320,710*World War II16,353,659292,131115,185670,8461,078,162Korean War5,764,14333,651103,284Vietnam War8,744,00047,36910,799153,303211,147Persian Gulf War467,539148145467760
57SECTION 3: THE WAR AT HOME The entire U.S. economy was focused on the war effortThe shift from a consumer economy to war economy required a collaboration between business and governmentIn the process, the power of the U.S. government expandedCongress gave President Wilson direct control over the economy
58WAR INDUSTRIES BOARDThe War Industries Board (WIB) encouraged companies to use mass-production techniquesUnder the WIB, industrial production and wages increased 20%Union membership almost doubled during the war years – from 2.5 million to 4 millionTo deal with disputes between management and labor, President Wilson set up the National War Labor Board in 1918Poster encouraging production
59VICTORY GARDENSTo conserve food, Wilson set up the Food Administration (FA)The FA declared one day a week “meatless” another “sweetless” and two days “wheatless”Homeowners planted “victory gardens” in their yardsSchoolchildren worked after-school growing tomatoes and cucumbers in public parksFarmers increased production by almost 30% by adding 40 million acres of farmland
60SELLING THE WARThe U.S. had two major tasks; raising money and convincing the public to support the warThe U.S. spent $35.5 billion on the war effortThe government raised about 1/3 of that through an income tax and “sin” taxesThe rest was raised through war bonds sold to the public (Liberty Loans & Victory Loans)
61PROPAGANDATo popularize the war, the government set up the nations first propaganda agency called the Committee on Public Information (CPI)George Creel led the agency and persuaded many of the nation’s artists to create thousands of paintings, posters, cartoons and sculptures to promote the war
74ATTACK ON CIVIL LIBERTIES As the war progressed, Civil Liberties were compromisedAnti-Immigrant feelings were openly expressed especially anti-German and Austrian- HungarianEspionage and Sedition Acts were passed by CongressThese acts were designed to prevent anti-war protests but went against the spirit of the First Amendment (Free speech)Socialists and labor leaders were targetedAny anti-American sentiments were targeted during wartime
75SOCIAL CHANGE DURING THE WAR The greatest effect of the First World War on the African American population was that it accelerated the Great MigrationThe Great Migration was the large scale population shift for hundreds of thousands of blacks from the south to Northern citiesThey left to escape discrimination and to seek greater job opportunitiesPopular destinations included Chicago, New York and PhiladelphiaThis African American family settled in Chicago
76WOMEN IN THE WARMany women were called upon to take on jobs previously held by men who were serving in the warThey became railroad workers, cooks, dockworkers, factory workers, and minersMany women served as volunteers in organizations such as the Red CrossTheir service hastened the passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920 giving women the right to vote
77THE FLU EPIDEMICIn the fall of 1918, the United States suffered a home-front crises when a flu epidemic affected 25% of the populationMines shut down, telephone service was cut in half, factory work was delayedCities ran short on coffins while corpses lay unburied for as long as a weekThe epidemic killed as many as 500,000 in the U.S. before it disappeared in 1919Worldwide the epidemic killed 30 million peopleSeattle, like many other places, became a masked city. All police wore them, as shown in this photo from "The Great Influenza"
78SECTION 4: WILSON FIGHTS FOR PEACE Despite the hero’s welcome he received in Europe, Wilson’s plan for peace would be rejected by the AlliesWilson’s plan was called the “Fourteen points”Included in his “points” were:No secret treatiesFreedom of the SeasMore free tradeReduction of armsLess colonialismLeague of Nations to promote peaceWilson’s 14 points in his own short hand
79ALLIES REJECT WILSON”S PLAN, SIGN TREATY The Big Four leaders, Wilson (U.S.), Clemenceau (France), Lloyd George (England), and Orlando (Italy), worked out the Treaty’s detailsWilson conceded on most of his 14 points in return for the establishment of the League of NationsOn June 28, 1919, the Big Four and the leaders of the defeated nations gathered in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles and signed the Treaty of VersaillesHall of Mirrors
80TREATY OF VERSAILLESThe Treaty established nine new nations including;Poland, Czechoslovakia, and YugoslaviaThe Treaty broke up the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Ottoman Empire empiresThe Treaty barred Germany from maintaining an army, required them to give Alsace-Lorraine back to France, and forced them to pay $33 billion in reparations to the AlliesThe Big Four met at Versailles
82THE WEAKNESS OF THE TREATY The harsh treatment of Germany prevented the Treaty from creating a lasting peace in EuropeThe Treaty humiliated the Germans by forcing them to admit sole responsibility for the war (War-Guilt Clause)Furthermore, Germany would never be able to pay $33 billion in reparationsGermans felt the Versailles Treaty was unfair
83DEBATE OVER TREATY AT HOME In the United States, the Treaty was hotly debated especially the League of NationsConservative senators, headed by Henry Cabot Lodge, were suspicious of the Leagues’ joint economic and military commitmentsMany wanted the U.S. Congress to maintain the right to declare warUltimately, Congress rejected U.S. involvement in the very League the U.S. President had createdThe U.S. never did join the league
84THE LEGACY OF WWIAt home, the war strengthened both the military and the power of the governmentThe propaganda campaign provoked powerful fears in societyFor many countries the war created political instability and violence that lasted for yearsRussia established the first Communist state during the warAmericans called World War I, “The War to end all Wars” --- however unresolved issues would eventually drag the U.S. into an even deadlier conflictWWI22 million dead, more than half civilians. An additional 20 million wounded.