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**Simple Harmonic Motion**

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**What is an Oscillation? Vibration**

Goes back and forth without any resulting movement SHM - Simple Harmonic Motion

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**An object in SHM oscillates about a fixed point.**

This fixed point is called mean position, or equilibrium position This is the point where the object would come to rest if no external forces acted on it

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**Describe restoring force**

Restoring force, and therefore acceleration, is proportional to the displacement from mean position and directed toward it

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**Examples of SHM: Simple pendulum Mass on a spring Bungee jumping**

Diving board Object bobbing in the water Earthquakes Musical instruments

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Simple Pendululm Equation: Time is independent of amplitude or mass

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**Assumptions: 1. Mass of string is negligible compared to mass of load**

2. Friction is negligible 3. Angle of swing is small 4. Gravitational acceleration is constant 5. Length is constant

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**Mass on a Spring Time is independent gravitational acceleration**

Equation: Time is independent gravitational acceleration

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**Assumptions: 1. Mass of spring is negligible compared to mass of load**

2. Friction is negligible 3. Spring obeys Hooke’s Law at all times 4. Gravitational acceleration is constant 5. Fixed end of spring can’t move

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**Restoring Force is proportional to (-) displacement**

Sketch: Negative sign means force is in the opposite direction of the displacement

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**Variables for SHM: x displacement from mean position**

A maximum displacement (amplitude) Ø phase angle (initial displacement at t = 0) T period (time for one oscillation) f frequency (number of oscillations per unit time) angular frequency

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**Relationships between variables**

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Other relationships:

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Diagrams

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Graphs:http://physics.bu.edu/~duffy/semester1/c18_SHM_graphs.html

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**Kinetic and Potential Energies in SHM**

since

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Damping Energy losses (energy dissipation) due to friction - removes energy from system For an oscillating object with no damping, total energy is constant - depends on mass, square of initial amplitude, angular frequency

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Damping (continued) Amplitude decreases exponentially - all energy is eventually converted to heat Critical damping (controlled)- oscillations die out in shortest time possible

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Resonance System displaced from equilibrium position will vibrate at its natural frequency System can be forced to vibrate with a driving force at the natural frequency Examples: musical instruments, machinery, glass, microwave, tuning a radio

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Vibrations and Waves 13.01 Hooke’s Law 13.02 Elastic Potential Energy 13.03 Comparing SHM with Uniform Circular Motion 13.04 Position, Velocity and Acceleration.

Vibrations and Waves 13.01 Hooke’s Law 13.02 Elastic Potential Energy 13.03 Comparing SHM with Uniform Circular Motion 13.04 Position, Velocity and Acceleration.

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