Presentation on theme: "The Nervous System. Review: What makes up the Nervous System? The brain Spinal cord Nerves 2 types of cells: – neurons: send and receive signals – glial."— Presentation transcript:
The Nervous System
Review: What makes up the Nervous System? The brain Spinal cord Nerves 2 types of cells: – neurons: send and receive signals – glial cells: protect, support, and insulate neurons
Review: What are the two types of neurons? Sensory neurons – What do sensory neurons do? Cells that monitor stimuli and send signals to the spinal cord or brain. Motor neurons – What do motor neurons do? Cells that carry impulses from the brain or spinal cord to muscles, glands, or other neurons
Let’s take a closer look at a neuron. Dendrites-branchlike structures on the cell body that receive the signal Cell body-Central part of the neuron that contains the cell nucleus Axon-rod-like extension off of cell body which conducts signal through neuron On your diagram, label dendrite, cell body, cell nucleus, and axon.
A Neuron Glial cell
How are neurons organized? Each neuron connects to 100’s of thousands of other neurons.
How is a signal sent? First, a stimulus happens. A stimulus is any incoming information that causes a response. The signal moves from the stimulus dendrites cell body axon another neuron. Sensory neurons detect the stimulus, and begin to send an electrical signal that passes through several neurons. The signal then starts all over in another neuron.
Is it that easy? No. When the signal gets to the end of a neuron, it comes to a synapse, or a small space between the neurons.
What happens at the synapse? In order to transmit the signal from one neuron to another across the synapse, the neuron releases a chemical called a neurotransmitter. Neurotransmitters act as chemical messengers from one neuron to another.
Neurotransmitters and Disease Dopamine is a neurotransmitter related to muscular function Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that is associated with “happy” nerve signals
Once a signal is sent through the neurons, where does it go? It is usually sent to the brain, processed, and then another signal is sent through the motor neurons to induce movement or give a response.
Think about when you touch a hot object. You withdraw your hand without having to think at all. Your brain processes it later. This quick response to a stimulus that does not require a trip to the brain is called a reflex arc.
The brain is not involved in a reflex arc. Look at the picture describe where the signal is sent and how it is returned.
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Study your notes for 3 minutes.
Motor Neurons Left hand= dendrite Body= cell body Right hand= axon