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Fluids AP/IB Physics

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Fluids Substances that flow –Liquids –Gases Characteristics –Pressure –Viscosity Liquid Characteristics –Adhesion & Cohesion –Surface Tension –Capillary Action Gas Characteristics –Compressibility

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Fluid Statics Pressure Boyles Law Pascals Principle Archimedes Principle

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Pressure Force per unit area –Pascal = N/m 2 (english sys: psi) Results from the weight of the fluid above

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Pressure Force per unit area –Pascal = N/m 2 (english sys: psi) Results from the weight of the fluid above

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Pressure Force per unit area –Pascal = N/m 2 (english sys: psi) Results from the weight of the fluid above –pure water 1 L = 1 kg = 9.80 N 1 ft 3 = 62.4 lbs –seawater (average) 1 L = 1.03 kg = N 1 ft 3 = 64 lbs

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Pressure Air is 0.1% as dense as water Atmosphere 52 miles high Pressure at sea level –1 atm = 14.7 psi = 1 kg/cm 2 = 1x10 5 P 1 atm = 10 m of seawater

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Pascals Principle Pressure exerted in a fluid is the same in all directions

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Pascals Principle Connect a large & small syringe via a plastic tube. –Depress first one plunger then the other. Which one is easier? Why? Which one moves farther (in relation to the other)? Why? –Fill the system with water & repeat the experiment. Why is it very bad to have air bubbles in your cars brake lines?

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Pascals Principle Pressure exerted on a fluid in a closed system is the same throughout the system

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Boyles Law Gases Only –Pressure exerted on the outside of a gas is inversely proportional to the volume of the gas, if its temperature remains constant. Pressure = Volume P 1 = V 2 P 2 V 1

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Archimedes Principle Weigh a fishing weight using a spring scale. Weigh it once again, but immersed in water. –What is the buoyant force on the weight? –How much water is displaced by the weight? –What is the weight of the water displaced? –Compare buoyant force to weight of water displaced.

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Archimedes Principle Any object that is immersed in a fluid, in whole or in part, will be buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced.

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Archimedes Principle Buoyant Force –Upward force exerted on an object by a fluid in which it is immersed

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Archimedes Principle States of Buoyancy –Positive –Neutral –Negative

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Archimedes Principle An object will sink into a fluid until it displaces an amount of the fluid equal to its own weight.

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Archimedes Principle Float –Object weighs less than the fluid it displaces Sink –Object weighs more than the fluid it displaces

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Fluid Dynamics Continuity Bernoullis Principle

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Continuity Equation A given system of flowing fluid, not gaining or losing fluid Choose two points – same amount of fluid passes each point in a given time 1 A 1 v 1 = 2 A 2 v 2

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Continuity Equation Most gases readily compress, most fluids do not Equation of Continuity for an Incompressible Fluid A 1 v 1 = A 2 v 2

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Bernoullis Principle Work-Energy theorem applied to fluids Relationship between pressure, speed, & height

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Bernoullis Principle Work-Energy theorem applied to fluids Relationship between pressure, speed, & height General Equation for taking into account changes in height and speed P 1 + ½ v gy 1 = P 2 + ½ v gy 2

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Bernoullis Principle Faster moving air exerts less pressure

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Torricellis Law An application of Bernoullis Principle v 2 = 2gh

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