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Could/Should CS be Counted for a Math Credit? Wisconsin Mathematics Council Annual Conference Green Lake, WI Friday, May 2, 2014 Joe Kmoch joe@jkmoch.com

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WI State Law Passed in November, 2013 Took DPI and CSTA-WI Dairyland by surprise Andy Kuemmel testified in November Statement of law (Act 63) The school board shall award a pupil up to one mathematics credit for successfully completing in the high school grades a course in computer sciences that the department has determined qualifies as computer sciences according to criteria established by the department.

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Meaning of the Law Intent of the Law DPI called a meeting for December, 2013, before the law was passed; this new law became a focus for the meeting. Also discussed: CS 405 licensure

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Meaning of the Law Intent of the Law Result: DPI will lead discussions to Create standards for CS in K-12 Define what a CS Course would look like in order to be counted for math credit

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Meaning of the Law Intent of the Law Regarding licensure: DPI was asked to consider Offering a test as part of a new licensing procedure Allowing a portfolio to replace most coursework for currently certified teachers Continuing to require a CS Methods course and Classroom observation

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Your Turn Questions to work on by yourself for 3 minutes 1. What do you think needs to be included in a CS course so that it would count for a math credit 2. If you teach a CS course which should be allowed to earn math credit, please identify the math concepts included After about 3 minutes, please share with 2-3 others and then we’ll talk as a group.

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What is CS? From the CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards, Rev 2011, pp 6-7 “Computer science (CS) is the study of computers and algorithmic processes, including their principles, their hardware and software designs, their applications, and their impact on society.”

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CS as Math Claims A CS Course could replace algebra (symbols, formulas) A CS course could replace geometry (proof) Math Courses inject CS into a “traditional” algebra course – is it now also CS? This is more like ed tech unless specific CS concepts are identified

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Common Core Stds in Math CS is mentioned in the appendix statement Math ed concerns: covering CCSSM takes 3 years of math through college algebra Unlikely that CS can replace mathematics courses Even if CCSSM is removed as a standard, the talk has been to increase rigor thus these standard become a “lower bound”

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Computational Thinking (CT) Critical Thinking + Computing Power = Making Decisions or Innovating Solutions Based on 9 CS Concepts and their application to most subject domains

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CT – 9 Core CS Concepts Data Collection Data Analysis Data Representation Problem Decomposition Abstraction Algorithms Automation Simulation Parallelization

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CT – 5 Core Dispositions Confidence in dealing with complexity Persistence in working with difficult problems Tolerance for ambiguity The ability the deal with open ended problems The ability to communicate and work with others to achieve a common goal or solution

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#nafnext Comparing CT Core Dispositions and CCSS Standards for Mathematical Practice CCSS Standards for Math PracticeComputational Thinking core dispositions 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them Confidence with complexity Persistence in working through problems 2. Reason abstractly and quantitativelyAbility to deal with open ended problems 3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others Ability to communicate and collaborate to achieve a common goal 4. Model with mathematicsTolerance for ambiguity 5. Use appropriate tools strategicallyAbility to communicate and collaborate to achieve a common goal 6. Attend to precisionPersistence in working through problems 7. Look for and make use of structureAbility to deal with open-ended problems 8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning Ability to deal with open-ended problems

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#nafnext Comparing CT Core Concepts and CCSS Standards for Mathematical Practice CCSS Standards for Math PracticeComputational Thinking core concepts 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them Data collection, analysis, representation Problem Decomposition/Analysis 2. Reason abstractly and quantitativelyAbstraction 3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others Algorithms and Procedures 4. Model with mathematicsModeling & Simulation 5. Use appropriate tools strategicallyAutomation 6. Attend to precisionData collection, analysis, representation 7. Look for and make use of structureParallelization Algorithms & Procedures 8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning Algorithms & Procedures

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#nafnext CCSS: Standards for Mathematical Content High School: Modeling Modeling Standards Modeling is best interpreted not as a collection of isolated topics but rather in relation to other standards. Making mathematical models is a Standard for Mathematical Practice, and specific modeling standards appear throughout the high school standards indicated by a star symbol ( ★ ).

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CSTA Crosswalks Between CS Standards and CCSSM Places where there is reasonable parallelism Computational Thinking Strand (one of 5 major strands) Computing Practice and Programming Strand A few in Computers and Communication Devices and Community Impacts http://csta.acm.org CSTA K-12 Standards Scroll to “Linking CSTA Standards…”

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Best Guesses There are three national CS curricula Good chance of counting as Math: APCS-A APCS Principles (starting 2016-2017) Probably won’t count Exploring Computer Science (9 th and 10 th gr)

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Best Guesses Other courses – probably won’t count as math unless DPI creates and publishes a standard which allows you to create such a course would need a syllabus of the quality of depth and specificity as APCS A or Principles

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Licensing We are one of only 2 states in US that require CS certification (WI-405) to teach any CS course (the other is Arizona) CS course is defined as having 25% or more programming content Currently required for APCS-A, Principles which includes PLTW-CSE course Exploring CS does not require 405

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Licensing Requirements for licensing are old (date from 1986) and are based on the original APCS course (equivalent to APCS-AB) Two or three programs in the state; most require a minor in CS + CS Methods course + Teaching Observations Almost impossible to get and can be very costly

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“Fixing” the Licensing Problem Things we don’t want make licensing trivial to get cs teachers who don’t know the material don’t want watered down CS

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“Fixing” the Licensing Problem Alternative paths to certification Portfolio Test (ala ETS test developed for Texas) (Real) methods course and observations 405 is currently an endorsement Create two licensing levels – one through APCS Principles, other for APCS-A Java?

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“Fixing” the Licensing Problem Other thoughts 405 is currently an endorsement; should it be stand-alone? Create two licensing levels – one through APCS Principles, other for APCS-A Java? Modify Business Ed License to teach all other IT (website and interactive media, networking, database, support)

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Discussion? This presentation will be available at http://expandingcswisconsin.pbworks.com

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