Presentation on theme: "Epidemiology of ESRD in Saudi Arabia Mohammed Al-Homrany, FRCPC, FACP King Khalid University, College Of Medicine.Abha Al-Madinah,Feb 8-9,2014."— Presentation transcript:
Epidemiology of ESRD in Saudi Arabia Mohammed Al-Homrany, FRCPC, FACP King Khalid University, College Of Medicine.Abha Al-Madinah,Feb 8-9,2014
Introduction ESRD causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The costs of RRT are very high and represents a great social burden: –Evolving health care environment –Growing elderly patients –New technologies –Increasing population –Economic constraints
Dialysis Population Net Annual Increase SCOT,2012
Dialysis in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Dialysis Population Current and Projected Average Net Annual Increase = 366 Patients Average Percentage of Annual Increase = 7.8% SCOT,2012
ESRD as a major health problem Few reports are published on epidemiology of the disease in the kingdom
Incidence of t-ESRD reported at different regions Al-Homrany.SJKD,2000
End-stage renal disease in Tabuk Area, Saudi Arabia: An epidemiological study. The estimated prevalence of treated ESRD was 460 per million populations (PMP); El Minshawy,et al,SJKD,2014
Epidemiology of end-stage renal disease in the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council: a systematic review Hassanein,etal, JRSM Short Rep. 2012
Changes in the prevalence (PMP) of ESRD and Dialysis in SA & USA % changes Treatment ESRD SA USA Dialysis SA USA Alsayyari & Shaheen,SMJ,2011
Incidence of Dialysis Patients According to Region-2012 Region Population (2011) New Dx.Patients (2012) Incidence (PMP) Southern 4,373, Central 8,364, Eastern 4,290, Western 9,108, Northern 2,239, Total28,376, SCOT data,2012
Prevalence of Dialysis patients According to Region RegionPopulation (2011) Dx.Patients (2012) Prevalence (PMP) Western9,108,436 5, Southern4,373,549 2, Central8,364,471 4, Northen2,239,669 1, Eastern4,290,230 1, Total28,376,35514, SCOT data,2012
Renal Replacement Therapy in Saudi arabia PD 1327 (6 %) HD (60 % ) Total =21,321 pts (751 PMP) Renal Tx. Followed Up 7150 (34 %) (SCOT, 2012)
Age Distribution Total = (Scot Data, 2012)
Cause of ESRD No. % Hypertensive nephropathy Diabetic nephropathy unknown Primary GN Obstructive nephropathy Hereditary Renal disease Congenital malformation Tubulo-interstitial diseases vasculitis Pregnancy related others Total SCOT data,2012
Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus / Hypertension in dialysis patient Total = Diabetes Mellitus only 1716 (14 % ) DM & HTN 3986 ( 30 % ) Not DM or HTN 3243 ( 25 % ) HTN only 3989 ( 31 % ) (Scot Data, 2012)
Reasons for increasing incidence of ESRD Awareness of the disease Improvement in the health care Increasing population Increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus Neglected or missed cases of glomerular diseases
1- Diabetes Mellitus
Prevalence of diabetes in the adult population (aged 20 years) by year and region (Diabetes Care, 1999)
Diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia. Al-Nozha,etal,Saudi M J2004 Nov;25(11): The overall prevalence of DM in adults in KSA is 23.7%. Large number of diabetic (27.9%) were unaware of having DM
The yearly total number of registered cases of diabetes according to gender (G) and type (T) of diabetes from the start of registry in 2000 to 2012 (Alrubeaan.etal, J Med Internet Res Sep)
Relative incidence of various lesions in patients with primary glomerular disease NameNo.FSGSMCGNMGNIgAMCD Akhtar %10.5%6.5%5.8% Huraib %20.7%10.6%6.5%11.6% Huraib %26.4%21.8%- Wakeel %3.3%16.7%17.5%10.8% Mitwalli %10.0%6.3%6.5%5.5% Mitwalli %10.0%2.5%6.5%5.5% Homrany %38.7%9.0%19.0%9.9% Alkhunaizi10035%4% 14%10% Jalalah % %5.4% Nawaz-(2013) %13.0 %9.9%11.5%17.7%
Saudi Renal Biopsy Registry Preliminary Results ( )
Preliminary results ( ) 405 cases of renal biopsies. 209 male ( 51.6 % ), 196 Female ( 48.4 % ) Mean Age: All are Saudi nationals. 339 ( 83.7 % ) were Adults: > Age of 12 y. 66 ( 16.3 % ) : Pediatric age group < 12 y. 15 ( 3.7 % ): +ve family history of renal diseases.
Distribution of different renal pathology
Frequencies of different primary renal lesions among the study group (all ages) = 250
Frequencies of different renal pathology among adult and pediatric age group (<12)
What is next ?
Important steps need to be done in order to decrease the incidence of ESRD Early detection of renal diseases. Early referral to Nephrologists Better control of D.M.
Comparison of the results of various screening programs worldwide Program titleNHANES IIINKFS PreventionAusDiabSHARE Program(Present study) Country of originUSASingaporeAustraliaHong Kong Year of screening1988 to to to Age range 20 yearsWorking adults 25 years 20 years N (total)14,622189,11711,2471,703 N (asymptomatic) ,522 (estimatedNot mentioned1201 minimum no.) Mean age years20 to 39 (46%) (N=1703) 53 (N=1201) RaceWhite (80%)Chinese (77%)Australian of EuropeanChinese (>99%) descent (90%); Asian(7%) Black (11%)Malay (11%) Mexican (5%)Indian (9%) Prevalence of1% (N=14,644)1.10%2.40%5.0% (N=1703) proteinuria0.3% (N=8585)3.2% (N=1203) Prevalence of silent kidney disease. Li et al, Kidney International, 2005
Abnormal urinalysis in patient attending PHCC (Aseer region ) Proteinuria11.7% Hematuria11.0% Al Homrany et al.SJKDT, 1997,
Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SEEK-Saudi investigators) - a pilot study Alsuwaida,etal.SJKD.2010 The prevalence of CKD in the young Saudi population is around 5.7%. It is feasible to screen for CKD. Screening of high-risk individuals is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy to detect CKD patients.
Significance of proteinuria in Type 2 DM treated at PHCC Al Homrany, WAJM, 2004; diabetic :(118 female, 90 male) Mean age :56.2 8.8 y Mean Duration :9.6 4.7 y Fasting BS :218 72 mg/dl Total cholesterol :233.7 55.2 mg Mean systolic BP :136.4 18.9 mmHg Mean diastolic BP :87.5 10.8 mmHg Poor compliance : Diet 74% Drug 82.7% Follow Up 78.4% Proteinuria :54.3%
Results of the logistic regression model with proteinuria as dependent factor IndependentExp (B) 95% CI Significant VariableUpper Lower Glycemic control p<0.001 Cholesterol level N.S. Gender N.S. Diabetes duration p<0.000 Diastolic BP p<0.001 Overall predicted = 72.12% M. Al Homrany et. al, WAJM, 2004;
Factors affecting the progression of diabetic nephropathy and its complications: A single-center experience in Saudi Arabia Alwakeel,etal. Ann Saudi Med May-Jun
Rate of decline in GFR/year in relation to variables associated with progression of GFR and nephropathy in 621 diabetic nephropathy patients
3-Early referral to nephrologist
Renal function preservation in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with early nephropathy: a comparative prospective cohort study between primary health care doctors and a nephrologist. Fifty-two patients (27 patients, early nephropathy [EN]; 25 patients, overt nephropathy [ON]) : Nephrolgist 65 patients (34 patients, EN; 31 patients, ON): family doctors Both cohorts were followed up for 1 year. Earlier referral of patients with DM2 to a nephrologist was associated with better renal function preservation, better blood pressure control, more frequently used of ACE,ARBs,statin;avoidance of NSAID. However, metabolic control and stopping smoking were not attained by either the nephrologist or family doctors. Ramirez, Am J Kidney Dis. 2006
Conclusion ESRD continuous to be one of the major health problem that need a lot of attention. There is enough evidence that the prevalence and the incidence of ESRD in Saudi Arabia is increasing and showed rapid rise over the last 3 decade. Change in the life style, high population growth, fast increase in life expectancy have contributed to the changes in the CKD pattern. DM and Glomerular diseases are the two main causes of CKD in SA.
Conclusion Early detection of GN and good control of DM should help in reducing the incidence & prevalence of ESRD in SA. More effective prevention, intervention and early detection programs for CKD are needed. Early referral to nephrologists will help early intervention. It is important for the health care providers and financial planner to understand the magnitude of such problem in order to have clear strategies to deal with such defastating disease.