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Some Syllables About Syllabi Jess Mandel, M.D. Associate Professor of Medicine Associate Dean for Undergraduate Medical Education UCSD School of Medicine.

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Presentation on theme: "Some Syllables About Syllabi Jess Mandel, M.D. Associate Professor of Medicine Associate Dean for Undergraduate Medical Education UCSD School of Medicine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Some Syllables About Syllabi Jess Mandel, M.D. Associate Professor of Medicine Associate Dean for Undergraduate Medical Education UCSD School of Medicine September, 2006

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3 Neal Cassady ( )

4 “I want you to tell me absolutely everything about your life…explore every digression and blind alley and don’t leave a single event out…”

5 Outline I. Essential components of a syllabus I. Essential components of a syllabus II. Decisions in syllabus design II. Decisions in syllabus design III. Components/steps III. Components/steps Goals/objectives Goals/objectives Selecting appropriate teaching methods Selecting appropriate teaching methods Assessment/grading policies Assessment/grading policies Textbooks Textbooks Handouts Handouts IV. Conclusions IV. Conclusions

6 Syllabus Definition: An outline or a summary of the main points of a text, lecture, or course of study. Definition: An outline or a summary of the main points of a text, lecture, or course of study. Etymology: Medieval Latin, probably alteration (influenced by Greek sullambanein, to put together) of Latin sillybus, parchment label, from Greek sillubos. Etymology: Medieval Latin, probably alteration (influenced by Greek sullambanein, to put together) of Latin sillybus, parchment label, from Greek sillubos.

7 Why Is a Good Syllabus Important? First interaction between students and instructor First interaction between students and instructor Delineates meaning, relevance, and goals of the course Delineates meaning, relevance, and goals of the course Establishes instructor’s and students’ responsibilities and expectations, i.e., is a contract Establishes instructor’s and students’ responsibilities and expectations, i.e., is a contract Defines standards of evaluation Defines standards of evaluation Acquaints students with course logistics Acquaints students with course logistics Contains critical course materials Contains critical course materials Developing a good syllabus requires reflection and analysis – helps course organization and execution Developing a good syllabus requires reflection and analysis – helps course organization and execution

8 Essential Components Course information Course information Course description/objectives Course description/objectives Instructor information Instructor information Texts, readings, materials Texts, readings, materials Course calendar/schedule Course calendar/schedule Course policies (grading, attendance, participation, missed exams/assignments, disabilites, etc) Course policies (grading, attendance, participation, missed exams/assignments, disabilites, etc)

9 Steps 1. Reflection 2. Establish goals and objectives 3. Select appropriate teaching and learning methods 4. Pick assessment methods of students 5. Think about contact with students 6. Select textbooks 7. Assemble handouts 8. Consider other resources 9. Plan evaluation of the course

10 1) Reflection Develop a well-grounded rationale for the course Develop a well-grounded rationale for the course Decide what students should be able to do as a result of the course. Decide what students should be able to do as a result of the course. Think about appropriate assessments Think about appropriate assessments Consider how learning can be active Consider how learning can be active Identify resources Identify resources Start composing the syllabus Start composing the syllabus Edouard Gelhay, Reflection, 1881

11 The Course Rationale The rationale for the course is key. The rationale for the course is key. Must be well thought out and well articulated Must be well thought out and well articulated Impacts construction of course Impacts construction of course Critical for students to appreciate relevance Critical for students to appreciate relevance What is obvious to profs not obvious to students What is obvious to profs not obvious to students Stuart Davis, Blips and Ifs, 1964

12 Example – Course Rationale Optical Microscopy and Imaging for Biologists 2006 Optical Microscopy and Imaging for Biologists 2006 Understanding the function or dysfunction of cells is crucial in the field of modern medicine. Scientists working in the biomedical sciences have access to a wide range of tools to examine the cells in their different states. This offers new opportunities as well as new problems. Understanding the principles of different optical imaging methods is critical to obtaining reliable results. The course will cover basic concepts of light microscopy and introduce advanced techniques relevant to modern cell and molecular biology. Students will gain extensive hands-on experience with state-of-the-art equipment for optical imaging and computerized image analysis guided by experienced academic instructors. Understanding the function or dysfunction of cells is crucial in the field of modern medicine. Scientists working in the biomedical sciences have access to a wide range of tools to examine the cells in their different states. This offers new opportunities as well as new problems. Understanding the principles of different optical imaging methods is critical to obtaining reliable results. The course will cover basic concepts of light microscopy and introduce advanced techniques relevant to modern cell and molecular biology. Students will gain extensive hands-on experience with state-of-the-art equipment for optical imaging and computerized image analysis guided by experienced academic instructors.

13 Example – Course Rationale One of the difficult things about teaching comedy is analyzing how exactly a phrase, a sentence, a joke is constructed as funny. Added to this is the need to fend off critics who say that explaining why something is funny takes all the fun out of it. We believe that this doesn't have to be the case, that in fact the comedy in a text can be enhanced by an astute, tight analysis. One of the difficult things about teaching comedy is analyzing how exactly a phrase, a sentence, a joke is constructed as funny. Added to this is the need to fend off critics who say that explaining why something is funny takes all the fun out of it. We believe that this doesn't have to be the case, that in fact the comedy in a text can be enhanced by an astute, tight analysis.

14 What to Avoid Vague intentions Vague intentions Teaching that has a tenuous relationship to these intentions Teaching that has a tenuous relationship to these intentions Assessment that bears little or no relationship to either Assessment that bears little or no relationship to either The above place students in a frustrating high stakes guessing game The above place students in a frustrating high stakes guessing game Johann Fussli, The Nightmare, 1781

15 2) Getting More Specific – From Rationale to Goals and Objectives Goals – What the course or institution seeks to achieve Goals – What the course or institution seeks to achieve Learning objectives – clear statements of what students should be able to do as a result of a course of study. Learning objectives – clear statements of what students should be able to do as a result of a course of study. Stuart Davis, Owh! in San Pao, 1951

16 Where Do Objectives Come From? Knowledge, skills and attitudes of the writer Knowledge, skills and attitudes of the writer Colleagues Colleagues Practitioners Practitioners Professional organizations Professional organizations Students – survey and assessment Students – survey and assessment

17 Example of Objectives Describe the complications of diabetes Describe the complications of diabetes Understand environmental factors that predispose children to developing asthma Understand environmental factors that predispose children to developing asthma Obtain a sexual history from a patient Obtain a sexual history from a patient Perform a thoracentesis Perform a thoracentesis Demonstrate a willingness to be critically evaluated by peers Demonstrate a willingness to be critically evaluated by peers Objectives typically: Objectives typically: Knowledge Skill Attitude

18 Introduction to Physical Oceanography - Course Goals Compare and select sources of data useful for the study of important physical variables and particular processes. Compare and select sources of data useful for the study of important physical variables and particular processes. What instruments are used for measuring each variable? What instruments are used for measuring each variable? What is their accuracy and limitations? What is their accuracy and limitations? What historic data exists? What historic data exists? What platforms are used? Satellites, ships, drifters, moorings. What platforms are used? Satellites, ships, drifters, moorings. Analyze and describe the important physical processes in the ocean. Analyze and describe the important physical processes in the ocean. What are the physical properties of sea water? What are the physical properties of sea water? What are the important thermodynamic and dynamic processes influencing the ocean? What are the important thermodynamic and dynamic processes influencing the ocean? What equations describe the processes and how were they derived? What equations describe the processes and how were they derived? What approximations were used in the derivation? What approximations were used in the derivation? Do the equations have useful solutions? Do the equations have useful solutions? How well do the solutions describe the process? How well do the solutions describe the process? Which processes are poorly understood? Which are well understood? Which processes are poorly understood? Which are well understood? Describe the processes that govern the distribution of ocean currents, the interaction of the ocean with the atmosphere. Describe the processes that govern the distribution of ocean currents, the interaction of the ocean with the atmosphere. Describe how the ocean can influence weather patterns, especially El Niño. Describe how the ocean can influence weather patterns, especially El Niño. Describe how the ocean can influence climate and cause abrupt climate change. Describe how the ocean can influence climate and cause abrupt climate change.

19 Course Goals - Physics How Things Work To begin to see science in everyday life To learn that science isn't frightening To learn to think logically in order to solve problems To develop and expand your physical intuition To learn how things work To begin to understand that the universe is predictable rather than magical To obtain a perspective on the history of science and technology

20 Knowledge Objectives Three main knowledge domains Three main knowledge domains Recall of information Recall of information Conceptual understanding Conceptual understanding Problem solving Problem solving Want to avoid undue focus on only one of these (most commonly recall) Want to avoid undue focus on only one of these (most commonly recall) Sherry Chen, Virtues of Knowledge

21 Skills Objectives Usually “pass/fail” Usually “pass/fail” Standards of performance may be hierarchical Standards of performance may be hierarchical Alternative is to segment skills as “can perform,” “has observed,” or “can interpret.” Alternative is to segment skills as “can perform,” “has observed,” or “can interpret.” Standard of Performance Example of Skills Well qualified or very competent Measurement of Measurement of BP BP Assessment of JVP Assessment of JVP Familiar with or competent Interpretation of Interpretation of CXR CXR Direct ophthal- moscopy to detect hypertensive changes Direct ophthal- moscopy to detect hypertensive changes Awareness or minimal familiarity Cardiac catheterization Cardiac catheterization Pericardiocentesis Pericardiocentesis

22 Attitude Objectives More difficult to conceptualize and articulate More difficult to conceptualize and articulate Less commonly used Less commonly used Very important Very important What is student’s attitude toward self-directed learning? What is student’s attitude toward self-directed learning? How do students develop attitudes about geriatric patients? How do students develop attitudes about geriatric patients? How do students develop attitudes about other health care professionals? How do students develop attitudes about other health care professionals? Stuart Davis, New York Elevated, 1931

23 Communicating Course Goals and Objectives Syllabus Syllabus Course website Course website Introduction of course Introduction of course Letter to students Letter to students Juan Gris, The Newspaper, 1916

24 Course Goals and Objectives – Best Practices

25 3) Selecting Appropriate Teaching and Learning Methods Paradigm shifts in last 3 decades: Paradigm shifts in last 3 decades: From focus on instruction From focus on instruction -> focus on learning -> focus on learning From conveying facts -> motivating student to actively engage material From conveying facts -> motivating student to actively engage material Requires balance between instructor's leadership and student initiative Requires balance between instructor's leadership and student initiative Thomas Eakins, Portrait of Professor W.D. Marks, 1886

26 What Makes for Good Teaching Mark Krichevsky, M.D. Larry Hanson, M.D. October 26, 2006

27 Selecting Appropriate Teaching and Learning Methods Methods need to reflect objectives Methods need to reflect objectives Example: breath sounds Example: breath sounds Knowledge of how breath sounds are generated and transmitted may be addressed in lecture, reading materials, or small groups Knowledge of how breath sounds are generated and transmitted may be addressed in lecture, reading materials, or small groups Skills differentiating normal and abnormal breath sounds can use guided audio recordings in lecture or small groups Skills differentiating normal and abnormal breath sounds can use guided audio recordings in lecture or small groups Skill of listening to patient’s lungs with a stethoscope requires clinical instruction Skill of listening to patient’s lungs with a stethoscope requires clinical instruction

28 Lectures Pro’s Pro’s Familiar Familiar Useful for communicating knowledge Useful for communicating knowledge Arguably most efficient use of faculty time Arguably most efficient use of faculty time Introduce/explain new material Introduce/explain new material Provide pace and framework to course Provide pace and framework to course Integrate with other teaching methods Integrate with other teaching methods Con’s Con’s Effectiveness Effectiveness Not individualized or self- directed by learner Retention less than active methods Challenging re: skills, attitudes Limits dialog/cross-talk Limits dialog/cross-talk Acceptance Acceptance Issues for adult learners – respect for autonomy, consideration of unique life experiences and knowledge, relevance, practicality Boredom/restlessness

29 Optimizing Lectures – Preparation/Organization Most common error is trying to teach too much Most common error is trying to teach too much Don’t try to work in everything Need to know learning context (knowledge base of students, curriculum structure) Don’t try to work in everything Need to know learning context (knowledge base of students, curriculum structure) Identify truly key elements and cover them well Identify truly key elements and cover them well Help students see forests as well as trees Help students see forests as well as trees Example: if lecture covers all fungal infections, which are most common? Most serious? Example: if lecture covers all fungal infections, which are most common? Most serious?

30 Optimizing Lectures – Presentation Organization (lecture/notes) Organization (lecture/notes) Enthusiasm, confidence, humor Enthusiasm, confidence, humor Interactivity, respect Interactivity, respect Goes beyond written materials Goes beyond written materials Has sense of difficult areas and can explain them Has sense of difficult areas and can explain them Use of aids, demonstrations Use of aids, demonstrations Addresses relevance Addresses relevance Expert subject knowledge Expert subject knowledge

31 Optimizing Lectures – Presentation Organization (lecture/notes) Organization (lecture/notes) Enthusiasm, confidence, humor Enthusiasm, confidence, humor Interactivity, respect Interactivity, respect Goes beyond written materials Goes beyond written materials Has sense of difficult areas and can explain them Has sense of difficult areas and can explain them Use of aids, demonstrations Use of aids, demonstrations Addresses relevance Addresses relevance Expert subject knowledge Expert subject knowledge

32 Small Group Activities Many different definitions and formats Many different definitions and formats Main features Main features Active Participation Active Participation Face-to-face contact Face-to-face contact Purposeful activity Purposeful activity Sylvia Sleigh, A.I.R. Group Portrait, 1978

33 Active/Interactive Learning Techniques Pro’s Pro’s Improved retention Improved retention Improved application of knowledge Improved application of knowledge Improved motivation/acceptance/ Improved motivation/acceptance/attendance Acquisition of enduring skills (incl. speaking, reasoning, negotiation, cooperation, leadership) Acquisition of enduring skills (incl. speaking, reasoning, negotiation, cooperation, leadership) Easier to discuss/model attitudes Easier to discuss/model attitudes Facilitates faculty and peer mentorship of students Facilitates faculty and peer mentorship of students Con’s Con’s Less familiar format Requires significant time to plan and start up (logistics, stimulus material) Require additional faculty time (small groups must be small enough for all to participate: 5-8 students) All groups are not equal All members of a given group are not equal Assessment/grading issues less straightforward

34 Problem Based Learning Rusty Kallenberg, M.D. November 2, 2006

35 Small Group Facilitation Charlie Goldberg, M.D., Shawn Harrity, M.D. March 8, 2007

36 Teaching Practical/Clinical Skills Active participation of learner Active participation of learner Setting a good example Setting a good example Integration of clinical and basic science as possible Integration of clinical and basic science as possible Adequate opportunities for practice Adequate opportunities for practice Close observation and feedback Close observation and feedback Rembrandt, The Anatomy Lecture of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, 1632

37 Teaching/Learning Methods – Best Practices

38 4) Assessment of Students – UCSD Policies 503.Grading Policy - School of Medicine [En 10/29/85; Rt by Assembly 3/4/86] 503.Grading Policy - School of Medicine [En 10/29/85; Rt by Assembly 3/4/86] (A) With the exception of courses offered in the first quarter, which will be graded P (pass); F (fail), the work of all students in those courses designated by the Faculty of the School of Medicine as constituting the Core Curriculum and the fourth year clinical clerkships will be reported in terms of three grades: H (honors); P (pass); F (fail). [Am 4/25/95; Am 1/29/02] (A) With the exception of courses offered in the first quarter, which will be graded P (pass); F (fail), the work of all students in those courses designated by the Faculty of the School of Medicine as constituting the Core Curriculum and the fourth year clinical clerkships will be reported in terms of three grades: H (honors); P (pass); F (fail). [Am 4/25/95; Am 1/29/02] (B) In all other courses, grades shall be reported as either S (satisfactory) or U (unsatisfactory). (B) In all other courses, grades shall be reported as either S (satisfactory) or U (unsatisfactory). (C) No grade-points per unit shall be assigned. (C) No grade-points per unit shall be assigned.

39 Assessment of Students – LCME Policies

40 Criterion-Referenced vs. Norm- Referenced Grading

41 Criterion-Referenced (absolute standard) Criterion-Referenced (absolute standard) Students not compared to each other. Students not compared to each other. Based on standards of competence or content mastery Based on standards of competence or content mastery Necessitates determination of the standard before the exam Necessitates determination of the standard before the exam Helpful to use items of known importance or difficulty Helpful to use items of known importance or difficulty Example: Those scoring <60% fail Example: Those scoring <60% fail Norm-Referenced (relative standard) Norm-Referenced (relative standard) Grades determined by looking at performance of all students after the exam Examples: bottom 10% of class fail; scoring <1.2 SD below mean fail

42 Criterion-Referenced vs. Norm- Referenced Grading Criterion-Referenced (absolute standard) Criterion-Referenced (absolute standard) Students not compared to each other. Students not compared to each other. Based on standards of competence or content mastery Based on standards of competence or content mastery Necessitates determination of the standard before the exam Necessitates determination of the standard before the exam Helpful to use items of known importance or difficulty Helpful to use items of known importance or difficulty Example: Those scoring <60% fail Example: Those scoring <60% fail Generally preferred Generally preferred Norm-Referenced (relative standard) Norm-Referenced (relative standard) Grades determined by looking at performance of all students after the exam Examples: bottom 10% of class fail; scoring <1.2 SD below mean fail

43 Formative vs. Summative Assessments Formative Formative Used to provide data to learner on interim progress and give feedback that permits additional improvement Used to provide data to learner on interim progress and give feedback that permits additional improvement Primarily a learning experience Primarily a learning experience Summative Assessment at the end of a course or unit that indicates the degree of proficiency achieved. Summative Assessment at the end of a course or unit that indicates the degree of proficiency achieved. Primarily an evaluative experience Primarily an evaluative experience

44 Uses and Limitations of Various Test Formats - MCQ Goal: you get the question right because you know the answer, you miss it if you don’t. Goal: you get the question right because you know the answer, you miss it if you don’t. Advantages: computer scoring, statistics Advantages: computer scoring, statistics Disadvantages: Easier to test factual recall than higher level operations; can’t test skills or attitudes well Disadvantages: Easier to test factual recall than higher level operations; can’t test skills or attitudes well Johannes Vermeer, A Lady Writing, c. 1665

45 Case, SM, Swanson, DB. Constructing Written Test Questions for the Basic and Clinical Sciences, 3rd Edition. Philadelphia: National Board of Medical Examiners, writing.asp

46 Uses and Limitations of Various Test Formats - MCQ Write to choose best answer (e.g., Case vignette with stem ‘what is the most likely diagnosis?”) Write to choose best answer (e.g., Case vignette with stem ‘what is the most likely diagnosis?”) Avoid multiple true/false, or ‘negative’ questions Avoid multiple true/false, or ‘negative’ questions Gerrit Dou, Man Interrupted at His Writing, 1635

47 Uses and Limitations of Various Test Formats - MCQ Avoid technical flaws: Avoid technical flaws: Grammatical cues Grammatical cues Logical clues Logical clues Absolute terms (always/never) Absolute terms (always/never) Longer or more specific correct answer Longer or more specific correct answer Avoid superfluous info or ‘trick questions’ Avoid superfluous info or ‘trick questions’ Avoid focus on minutia Avoid focus on minutia

48 Non-abordal nittering usually involves an Dacklex Dacklex Grumeld Grumeld Telloid Telloid Ustible Ustible

49 Non-abordal nittering usually involves an Dacklex Dacklex Grumeld Grumeld Telloid Telloid Ustible Ustible

50 Regrallification becomes necessary when The gudges noogle The gudges noogle The rekob flanes trelsate, and the vosts fail to flonce The rekob flanes trelsate, and the vosts fail to flonce The breg fribbles The breg fribbles The hooluphs elgage The hooluphs elgage

51 Regrallification becomes necessary when The gudges noogle The gudges noogle The rekob flanes trelsate, and the vosts fail to flonce The rekob flanes trelsate, and the vosts fail to flonce The breg fribbles The breg fribbles The hooluphs elgage The hooluphs elgage

52 Nuriles are trassed by yukorrhea because All their obblers are sushed All their obblers are sushed Their fleepers are always tolloidable Their fleepers are always tolloidable The ning-dephle is usually runged The ning-dephle is usually runged Their snarms are never grovid Their snarms are never grovid

53 Nuriles are trassed by yukorrhea because All their obblers are sushed All their obblers are sushed Their fleepers are always tolloidable Their fleepers are always tolloidable The ning-dephle is usually runged The ning-dephle is usually runged Their snarms are never grovid Their snarms are never grovid

54 The ustible can be used in Slunting Slunting Freeping Freeping Nittering Nittering Grunging Grunging

55 The ustible can be used in Slunting Slunting Freeping Freeping Nittering Nittering Grunging Grunging

56 Uses and Limitations of Various Test Formats – Short Answer Can be pencil/paper or electronic (superlist) Can be pencil/paper or electronic (superlist) Eliminates cuing Eliminates cuing Increased grading time Increased grading time Requires more judgment by grader than MCQ format; more risk for ambiguity. Requires more judgment by grader than MCQ format; more risk for ambiguity. Gerard Terborch, Officer Writing a Letter, 1671

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60 Uses and Limitations of Various Test Formats – Essay Can be open or close ended questions Can be open or close ended questions Tests skills such as writing, reasoning, and arguing abilities Tests skills such as writing, reasoning, and arguing abilities Objective grading criteria are challenging Objective grading criteria are challenging Labor intensive to grade Labor intensive to grade Generally avoided unless offers unique advantages over other formats Generally avoided unless offers unique advantages over other formats Carlo Dolci, St. Matthew Writing His Gospel, 1671

61 Uses and Limitations of Various Test Formats – Miscellaneous Direct observation with checklist or rating forms Direct observation with checklist or rating forms Most useful for skills/attitudes Most useful for skills/attitudes Self-assessment Self-assessment More useful in formative than summative assessment More useful in formative than summative assessment Annunciation and Nativity (Altarpiece of Observation), 1470

62 Validity and Reliability Issues

63 Validity – Does it measure what it is supposed to measure (objectives)? Validity – Does it measure what it is supposed to measure (objectives)? Subjective judgment Subjective judgment Helpful to solicit input multiple people Helpful to solicit input multiple people If validity in doubt, huge hot button issue for students If validity in doubt, huge hot button issue for students Reliability – Does it produce consistent results? Reliability – Does it produce consistent results? Reuse of banked test items Consistent scores on different parts of the test

64 Assessment of Students – Policies for the Syllabus Evaluation should be linked to objectives, and use appropriate methodologies Evaluation should be linked to objectives, and use appropriate methodologies Criterion-referenced systems preferred if possible Criterion-referenced systems preferred if possible Interim formative feedback helpful (and required by LCME) – early and often evaluation has advantages Interim formative feedback helpful (and required by LCME) – early and often evaluation has advantages Grading policy in syllabus should be clear, explicit and as simple as possible Grading policy in syllabus should be clear, explicit and as simple as possible Weighting should be in accordance with course objectives Weighting should be in accordance with course objectives Avoid multiple ways to fail the course (e.g., many noncompensatory domains) Avoid multiple ways to fail the course (e.g., many noncompensatory domains) Students need to have concerns heard Students need to have concerns heard

65 Assessment – Best Practices

66 5) Contact with Students Syllabus should outline how and when to contact you. Syllabus should outline how and when to contact you. , office hours, or both? Who decides? , office hours, or both? Who decides? “Approachability” intensively scrutinized by student before approach is made “Approachability” intensively scrutinized by student before approach is made Role of “student liaison committees” Role of “student liaison committees” Grievance procedures Grievance procedures Paul Gauguin, The Conversation, 1885

67 6) Textbooks Selection of a text should be a late, not early consideration Selection of a text should be a late, not early consideration Selection of text is subservient to course objectives Selection of text is subservient to course objectives Is it to be read cover to cover, or only to answer specific questions? Is it to be read cover to cover, or only to answer specific questions? Distinguish between required and supplemental readings Distinguish between required and supplemental readings “Just in time” vs. “Just in case” philosophies “Just in time” vs. “Just in case” philosophies Vincent van Gogh, Gauguin’s Chair with Books and Candle, 1888.

68 Consideration in Choosing Textbooks Accuracy and currency of content Accuracy and currency of content Coherence and clarity of content Coherence and clarity of content Level of difficulty and interest for students (challenging but not inappropriately difficult) Level of difficulty and interest for students (challenging but not inappropriately difficult) Cost Cost Choose the less expensive work if it is of comparable quality Choose the less expensive work if it is of comparable quality Choose paperbacks rather than hardbacks Choose paperbacks rather than hardbacks Limit the total cost of books for your course by placing some works on reserve in the library Limit the total cost of books for your course by placing some works on reserve in the library Size (heavy large texts are hard to carry) Size (heavy large texts are hard to carry) Format and layout (ease of reading) Format and layout (ease of reading)

69 7) Handouts (Class Notes) Class notes are an expectation at most schools Class notes are an expectation at most schools Wide spectrum of what is handed out Wide spectrum of what is handed out Outline Outline Prose Prose PowerPoint handouts PowerPoint handouts Key journal articles Key journal articles François Bonvin, Still Life with Book, Papers and Inkwell, 1876

70 Students’ Complaints About Notes Lecture didn’t follow them closely enough Lecture didn’t follow them closely enough Lecturer followed them too closely (i.e. read them) Lecturer followed them too closely (i.e. read them) Figures were unreadable or too small Figures were unreadable or too small Variation in style between lecturers Variation in style between lecturers

71 Tips on Notes Have notes ready on time Have notes ready on time Number all pages Number all pages List “Key Concepts” and “Key Terms” List “Key Concepts” and “Key Terms” Use major and minor headings Use major and minor headings Leave wide margins and ample space for annotations Leave wide margins and ample space for annotations Appropriately annotate key figures and make them large Appropriately annotate key figures and make them large Add problems (3-5, ideally case-based) at end of text Add problems (3-5, ideally case-based) at end of text Keep current, and reference current events and recent advances Keep current, and reference current events and recent advances

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76 What About Copyright Issues? OGC helpful in assessing risk OGC helpful in assessing risk ALWAYS better to seek permission when incorporating copyrighted portions ALWAYS better to seek permission when incorporating copyrighted portions What is the character of the use? What is the character of the use? Nonprofit, educational > commercial Nonprofit, educational > commercial What is the nature of the work to be used? What is the nature of the work to be used? Wider latitude for published, factual works Wider latitude for published, factual works How much of the work will you use? How much of the work will you use? The less close to the complete work, the better The less close to the complete work, the better What effect would this use have on the market for the original or for permissions if the use were widespread? What effect would this use have on the market for the original or for permissions if the use were widespread? Better if limited access, and ifit doesn’t compete with original work Better if limited access, and ifit doesn’t compete with original work

77 8) Other Resources Compiling a “useful links” library Video Video Animations Animations Skills demonstrations Skills demonstrations Podcasting Podcasting Other Other Paul Goodnight, Links and Lineage

78 9) Course Evaluation Last step of the course life cycle Last step of the course life cycle Critical for improvement Critical for improvement What data to collect? What data to collect? Student evaluations Student evaluations Course Course Lecturer Lecturer Local vs. national benchmarks (GQ) Local vs. national benchmarks (GQ) Outcomes data Outcomes data USMLE exams USMLE exams Residency success Residency success Other Other How to implement How to implement Sustaining improvement vs. substantive redesign? Sustaining improvement vs. substantive redesign? When to infuse new blood? When to infuse new blood?

79 Learner and Program Evaluation Shawn Harrity, M.D. Charlie Goldberg, M.D. June 7, 2007

80 Final Thoughts Syllabus design cannot be separated from course design Syllabus design cannot be separated from course design Reflection, annual redesign, and year-round development cycle pay major dividends in quality of course Reflection, annual redesign, and year-round development cycle pay major dividends in quality of course Role of syllabus (and policies therein) key part of the “unwritten curriculum” – the implicit messages continually conveyed to students Role of syllabus (and policies therein) key part of the “unwritten curriculum” – the implicit messages continually conveyed to students

81 Stuart Davis, Rapt at Rappaport's,1952 How to reach me: W: Office: MTF 162A


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