Presentation on theme: "IB Biology 2009-2010 Gas Exchange IB Biology. 6.4.1 Ventilation, gas exchange and cell respiration. 1. Ventilation: The flow of air in and out of the."— Presentation transcript:
IB Biology Gas Exchange IB Biology
6.4.1 Ventilation, gas exchange and cell respiration. 1. Ventilation: The flow of air in and out of the alveoli is called ventilation and has two stages: inspiration (or inhalation) and expiration (or exhalation). Lungs are not muscular and cannot ventilate themselves, but instead the whole thorax moves and changes size, due to the action of two sets of muscles: the intercostal muscles and the diaphragm.
IB Biology 2. Gas Exchange: This is the diffusion of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) There are two sites for gas exchange (a)Alveoli: Oxygen diffuses into the blood from the alveoli and carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the alveoli (b)Tissues: Oxygen diffuses from blood into the cells and carbon dioxide diffuses from cells to the blood
IB Biology 3. Cell Respiration Aerobic respiration uses oxygen in the mitochondria and produces carbon dioxide Anaerobic respiration does not use oxygen but still produces carbon dioxide
IB Biology The need for a ventilation system. A ventilation system is needed to maintain concentration gradients in the alveoli The steep concentration gradient across the respiratory surface is maintained in two ways: by blood flow on one side and by air flow on the other side. The ventilation system replaces diffuses oxygen (keeping the concentration high) and removes carbon dioxide (keeping the concentration low). This means oxygen can always diffuse down its concentration gradient from the air to the blood, while at the same time carbon dioxide can diffuse down its concentration gradient from the blood to the air.
IB Biology Features of the alveoli. Large surface area due to the combined spherical shape (600 million alveoli = 80 m2) Flattened epithelial cells of alveoli and close association with capillaries Short diffusion distance from alveoli to blood ( um) Dense capillary network Moist surface for the solution of gases
IB Biology Structure of the ventilation system. (a) Trachea (b) Cartilage ring support (c) Bronchi (plural) Bronchus (single) (d) Lung (e) Heart (f) Sternum (g) Rib cage (h) Bronchioles (j) Alveoli (k) Diaphragm
IB Biology Mechanism of ventilation. The diaphragm contracts and flattens downwards. The external intercostal muscles contract, pulling the ribs up and out this increases the volume of the thorax this increases the lung and alveoli volume this decreases the pressure of air in the alveoli below atmospheric (Boyle's law)air flows in to equalise the pressure
IB Biology Ventilation, contd The diaphragm relaxes and curves upwards the external intercostal muscles relax, allowing the ribs to fall this decreases the volume of the thorax this decreases the lung and alveoli volume this increases the pressure of air in the alveoli above atmospheric (Boyle's law)air flows out to equalise the pressure. The abdominal muscles contract, pushing the diaphragm upwards The internal intercostal muscles contract, pulling the ribs downward This gives a larger and faster expiration, used in exercise