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1 The Changing Face of School Psychology: Past, Present and Future Michael J. Curtis.

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Presentation on theme: "1 The Changing Face of School Psychology: Past, Present and Future Michael J. Curtis."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 The Changing Face of School Psychology: Past, Present and Future Michael J. Curtis

2 2 A Historical Perspective Demographic Characteristics – Gender – Ethnicity – Preparation – Credentialing – Age – Experience

3 3 A Historical Perspective (cont’d) Professional Practices – Initial Special Education Evaluations – Special Education Reevaluations – Percent Time in Spec. Education-Related Activities – Consultation – Counseling – Student Groups – In Service Programs

4 4 A Historical Perspective (cont’d) Conditions for Professional Practice -Ratio of Students to School Psychologist -Supervision

5 5 Demographic Characteristics

6 6 Gender

7 7 Gender for University Faculty *As reported; does not equal 100%

8 8 Ethnicity African-American 1.5% 1.9% Caucasian 96% 93.9% 92.8% Native American/ Alaskan Native <1% 1.1% 0.6% Asian/Pacific Is. <1% 0.8% 0.6% Hispanic 1.5% 3.1% Other <1% 0.9%

9 9 Minority Representation: Enrollment in Training Programs vs Total Field

10 10 Level of Preparation by Degree

11 11 Preparation: Specialist Level* or Higher *60 Graduate Semester Hours

12 12 Level of Preparation: Entry to Practice and to Present +7.7

13 13 State Credentials

14 14 Credentials & Practice Settings For 23.2%, certification allows practice outside the school setting For 73.9%, licensure allows practice outside the school setting

15 15 Percent Holding Doctoral & Non-Doctoral License

16 16 Primary Employment Setting Public Schools:77.5% Private Schools: 6.8% University: 6.3% Private Practice: 4.3% Hospital/Medical: 0.9% State Department: 0.8% Other: 3.5%

17 17 Private Practice Primary Employment Setting:4.3% 32 Hours or More per Week:1.5%

18 18 Mean Age

19 19 Percent Age by Category

20 20 Mean Years of Total Experience Total= School Psychology & Education

21 21 Twenty or More Years Experience

22 22 Age and Experience Mean Years for both Age and Experience are Higher for University Faculty than for Practicing School Psychologists 14/46 (30.4%) positions vacant

23 23 Projected Retirements State-by-State Survey (Thomas, 2000) -End of Academic Year Median = 12 Yrs/Mean = 14 Yrs Estimated to Retirement 50%+ Retirements in 27 States by 2012

24 24 Projected Retirements at 30 Years of Experience by Degree Retirement By Masters (41.0%*) Specialist (28.2%*) Doctoral (30.3%*) %25.1%46.4% %37.4%62.9% %52.2%75.8% Cumulative Percentages for Data *Percent of Total Field

25 25 Graduates of School Psychology Programs About 1,900 graduates each year : 1940 (McMasters, Reschly, & Peters, 1989) : 1897 (Thomas, 1998) Includes 300 – 320 doctoral graduates, with an estimate of 150 being new to the field 1900 – new school psychologists each year

26 26 Past Personnel Shortages U. S. Department of Education Reports of Unfilled Positions in Public Schools More than 1,400 vacancies in Almost 500 vacancies in

27 27 Personnel Needs by Region Greatest consistency between supply and demand: New England- CT, MA, ME, NH, RI, VT Mid-Atlantic- NJ, NY, PA Greatest discrepancy – Greatest Shortage: East South Central- AL, KY, MS, TN West South Central- AR, LA, OK, TX (Lund, Reschly, & Martin, 1998)

28 28 Professional Practices

29 29 Section 504 Plans 77.7% of responding school psychologists who are full-time in school settings participated in developing Section 504 plans. Mean of Plans for

30 30 Initial Special Education Evaluations Mean for = 39.9 initial evaluations

31 31 Special Education Reevaluations Mean for of 37.0 reevaluations

32 32 Number of Consultation Cases

33 33 Students Served: Individual Counseling

34 34 Number of Student Groups Mean for of 3.2 groups

35 35 Inservice Programs Mean for of 3.4 inservice programs

36 36 % Time in Special Education Activities

37 37 Special Education-Related Activities

38 38 Conditions for Professional Practice Ratio of Students to School Psychologist Supervision

39 39 Ratio of Students to School Psychologist Mean Ratio in of :1

40 40 Regional Differences in Ratio New England- CT,MA,ME,NH,RI,VT: 1049 Mid-Atlantic- NJ,NY,PA: 1377 Mountain- AZ,CO,ID,MT,NM,NV,UT,WY: 1667 East North Central- IL,IN,MI,OH,WI: 1816 Pacific- AK,CA,HI,OR,WA: 1964 West North Central- IA,KS,MN,MO,ND,NE,SD: 2120 South Atlantic- DC,DE,FL,GA,MD,NC,SC,VA,WV: 2329 West South Central- AR,LA,OK,TX: 2632 East South Central- AL,KY,MS,TN: 3858 * (Hosp & Reschly, 2002)

41 41 Ratio and Professional Practices Ratio of <1500:1 associated with more intervention-based services and less assessment (Smith, 1984) Higher ratios: more initial special education evaluations, more reevaluations, and greater percentage of time spent in special education- related activities, overall. Lower ratios: more students served through individual counseling, the conduct of more student groups, and more students served through groups (Curtis, Hunley, & Grier, 2002)

42 42 Ratio and Practices (Cont’d) Higher ratios: more initial special education evaluations and reevaluations, and greater percentage of time spent in special education- related activities, overall. Lower ratios: more time spent in intervention services and non- special education services (Curtis, Grier, Abshier, Sutton, & Hunley, 2002)

43 43 Supervision ( ) No Supervision Received= 47.2% Supervisor’s Degree: School Psychology= 46.5% Doctorate= 34.1% Average Number of School Psychologists Supervised by Supervisor= 16.9

44 44 Potential Implications of Shortage Higher Ratios: > time in special education activities < time in intervention-based services Limit or Reversal of Role Expansion in Schools Lower Standards for Credentialing Emergency/Alternative Credentialing Larger Enrollments in Training Programs, but with fewer faculty

45 45 Implications (cont’d) Introduction/Expansion of Other Professional Roles Emergence of New Professional Roles More options for and interest by school psychologists in alternative settings Competition/Incentives for school psychologists Alternative Service Delivery Models

46 46 Considerations No Child Left Behind President’s Commission on Excellence in Special Education

47


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