Presentation on theme: "Teaching for Successful Intelligence"— Presentation transcript:
1Teaching for Successful Intelligence Robert J. SternbergYale University
2Contact InformationRobert J. Sternberg, DirectorPACE CenterDepartment of PsychologyYale UniversityBoxNew Haven, CT USA
3CollaboratorsJohn Antonakis, Cynthia Berg, Donald Bundy, Anna Cianciolo, Pamela Clinkenbeard, Janet Davidson, Martin Dennis, Michel Ferrari, P. Wenzel Geissler, George Forsythe, Peter Frensch, Michael Gardner, Joyce Gastel, Guillermo Gil, Elena Grigorenko, Martin Guyote, Pamela Hartman, Jennifer Hedlund, Joseph Horvath, Linda Jarvin, Jennifer Jordan, James Kaufman, Daniel Kaye, Smaragda Kazi, Jonna Kwiatkowski, Jacqueline Leighton, Delci Lev, Jerry Lipka,Todd Lubart, Gerry Mohatt, Susan Nolen-Hoeksema, Diana Marr, Timothy McNamara, Akundaeli Mbise, Adam Naples, Tina Newman, Damaris Ngorosho, Wei-Hua Niu, Catherine Nokes, Linda O’Hara, Renate Otterbach, Lynn Okagaki, Frederick Okatcha, Janet Powell, Jean Pretz, Ruth Prince, Judy Randi, Carol Rashotte, Scott Snook, Robert Sternberg, Erasto Tuntufye, Sheldon Tetewsky, Bruce Torff, Margaret Turner, Richard Wagner, Wendy Williams, Shih-Ying Yang, Wen-tao Yuan
4AcknowledgmentsThe research described in this presentation was supported under the Javits Act Program, as administered by the Office of Educational Research and Improvement of the U. S. Department of Education; the National Science Foundation; the U. S. Army Research Institute; the Partnership for Child Development, which is funded in part by the James C. McDonnell Foundation; the National Council for Eurasian and Eastern European Studies; the National Center for Educational Statistics; the U. S. National Science Foundation; and the World Bank. This presentation does not necessarily represent the positions or policies of these supporting agencies.
5A Problem with Traditional Education Traditional education tends to “shine the spotlight” on certain children almost all of the time, and on other children almost none of the time.The result is that some children are placed in a much better position to achieve than are others.
6But…The children who are not placed in an optimal position to achieve may be just as able to achieve at high levels as the students placed in a position to achieve. Moreover, the advantaged children will not necessarily be more successful later in life.
7A Problem with Traditional Education Self-Fulfilling Prophecies: The Vicious CycleLow ExpectationsLow AchievementReward
8Global Mission of Presentation To demonstrate how to teach and assess students using the theory of successful intelligence—to help all children achieve at an optimal level.
9The Concept of Successful Intelligence We need a concept of intelligence that is broader than the conventional concept. Successful intelligence is such a concept.
10The Concept of Successful Intelligence Successful intelligence isthe ability to achieve success in life, given one’s personal standards, within one’s sociocultural context;in order to adapt to, shape, and select environments;
11The Concept of Successful Intelligence Successful intelligence isvia recognition of and capitalization on strengths and remediation of or compensation for weaknesses;through a balance of analytical, creative, and practical abilities.
12Motivation for “Triarchy of Abilities” Alice:A student high in analytical abilitiesBarbara:A student high in creative abilities
13Motivation for “Triarchy of Abilities” Celia:A student high in practical abilitiesPaul:A student high in analytical and creative abilities but low in practical abilities
14The Triarchic View of Intelligence There are three aspects of intelligence:analyticalcreativepractical
15The Concept of Successful Intelligence Conventional (Analytical)IntelligenceCreative PracticalIntelligence Intelligence
16Thought QuestionThink of a learning experience that was really valuable to you. What made it valuable?
17Instructional and Assessment Techniques Balanced use of instruction and assessment that isMemory-BasedAnalytically-BasedCreatively-BasedPractically-Based
18Teaching/Assessing for Memory-Based Learning RememberRecallRecognize
19Teaching/Assessing for Memory-Based Learning RememberWho?What?Where?When?Why?How?
20An Example from My Classroom The cerebellum is in the*A. hindbrainB. midbrainC. left brainD. right brain
21Thought ExerciseWhat would be some examples of teaching/assessing for memory in your classroom?
22The Triarchic View of Intelligence Analytical intelligence is evoked when weanalyzecompare and contrastevaluateexplainjudgecritique
23Applications of the Concept of Successful Intelligence: Triarchic Teaching AnalyticalANALYZE (a literary plot, a theory in the sciences, a mathematical problem)COMPARE AND CONTRAST (two characters in a novel, two systems of government, the styles of two artists)
24EVALUATE (a poem, a cultural custom, a strategy in tennis) Applications of the Concept of Successful Intelligence: Triarchic TeachingAnalyticalEVALUATE (a poem, a cultural custom, a strategy in tennis)EXPLAIN (the use of grammar in a sentence, your interpretation of an historical event, the solution to a scientific problem)
25Outcomes of Teaching for Analytical Intelligence Analytical instruction and assessment should enable students to:Identify the existence of problemsDefine the problemsAllocate resources for solving the problems
26Outcomes of Teaching for Analytical Intelligence Mentally represent the problemsFormulate strategies for solving the problemsMonitor their strategies while problem solvingEvaluate their solutions after they are done
27Evaluation of Analytical Products To what extent is the productInformed?Logical?Organized?Balanced?
28An Example from My Classroom Critique the ethics behind Stanley Milgram’s studies of obedience, discussing why you believe that the benefits did or did not outweigh the costs of the research.
29Thought ExerciseWhat would be some examples of teaching/assessing for analytical thinking in your classroom?
30The Triarchic View of Intelligence Creative intelligence is evoked when we:createdesigninventimaginesuppose
31CREATE (a poem, a sculpture, a new game) Applications of the Concept of Successful Intelligence: Triarchic TeachingCreativeCREATE (a poem, a sculpture, a new game)DESIGN (a new system of government for the classroom, a scientific investigation, a comfortable home)
32Applications of the Concept of Successful Intelligence: Triarchic Teaching CreativeIMAGINE (what life would be like in another country, what it would be like to be president of a country, how bees communicate with each other)SUPPOSE (worldwide temperatures increased 5 degrees on average…, people were paid to inform on neighbors who do not support the political party in power…, the ozone layer were completely depleted)
33Outcomes of Teaching for Creative Intelligence Creative instruction and assessment should enable students toRedefine problemsEnsure that they are solving good problems and have good solutionsSell their ideasRealize that knowledge is a double-edged sword
34Outcomes of Teaching for Creative Intelligence Creative instruction and assessment should enable students toAttain self-efficacyPersevere to surmount obstaclesTolerate ambiguity
35Outcomes of Teaching for Creative Intelligence Creative instruction and assessment should enable students toContinue to growDevelop a sense of perspective on themselves and their workDefy the crowd
36Evaluation of Creative Products To what extent is the product:Informed?Novel?Compelling?Task-appropriate?
37An Example from My Classroom Suppose you gave the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) to children growing up in a remote African village in Kenya (whose school language, but not home language, is English). What kinds of results might you expect in comparison with results from a large middle-American U.S. city such as Minneapolis? Why?
38Thought ExerciseWhat would be some examples of teaching/assessing for creative thinking in your classroom?
39The Triarchic View of Intelligence Practical intelligence is involved when we:UseApplyImplementEmployContextualize
40Applications of the Concept of Successful Intelligence: Triarchic Teaching PracticalUSE (a lesson that a literary character learned in your life, a mathematical lesson in the supermarket, a lesson learned on the playing field in everyday life)
41Applications of the Concept of Successful Intelligence: Triarchic Teaching PracticalAPPLY (what you learned in a foreign-language class to an interaction with a foreigner, a lesson from history to the present, a scientific principle to everyday life)
42Outcomes of Teaching for Practical Intelligence Practical instruction and assessment should enable students toUse what they learnPut problems in real-world context
43Evaluation of Practical Products To what extent is the product:Informed?Feasible with respect to time and place?Feasible with respect to human resources?Feasible with respect to material resources?
44An Example from My Classroom How do gambling casinos employ reinforcement techniques to keep people gambling at slot machines?
45Thought ExerciseWhat would be some examples of teaching/assessing for practical thinking in your classroom?
46Principles of Teaching for Successful Intelligence The goal of instruction is the development of expertise through the creation of a well and flexibly organized, easily retrievable knowledge base
47Principles of Teaching for Successful Intelligence Instruction should involve teaching for analytical, creative, and practical thinking as well as for memory learningAssessment should also involve analytical, creative, and practical as well as memory components
48Principles of Teaching for Successful Intelligence Instruction and assessment should enable students to:Identify and capitalize on strengthsIdentify and correct or compensate for weaknesses
49Sample Course Requirements ExaminationsMultiple-choice or short-answer itemsChoice of 2 out of 3 (or 4 out of 6) essays (which are, respectively, primarily analytical, creative, or practical)
50Sample Course Requirements ExaminationsTerm paper/project (assigned or unassigned topic)Oral presentation (assigned or unassigned topic)
51Advantages of Triarchic Teaching Applications of the Concept of Successful Intelligence: Triarchic TeachingAdvantages of Triarchic TeachingEnables students to capitalize on strengths and remediate or compensate for weaknessesEnables students to encode learning material more deeplyEnables students to encode learning material more elaborately
52Advantages of Triarchic Teaching Applications of the Concept of Successful Intelligence: Triarchic TeachingAdvantages of Triarchic TeachingEnables students to encode learning material in multiple waysMotivates students more stronglyPrepares students better for actual job requirements
53Potential Objections to Teaching for Successful Intelligence Test scores will sufferIt does not fit current standardsIt’s just another fadIt’s too hard to do
54Potential Objections to Teaching for SI It takes too much timeIt is only for gifted studentsIt is only for weak studentsTeachers should teach only in ways that are comfortable for themIt’s for other teachers
55Applications of the Concept of Successful Intelligence When we teach for successful intelligence, student achievement increases
56The Triarchic Aptitude-Instruction Interaction Study When high-school students are taught in a way that matches their pattern of strengths at least some of the time, they perform better than when they are not so taught
57The Triarchic Science-Social Studies Main-Effects Study Students (in grades 3 and 8) who are taught triarchically (for social studies and science) outperform students who are taught either primarily for critical thinking or primarily for memory, regardless of how the students are assessed (I.e., for memory or for analytical, creative, or practical achievement)
58The Triarchic Reading Study When working-class middle school and high school students are taught reading across the curriculum, triarchically taught students outperform students taught conventionally in vocabulary and reading-comprehension measures, regardless of the form of assessment used
59The Triarchic Mathematics Study When Alaskan Yup’ik (Native American) high school students are taught geometry concepts triarchically, they outperform students who are taught the same concepts conventionally, regardless of the form of assessment used
60Applications of the Concept of Successful Intelligence Successful intelligence can be developed:AnalyticalThe Learning-from-Context StudiesCreativeThe Insight-Training StudyPracticalThe Practical-Intelligence-for-Schools Study
61A CaveatPeople can be intelligent, or even successfully intelligent, but foolish:The egocentrism fallacyThe omniscience fallacyThe omnipotence fallacyThe invulnerability fallacy
62For Further Information… Sternberg, R. J. (1997). Successful intelligence. New York: Plume.Sternberg, R. J., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2000). Teaching for successful intelligence. Arlington Heights, IL: Skylight
63For Further Information… Sternberg, R. J. (1997). Successful intelligence. New York: Plume.Sternberg, R. J., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2000). Teaching for successful intelligence. Arlington Heights, IL: Skylight
64For Further Information… Sternberg, R. J., & Spear-Swerling, L. (1996). Teaching for thinking. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association
66Final ConclusionIndividuals are better recognized for and are better able to make use of their talentsSchools teach and assess children better with better resultsSociety utilizes rather than wastes the talents of its members
67Invitation to Collaborate We welcome the opportunity to collaborate with individuals and institutions all over the world. If you are interested in collaborating with us in one of our ongoing projects or in a new project, please contact me at