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1 University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh
Computing for All Workforce projections, Computer Science K-12 Standards, Computational Thinking University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh July 8, 2014 Joe Kmoch

2 How many of you... How many of you teach computer science?
How many of you use computing technologies fairly regularly in your courses? Have heard about / Know something about Background Polya, Bloom, SCANS, P21 – 21st Century Skills, Career Clusters Workforce issues related to CS and IT? New CSTA CS K-12 Standards Computational Thinking CS counting for Math credit Let me start off by getting a feel for my audience. I know about an equal number of you are at the high school and middle school levels and there’s a few elementary teachers – oh and I believe one principal! How many of you teach computer science (or what you think computer science is)? How many of you use computing technologies fairly regularly in your courses? across the curriculum (English, business, math, science, foreign language, social studies, technology, etc.).

3 What I will touch upon... Important historical background – Big Ideas
Workforce issues – why CS? New CS K-12 Standards Computational Thinking CS counting for Math credit in WI

4 Polya’s Four Steps to Problem Solving
Understand the problem Design and plan a solution Implement that solution Evaluate that solution How to Solve It,1945

5 Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Cognitive Domain
Higher order (eg critical thinking) Creating Evaluating Analyzing Lower order Applying Understanding Remembering The first three are “higher order thinking skills” or also called “critical thinking skills”; usually considered parallel while Lower Order TS are considered sequential from the bottom. The notion here is that we need to move more of our teaching and learning from the lower half to the upper half of this list. Too often schools and curricula are mired in lower ordered thinking – this was fine and really was the plan during the early days of mass public education starting in the late 1800s...get some knowledge into people and get them to perform well in repetitive, tasks (taming the masses). In today’s world, particularly in the 21st century, we’re faced with the notion that we have very complex problems which cut across typical curricula and we need people to be able to think about these problems and advance up the Polya chain, for example from the implemention of a plan to actually understanding the problem and devising the plan. 1956, 2000

6 21st Century Skills Four C’s
Collaboration Communication Creativity and Innovation Critical Thinking and Problem Solving + Employability and soft skills (learning and career skills) + Basic computing application skills <http://P21.org> (founded 2002) Similar to (based on?) SCANS Report (1991) Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS): Final Report Available This then relates very clearly to the 21st century skills which were devised around 1990 as the SCANS report and which are really required of today’s family supporting careers, particularly since the widespread availability of computing power

7 Career Cluster project
IT Career Cluster and STEM Career Clusters created along with 14 others around 2002 IT has four pathways Programming and Software Development Web and Digital Communications Information Support and Services Network Systems (see Deborah Seehorn, “Computer Science: The Big Picture”, blog post 5/22/2012 <http://careertech.org> Pathway Programming and software development sometimes also called Software Engineering Pathway Web and Digital Communications is also sometimes called Interactive Media) Pathway Information support and services – sometimes includes references to databases Pathway Network Systems is also referenced as Network and Desktop Administration and Support

8 Academy of Information Technology
Created by the National Academy Foundation with industry partners Possibly the first comprehensive curriculum for IT Based on the Career Cluster approach, SCANS (P21.org) and other programs involving context-based project-based curriculum 2000

9 ACM/CSTA Model Curriculum for K-12 Computer Science
ACM (Association of Computing Machinery) is known for developing computer science curricula at the post-secondary level This was ACM’s (Association of Computing Machinery) 1st attempt to create a K-12 curriculum (2003) (after 3 attempts at HS curr) CSTA (Computer Science Teachers Association) became responsible in 2006

10 Perkins 2006 Reauthorization
This is the federal funding for Career and Technical Education programs This now requires that programs focus on the Career Cluster approaches This focus is to prepare students for both career AND college readiness This is way more than just teaching skills but is oriented around project-based real-world contexts for students

11 Workforce and Pipeline Issues
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12 Workforce and Pipeline issues
Since the “dot-com bubble” burst around 2000, there has been a severe decrease in number of students involved in computing Since around 2004, the career opportunities have increased with a corresponding decrease in courses offered and schools offering high school courses

13 Three Challenges The computing community in the US faces three significant and interrelated challenges in maintaining a robust IT workforce Underproduction Underrepresentation Lack of a presence in K-12 education (Jan Cuny, NSF CS10K Initiative) 13

14 The Bright Future For Computing Jobs

15 Total Employment in STEM in 2022
5 Million 4 Million 3 Million 2 Million 1 Million 0 Million Mathematics Physical Social Life Engineering Computing Sciences Source: Jobs data are calculated from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections , available at

16 Where the STEM Jobs Will Be Projected Annual Growth of Total STEM Job Openings 2012-2022
Source: Jobs data are calculated from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections , available at

17 Where the STEM Jobs Will Be Projected Annual Growth of NEWLY CREATED STEM Job Openings 2012-2022
Source: Jobs data are calculated from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections , available at

18 Quick Facts about Computing Jobs Though 2020
Computing and mathematics is one of the TOP 10 fastest growing major occupational groups 150,000+ job openings in computing annually. 1 in every 2 STEM jobs will be in computing in 2020. Messaging: Increasing employment growth for computing 1 in every 10 job openings in all occupations requiring at least a Bachelor’s degree is in computing. That will become even more favorable in 2020. 85% of computing job openings require at least a Bachelor’s degree. 91% of computing jobs require some type of post-secondary education. 1 in every 2 non-medical STEM job openings requiring at least a Bachelor’s degree will be in computing. Sources: Jobs data are calculated from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections , available at Educational levels are calculated from BLS Occupational Projections Data, Employment , available at and the BLS Occupational Outlook Handbook , available at

19 U.S. Employment through 2020 How Computing Stacks Up To Healthcare
Growth Rates 22% job growth rate in computing jobs, as comparable to healthcare job growth rates 51,000 projected shortfall in qualified health IT workers 90% of physicians to use electronic health records by 2019 as a result of the federal HITECH Act of 2009. Messaging: Increasing employment growth for computing HITECH Act of 2009 = Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act Shortages of healthcare computing professionals. Necessary to enhance productivity, improve quality of care and patient safety, medical records, medical advancements, etc. Sources: Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections , available at U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Blog on “UBT Program: Preparing the Health IT Leaders of Tomorrow, Today,” (May 12, 2011), available at Congressional Budget Office, Analysis of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act of 2009, available at ---- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) “projected shortfall of approximately 51,000 qualified health IT workers over the next four years” i.e. 51,000 trained post-Bachelor’s in degree or certification program. HHS Health IT Workforce Development Program funded by the Recovery Act and HITECH Act “The $2.3 billion US HIS market is expected to grow at a CAGR of nearly 12% and exceed $5.1 billion by The expected double digit growth in the US HIS market is the result of the healthcare reform initiatives brought in by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act, a part of the $787 billion American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of The HITECH Act, signed into law by President Obama in February 2009, allocated up to $27 billion in stimulus funds to accelerate health IT adoption. The reforms brought in by the Act have already provided a significant impetus to the process of healthcare reform through its mandated adoption targets of certified Electronic Health Record (EHR) technology by 90% of physicians and 70% of hospitals by 2019.” * Healthcare practitioners and technicians Sources: Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections , available at U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), HITECH Programs, Congressional Budget Office, Analysis of HITECH Act of 2009.

20 Where the STEM Jobs Will Be Degrees vs. Jobs Annually
Annual Job Openings Ph.D. Degrees Master’s Degrees Bachelor’s Degrees Associate’s Degrees Physical Social Life Engineering Computing Sciences Mathematics Sciences Sources: Degree data are calculated from the National Science Foundation (NSF), Science and Engineering Indicators 2014, available at Annual jobs data are calculated from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections , available at STEM is defined here to include non-medical degrees and occupations.

21

22 Largest STEM Occupations in 2020
Where the STEM Jobs Will Be Top 10 STEM Occupations by Total Employment in 2020 Messaging: Increasing employment growth for computing Largest STEM Occupations in 2020 All categories --- except computer support specialists --- require a Bachelor’s degree. Computer support specialists will be 20% of computing and mathematics occupations in 2020. Source: Jobs data are calculated from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections , available at STEM is defined here to include non-medical occupations.

23 Where the STEM Jobs Will Be Projected Growth of Selected STEM Jobs 2010-2020
2010 Total Employment % Growth 2011 Average Annual Salary Engineering and Architectural Managers 176,800 9% $129,350 Computer and Information Systems Managers 307,900 18% $125,660 Aerospace Engineers 81,000 5% $103,870 Software Developers, Systems and Applications 913,100 30% $96,250 Biochemists and Biophysicists 25,100 31% $87,640 Civil Engineers 262,800 19% $82,710 Database Administrators 110,800 $77,350 Environmental Scientists 89,400 $68,810 Chemists 82,200 4% $74,780 Anthropologists and Archeologists 6,100 21% $59,040 Sources: Jobs data are from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections , available at Salary data are from BLS Occupational Employment Statistics, May 2011, available at STEM is defined here to include non-medical occupations.

24 Pipeline of Talent in Computing

25 Higher Education Pipeline in Computing
Messaging: Need for increased education Data are not available for 1999. Data tables for S&E Indicators 2012, Freshman intending to Major , Additional Resources: https://webcaspar.nsf.gov/TableBuilder?expired_dt=1#m Source: National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Indicators 2012 and various years, available at Data are not available from 1999.

26 Higher Education Pipeline in Computing CRA Taulbee Survey Results
Messaging: Need for increased education Date are approximate The above approximates Figures B1 and B2 in the survey. (recent archived Taulbee reports) (all available archived Taulbee reports). Note: several years do not provide information on new enrollment of Master’s and Bachelor’s students. Additional Resources: https://webcaspar.nsf.gov/TableBuilder?expired_dt=1#m Source: Computing Research Association, Taulbee Survey , available at (providing voluntary responses from Ph.D.-granting universities on new enrollments and degrees awarded in their undergraduate CS/CE programs.

27 High School Advanced Placement Exams 1997-2011
Messaging: Need for increased education Physics B, C: Electricity and Magnetism, and C: Mechanics, combined Calculus AB and BC combined Computer Science A and B combined. B is no longer offered. Total Exams 2011: 3.4 million Total Exams 1997: million Source: College Board, Advanced Placement (AP) Exam Data 2011, available at Calculus represents the combined data of Calculus AB and BC. Physics represents the combined data of Physics B, C:Electricity and Magnetism, and C:Mechanics. Computer Science represents combined data of Computer Science A and B.

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29

30 Conclusion Possible formatting of next slide

31 Future Workforce (latest stats from 2012-2022)
Expected Growth in jobs is very high in CS/IT and Engineering CS/IT (us dept of labor: ) 2012 actual: 3,682,300 2022 projected: 4,333,600 Engineers (us dept of labor: ) 2012 actual: 1,589,600 2022 projected: 1,726,100 CS/IT 2010 actual 3,426, , (7.5% increase over 2010) 2022 projected 4,333, ,333,600 (3.5% increase over 2020) Engioneering 2010 actual: 1,519, ,589,600 (4.6% increase over 2010) 2020 projected: 1,679,400 1,726,100 (2.8% increase over 2020)

32 Projected Percentage Change in Jobs from 2012 to 2022
CS/IT, +18%, 651,300 new jobs Software Developers & Programmers, +25% Computer and Info Analysts, +26% Database Sys Admins & Network Arch, +13% Computer Support Specialists, +17% Security Analyst, Web Dev, CS Res, others, +4% Engineers, +9%, 136,500 new jobs CS/IT, +22%, 758,800 new jobs , % Software Developers & Programmers (1130), +25% 2022: (incl web developers) Computer System Analysts (1121), +22% 2022: (incl security analysts) Database Sys Admins & Network Arch(1140), +28% 2022: 13.0 Computer Support Specialists (1150), +18% 2022: 17 Security Analyst, Web Dev, CS Res (1111), others (1199), +15% (left off – cs research and others only) Engineers, +11%, 160,400 new jobs

33 Engineers, 544.3 (136.5 growth, 407.8 repl.)
Number of Job Openings due to Growth and Replacement through 2022 (in thousands) CS/IT, (651.3 growth repl) Software Dev & Prog, 522 (279.5 gr repl) Computer and Info Analysts, (155.2 gr repl) DB Sys Admin & Network Arch, (130.6 gr repl) Comp Support Specialists, (123.0 gr repl) Engineers, (136.5 growth, repl.) CS/IT, (758.8 growth repl) Software Dev & Prog, (314.6 gr repl) Computer System Analysts, (120.4 gr repl) DB Sys Admins & Network Arch, (130.6 gr repl) Comp Support Specialists, (110.0 gr repl) Security Analyst, Web Dev, CS Res, others, (83.3 gr repl) Engineers, (160.4 growth, repl.)

34 That’s nice data, but so what?
*Slide is from Ed Lazowska The instructional practices and assessments discussed or shown are not an endorsement by ACM or the U.S. Department of Education.

35 Two off-beat CS examples
There are about 600,000 unfilled manufacturing jobs; most require CNC CNC is computer programming In Model Railroading there’s a new way of running your railroad called Digital Command Control (DCC) You program your locomotives and accessories It also helps to understand binary numbers

36 Products need diverse perspectives
From June 4, 2012 Assoc Press article “Rockmelt CEO Eric Vishria says the competition to hire qualified women software engineers has heated up as companies see that they need diverse perspectives to build products that attract the widest audience. He said startups that don't hire women early in their existence risk creating a male- dominated culture that will put off potential female hires.”

37 Computer Science in Wisconsin

38 State of the State A large majority (over 85%) of Wisconsin school districts aren't even offering their students a path into the highest growing and best paying sectors of the 21st Century American economy. 38

39 In Wisconsin, ~ 25-30 AP CS teachers statewide
Perhaps another WI teachers offering some kind of programming course (Java, C++, VB, etc.) Over 400 high schools in our state. 39

40 CS10K – NSF-funded project
Goal: 10,000 more qualified CS teachers in U.S. high schools. PUMP-CS funded for is one of several funded proposals Four prongs: Growing our professional community Strengthening our professional community Linking our professional community Broadening the CS pipeline 40

41 Exploring Computer Science (ECS)
Targeted to 9th and 10th grade. Broad introduction to computing concepts and computational thinking. Inquiry, Equity, Content Essential preparation for AP CSP. Can teach ECS in your area, without 405 CS endorsement. (Less than 25% programming content.) 41

42 Exploring Computer Science (ECS)
Professional Development includes five day course in first summer. Begin teaching course in fall. Quarterly updates during academic year. Another five day session in second summer. In Los Angeles, Chicago elsewhere 42

43 CS10K: Strengthen WI teachers need 405 license to offer CS courses in K-12. CS Ed degree programs almost all dead across the state. Remaining programs feature methods courses that emphasize teaching CS the same way we always have, or are cobbled together from other fields of teaching. 43

44 Teaching Computer Science (TCS)
New methods course focused on bridging gap from teaching ECS to teaching AP CS Principles or other advanced CS courses. "Missing Link" for licensure. Support for "alternative certification paths”. This new course being developed as part of PUMP-CS will be taught in 2015 and 2016 Will become an online course after 2016 44

45 CS10K: Linking Focus groups around state, bringing together teachers, administrators and industry representatives Identify local and regional strengths Identify and destroy barriers to moving forward Educate and recruit 45

46 National CS Framework Exploring Computer Science (ECS)
Entry level CS course Computer Science Principles AP in AP Computer Science A Programming in Java

47 Exploring Computer Science
Developed in Los Angeles Unified School District with UCLA Pillars Inquiry 5Es Inquiry Learning Cycle Equity 6000 students served 75% indentifying as Latino or African American Content Accepted as CTE credit by University of California

48 Exploring Computer Science
Six Units Human Computer Interaction Problem Solving Web Design Introduction to Programming Computing and Data Analysis Robotics Inquiry and Project-based Tasks Role-playing, jig sawing, simulations, collaborative tasks, and problems w/multiple solutions

49 Additional Roll-outs Current partners include: Additional Information
Washington, DC: http://www.scs.howard.edu/research/PEECS Chicago: http://tasteofcomputing.org/ Oregon: http://www.techstart.org/exploringcs/ Santa Clara: http://www.scu.edu/engineering/cse/ecs/index.cfm Utah: http://people.westminstercollege.edu/faculty/hhu/ecs/ Additional Information

50 AP CS Principles AP course designed to be accessible to every student while building knowledge and skills that are endorsed by colleges and universities. Novel assessment 25% Performance Task Based 75% Computer-based Assessment Endorsed by College Board

51 AP CS Principles – Big Ideas
Computing is a creative activity Abstraction reduces information and detail to facilitate focus on relevant concepts Data and information facilitate the creation of knowledge Algorithms are used to develop and express solutions to computational problems Programming enables problem solving, human expression, and creation of knowledge The Internet pervades modern computing Computing has global impacts 51

52 Base Documents for the ECS and APCS courses
CSTA K-12 Standards (revised 2011) Computational Thinking

53 AP Computer Science A Traditional entry into CS major
Redesigned for Suggested labs Case study (Gridworld) removed Allows 20% more time for inquiry and project based learning Deep dive into Java programming

54 CSTA K-12 CS Standards

55 CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards (rev 2011)
These standards will provide students with basic computing skills and concepts at all grade levels in many disciplines will help encourage and develop creativity and innovation essential for high paying family supporting careers in the future

56 Knowledge for Today and Beyond (CS Standards Committee Philosophy)
We consider it critical that students be able to read and write and understand the fundamentals of math, biology, chemistry and physics. To be a well-educated citizen in today’s computing-intensive world, students must have a deeper understanding of the fundamentals of computing as well. Not only is understanding fundaments of math and the sciences, but in today’s computing-intensive world, students need deeper understanding of computing fundamentals

57 Context for New Standards
CSTA Model Curriculum was last revised in 2006 Much has been learned since then, including how to write standards that are consistent in format with those of other disciplines New tools and pedagogies have been developed to make computer science more accessible for all students There is still confusion between educational technology (the use of computers to support learning in other disciplines) and computer science

58 Context for New Standards
We define computer science as: “Computer science (CS) is the study of computers and algorithmic processes, including their principles, their hardware and software designs, their applications, and their impact on society.” Big ideas in CS (from Creativity Abstraction Data Algorithms Programming: Internet Impact Creativity: Computing is a creative activity Abstraction: Abstraction reduces information and detail to facilitate focus on relevant concepts Data: Data and information facilitate the creation of knowledge Algorithms: Algorithms are used to develop and express solutions to computational problems Programming: Programming enables problem solving, human expression and creation of knowledge Internet: Internet pervades modern computing Impact: Computing has global impacts Context for the new (2011) standards: CSTA Model Curriculum was last revised in 2006 Much has been learned since then, including how to write standards that are consistent in format with those of other disciplines New tools and pedagogies have been developed to make computer science more accessible for all students There is still confusion between educational technology (the use of computers to support learning in other disciplines) and computer science

59 Why Standards? Many states have a computer education requirement at the K-12 grade level but this has many different meanings. General computer knowledge and skills have been moving… Traditional HS courses may now be in elementary and middle school Keyboarding, General Computers, Office Programs, Computing Concepts are all clumped under "computing courses". Trends in the High School Curriculum CS is found in an elective environment Focus is on Standards and Assessment Computer Teachers – Certification requirements vary (if existent!)

60 Organizing Structure The standards are organized into Levels.
Each level covers a grade band. Level 1 covers what elementary students should learn Level 2 is thought of roughly equivalent to middle school Level 3 is for high school students Some overlap in grades was made as a conscious choice reflecting different school contexts (sometimes middle school is 6-8th sometimes it is 7-8th) and also noting that some high school teachers have given us feedback that 9th graders could benefit from learning experiences at Level 2 if they have not been exposed to computing prior to high school.

61 Level Definitions Level 1 (recommended for grades K–6)
Computer Science and Me Level 2 (recommended for grades 6–9) Computer Science and Community Level 3 (recommended for grades 9–12) Applying concepts and creating real-world solutions In Level 1, integrating basic skills with basic ideas about computational thinking Inspiring and engaging experiences Focus on active learning, creatitivity, exploration (Polya, Blooms, P21) Embedded within other curriculum areas In Level 1, elementary school students are introduced to foundational concepts in computer science by integrating basic skills in technology with basic ideas about computational thinking. The learning experiences created from these standards should be inspiring and engaging, helping students see computing as an important part of their world. They should be designed with a focus on active learning, creativity, and exploration and will often be embedded within other curricular areas such as social science, language arts, mathematics, and science.

62 Level Definitions Level 1 (recommended for grades K–6)
Computer Science and Me Level 2 (recommended for grades 6–9) Computer Science and Community Level 3 (recommended for grades 9–12) Applying concepts and creating real-world solutions In Level 2, CT as problem solving tool Ubiquity of computing as it facilitates communications and collaboration CT as means to address community-relevant issues Relevant experiences and promote proactive and empowered problem solvers Active learning and exploration in other curricular areas or in CS courses middle school/junior high school students begin using computational thinking as a problem-solving tool. They begin to appreciate the ubiquity of computing and the ways in which computer science facilitates communication and collaboration. Students begin to experience computational thinking as a means of addressing community-relevant issues. The learning experiences created from these standards should be relevant to the students and should promote their perceptions of themselves as proactive and empowered problem solvers. They should be designed with a focus on active learning and exploration and can be taught within explicit computer science courses or embedded in other curricular areas such as social science, language arts, mathematics, and science.

63 Level Definitions Level 1 (recommended for grades K–6)
Computer Science and Me Level 2 (recommended for grades 6–9) Computer Science and Community Level 3 (recommended for grades 9–12) Applying concepts and creating real-world solutions Level 3 3 courses focusing on different facets of cs moving toward mastering more advanced CS concepts and their application Creating virtual and real-world artifacts Exploration of real-world problems and application CT concepts Collaborative learning, project management, effective communication Level 3 is divided into three discrete courses at the high school level, each of which focuses on different facets of computer science as a discipline. Throughout these courses, students can master more advanced computer science concepts and apply those concepts to develop virtual and real-world artifacts. The learning experiences created from these standards should focus on the exploration of real world problems and the application of computational thinking to the development of solutions. They should be designed with a focus on collaborative learning, project management, and effective communication. Level 3 includes the following courses:

64 Level 3 Course Descriptions
Level 3A: (recommended for grades 9 or 10) Computer Science in the Modern World Level 3B: (recommended for grades 10 or 11) Computer Science Concepts and Practices Level 3C: (recommended for grades 11 or 12) Topics in Computer Science: Level 3A course, Computer Science in the Modern World, ECS – looks at 6 major areas Human Computer Interaction (HCI), Problem Solving, Web Design, Programming, Computing and Data Analysis, and Robotics Understand CS principles and practices Make informed choices on using appropriate computational tools and techniques in any career Appreciate breadth of computing and its impact Understand social and ethical impacts of technology use Level 3a should be available to all students. Its goal is to solidify students’ understanding of computer science principles and practices so that they can make informed choices and use appropriate computational tools and techniques in whatever career they decide to pursue. They should also appreciate the breadth of computing and its influence in almost every aspect of modern life. Finally, they should understand the social and ethical impact of various choices when they are using computing technology in their work and personal lives.

65 Level 3 Course Descriptions
Level 3A: (recommended for grades 9 or 10) Computer Science in the Modern World Level 3B: (recommended for grades 10 or 11) Computer Science Concepts and Practices Level 3C: (recommended for grades 11 or 12) Topics in Computer Science: Level 3B course, Computer Science Principles, is a more in-depth study of computer science and its relation to other disciplines, and contains a significant amount of algorithmic problem solving and related activities. One way to realize this course is by following the new AP Computer Science Principles course (www.apcsprinciples.org). Students should come away from this course with a clear understanding of the application of computational thinking to real-world problems. They should also have learned how to work collaboratively to solve a problem and use modern collaboration tools during that work.

66 Learning Outcomes Organized by Strands
Almost since its inception, computer science has been hampered by the perception that it focuses exclusively on programming. This misconception has been particularly damaging in grades K–12 where it often has led to courses that were exceedingly limited in scope (to programming) and negatively perceived by students. It also fed into other unfortunate perceptions of computer science as a solitary pursuit, disconnected from the rest of the world and of little relevance to the interests and concerns of students.

67 Five Strands in CS: Collaboration
Using technology tools and resources for collaboration Computing as a collaborative endeavor

68 Five Strands in CS: Computational Thinking
Problem solving Algorithms Data representation Modeling and Simulation Abstraction Connections to other fields

69 Five Strands in CS: Computing Practice and Programming
Using technology resources for learning Using technology tools for the creation of digital artifacts Programming Interacting with remote information Careers Data Collection and Analysis

70 Five Strands in CS: Computers and Communication Devices
Troubleshooting Networks Human vs Computers

71 Five Strands in CS: Community, Global and Ethical Impacts
Responsible use Impacts of technology Information accuracy Ethics, Laws and Security Equity

72 Computing Practice and Programming Strand map
Strand Computing Practice Levels in bands (color coded) Topics of strand as columns So you can either look across a grade band OR look at the progression of conceptual development in an area. So if I want to see the learning experiences associated with the Computing Practice Strand at Level 2…. If I wanted to see the progression of learning about Data Collection and Analysis in the Strand Computing Practice… CSTA K-12 CS Standards Pp 58-59

73 Example Strand for Level 2
Computing Practice & Programming The student will be able to: Select appropriate tools and technology resources to accomplish a variety of tasks and solve problems. (Using technology resources for learning) Use a variety of multimedia tools and peripherals to support personal productivity and learning throughout the curriculum. (Using technology resources for learning) Design, develop, publish, and present products (e.g., webpages, mobile applications, animations) using technology resources that demonstrate and communicate curriculum concepts. (Dig artifacts) Demonstrate an understanding of algorithms and their practical application. (Programming) Implement problem solutions using a programming language, including: looping behavior, conditional statements, logic, expressions, variables, and functions. (Programming) Demonstrate good practices in personal information security using passwords, encryption, and secure transactions. (Interacting with remote information) Identify interdisciplinary careers that are enhanced by computer science. (Careers) Demonstrate dispositions amenable to open-ended problem solving and programming (e.g., comfort with complexity, persistence, brainstorming, adaptability, patience, propensity to tinker, creativity, accepting challenge). (Careers) Collect and analyze data that is output from multiple runs of a computer program. (Data coll and analysis)

74 Computational Thinking
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75 Computational Thinking as a critical base for engaging CS in K-12
Computing and computer science are integral to most career paths Computational thinking (CT) must be a part of every curriculum. What is CT? Where does CT exist now? How will it affect K-12 education? Resources available Today Karen and I will talk about what CT is, that Computer Science from which CT is derived is integral to most problem domains and for students most career paths. We’ll spend time looking at CT in K-12 education and even encourage you to share where you are already including CT in your lessons. This short Survey is inserted into the webinar (this originally was a slide with the title Survey) Grade Level K-5, 6-8, HS, post-HS What subject(s) 75

76 Three Claims about Computational Thinking
Based on 9 computer science practices Connected to Common Core in Mathematics Unrivaled Method to get Computer Science experiences in K-12

77 What is CT? Critical Thinking + Computing Power
= Making Decisions or Innovating Solutions (Think “Create, Produce, Manipulate”) There are many definitions of computational thinking, but simply put: CT combines critical thinking skills with the power of computing to make decisions or find solutions. Skills needed to solve an equation, plan a project, or develop an outline for a writing assignment share similar qualities. They all include important problem solving competencies that students need throughout their lifetime. CT can magnify problem-solving skills needed to address authentic, real-world issues. (JK modified from original) 77

78 What is CT? Here’s a several minute animation
describing CT and its importance. Critical Thinking + Computing Power = Making Decisions or Innovating Solutions (Think “Create, Produce, Manipulate”) There are many definitions of computational thinking, but simply put: CT combines critical thinking skills with the power of computing to make decisions or find solutions. Skills needed to solve an equation, plan a project, or develop an outline for a writing assignment share similar qualities. They all include important problem solving competencies that students need throughout their lifetime. CT can magnify problem-solving skills needed to address authentic, real-world issues. (JK modified from original) 78

79 What is CT? The core principles of Computer Science are the basis for Computational Thinking. CT is the use of CS principles in problem domains There are many definitions of computational thinking, but simply put: CT combines critical thinking skills with the power of computing to make decisions or find solutions. Skills needed to solve an equation, plan a project, or develop an outline for a writing assignment share similar qualities. They all include important problem solving competencies that students need throughout their lifetime. CT can magnify problem-solving skills needed to address authentic, real-world issues. (JK added slide to original) 79

80 What are these core principles?
There are 9 concepts Data Collection, Data Analysis, Data Representation Problem Decomposition, Abstraction Algorithms, Automation Simulation and Modeling, Parallelization These are all essential to computer science There are many definitions of computational thinking, but simply put: CT combines critical thinking skills with the power of computing to make decisions or find solutions. Skills needed to solve an equation, plan a project, or develop an outline for a writing assignment share similar qualities. They all include important problem solving competencies that students need throughout their lifetime. CT can magnify problem-solving skills needed to address authentic, real-world issues. (JK added slide to original) 80

81 What are these core principles?
There are 5 dispositions Confidence with complexity Persistence in working through problems Ability to deal with open ended problems Ability to communicate and collaborate to achieve a common goal Tolerance for ambiguity There are many definitions of computational thinking, but simply put: CT combines critical thinking skills with the power of computing to make decisions or find solutions. Skills needed to solve an equation, plan a project, or develop an outline for a writing assignment share similar qualities. They all include important problem solving competencies that students need throughout their lifetime. CT can magnify problem-solving skills needed to address authentic, real-world issues. (JK added slide to original) 81

82 What are these core principles?
The Dispositions are important to preparing solutions to significant problems They also match well to the 8 Common Core State Standards – Mathematical Practices <http://www.corestandards.org/Math/Practice/> There are many definitions of computational thinking, but simply put: CT combines critical thinking skills with the power of computing to make decisions or find solutions. Skills needed to solve an equation, plan a project, or develop an outline for a writing assignment share similar qualities. They all include important problem solving competencies that students need throughout their lifetime. CT can magnify problem-solving skills needed to address authentic, real-world issues. (JK added slide to original) 82

83 Comparing CT Core Dispositions and CCSS Standards for Mathematical Practice
CCSS Standards for Math Practice Computational Thinking core dispositions 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them Confidence with complexity Persistence in working through problems 2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively Ability to deal with open ended problems 3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others Ability to communicate and collaborate to achieve a common goal 4. Model with mathematics Tolerance for ambiguity 5. Use appropriate tools strategically 6. Attend to precision 7. Look for and make use of structure Ability to deal with open-ended problems 8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning CT Dispositions: Confidence with complexity Persistence in working with difficult problems Tolerance for ambiguity Ability to deal with open-ended problems Ability to communicate and collaborate to achieve a common goal <http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards/mathematics/introduction/standards-for-mathematical-practice/>

84 Comparing CT Core Concepts and CCSS Standards for Mathematical Practice
CCSS Standards for Math Practice Computational Thinking core concepts 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them Data collection, analysis, representation Problem Decomposition/Analysis 2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively Abstraction 3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others Algorithms and Procedures 4. Model with mathematics Modeling & Simulation 5. Use appropriate tools strategically Automation 6. Attend to precision 7. Look for and make use of structure Parallelization Algorithms & Procedures 8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning CT Core Concepts Data Collection, Analysis, Representation Problem Decomposition /Analysis Abstraction Algorithms & Procedures Automation Modeling & Simulation Parallelization <http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards/mathematics/introduction/standards-for-mathematical-practice/>

85 CCSS: Standards for Mathematical Content High School: Modeling
Modeling Standards Modeling is best interpreted not as a collection of isolated topics but rather in relation to other standards. Making mathematical models is a Standard for Mathematical Practice, and specific modeling standards appear throughout the high school standards indicated by a star symbol (★). <http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards/mathematics/high-school-modeling/introduction/> While CT fits into all of the mathematical content standards areas, this one detailing modeling is of particular interest 85

86 CT for All Students The knowledge and skills that students need to know and be able to do by the time they graduate from secondary school. Bringing CT into formal K-12 education will provide our students with vital problem solving skills. CT is for students of all ages and can be learned and practiced in all disciplines. 86

87 Where do you find CT? In CS CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards
Exploring Computer Science course APCS Principles course Required for any National Science Foundation “Computing Education for the 21st Century” Proposal In Computer Science CT is the basis for one of the 5 strands which provide the framework for the CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards CT forms the basis for the recently developed year long CS course Exploring Computer Science, introducing 9th and 10th graders to CS. CT also forms the backbone of the developing APCS Principles course providing the framework for the many Big Ideas in this course. CT is a requirement for any NSF CE21 Proposal 87

88 Where else do you find CT?
technology and more specifically CS is part of almost all endeavors of life every 21st century citizen needs to have facility with computational thinking In Computer Science CT is the basis for one of the 5 strands which provide the framework for the CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards CT forms the basis for the recently developed year long CS course Exploring Computer Science, introducing 9th and 10th graders to CS. CT also forms the backbone of the developing APCS Principles course providing the framework for the many Big Ideas in this course. CT is a requirement for any NSF CE21 Proposal 88

89 CT in Other Sciences, Math, and Engineering some examples from Jeannette Wing
Biology - Algorithms for DNA sequencing of human genome Brain Science - Modeling the brain as a computer Chemistry [Madden, Fellow of Royal Society of Edinburgh] - Optimization and searching algorithms identify best chemicals for improving reaction conditions to improve yields 89

90 CT in more sciences Geology - Abstraction boundaries and hierarchies of complexity model the earth and our atmosphere Astronomy - Sloan Digital Sky Server brings a telescope to every child Mathematics - Four-color theorem proof Engineering (electrical, civil, mechanical …) - Boeing 777 tested via computer simulation alone, not in a wind tunnel

91 CT for Society Economics - Automated mechanism design underlies electronic commerce, e.g., ad placement, on-line auctions, kidney exchange Social Sciences - Statistical machine learning is used for recommendation and reputation services, e.g., Netflix, affinity card

92 CT for Society Medicine - Electronic health records require privacy technologies - Robotic Surgery Law - Approaches include AI, temporal logic, state machines, process algebras, petri nets - Sherlock Project on crime scene investigation

93 CT for Society Entertainment Arts Sports
Games Lucas Films uses 2000-node data center to produce Pirates of the Caribbean. Sports - Synergy Sports analyzes digital videos NBA games Arts - Art (e.g., Robotticelli) - Drama, Music, Photography - Programming for Musicians and Digital Artists 93

94 Stop and “chat” Here are the 9 CT concepts
Data Collection, Data Analysis, Data Representation Problem Decomposition, Abstraction Algorithms, Automation Simulation and Modeling, Parallelization As you think about what you teach, can you think of a lesson, topic, unit where one or more of these concepts would appear? There are many definitions of computational thinking, but simply put: CT combines critical thinking skills with the power of computing to make decisions or find solutions. Skills needed to solve an equation, plan a project, or develop an outline for a writing assignment share similar qualities. They all include important problem solving competencies that students need throughout their lifetime. CT can magnify problem-solving skills needed to address authentic, real-world issues. (JK added slide to original) 94

95 CT Operational Definition (handout)
[To presenter: Refer participants to the CT Operational Definition handout. As a presenter, you can decide if you want to walk through the operational definition via the slide deck or just use the handout. If you want to introduce the definition by slide use the next 4 slides (#15-18) and delete this slide.] The operational definition was developed by consensus of educators and CT advocates as a framework for CT in K-12 education. The operational definition was the bases for building resources for elementary and secondary school educators beginning to integrate CT into the classroom. The definition is made up of skills and dispositions or attitudes. 95

96 CT Operational Definition
Computational Thinking is The marriage of the big ideas in computer science (such as abstraction, algorithms, modeling, problem decomposition) with problems and big ideas in most other subject matter domains CT is multidisciplinary use of CS concepts (JK slide added) 96

97 CT Building Blocks (handout)
[To presenter: Refer to CT Vocabulary and Progression Chart handout] CT Building Blocks start with core concepts. At this time, there are 9 core concepts including: Data Collection, Data Analysis, Data Representation, Problem Decomposition, Abstraction, Algorithms & Procedures, Automation, Simulation, and Parallelization. These concepts are defined on the chart and then illustrated by grade band. 97

98 CT Building Blocks (handout)
[To presenter: Refer to CT Vocabulary and Progression Chart handout] CT Building Blocks start with core concepts. At this time, there are 9 core concepts including: Data Collection, Data Analysis, Data Representation, Problem Decomposition, Abstraction, Algorithms & Procedures, Automation, Simulation, and Parallelization. These concepts are defined on the chart and then illustrated by grade band. 98

99 CT is for All Teachers All teachers can and should be responsible for teaching skills, practice, and assessment of CT. This is not a “computer thing”. CT for all teachers: CT is cross-curricular, so all teachers are responsible for introducing, reinforcing, and assessing CT skills 99

100 CT for All Teachers Most teachers already incorporate CT basics, but may not know it. CT for all teachers: Most teachers already incorporate CT basics, but may not know it. 100

101 CT for All Teachers CT has a shared vocabulary that can be highlighted in lessons from every discipline. CT for all teachers: * CT has a shared vocabulary that can be highlighted in lessons from every discipline 101

102 CT for All Teachers CT is made up of foundational building blocks of concepts, skills, and dispositions that get more sophisticated as students get older. CT for all teachers: * CT is made up of foundational building blocks of concepts, skills, and dispositions that get more sophisticated as students get older * CT is cross-curricular, so all teachers are responsible for introducing, reinforcing, and assessing CT skills CT has a shared vocabulary that can be highlighted in lessons from every discipline Most teachers are already incorporate CT basics, but may not know it. CT doesn’t necessarily require computers. 102

103 CT for All Teachers CT doesn’t necessarily require computers. 103

104 CT Statement #1 CT is a key interdisciplinary component in preparing students to be successful in a globally competitive workforce. If students are going to be successful in postsecondary education and compete for and win jobs, they must have the critical thinking and problem-solving skills that CT provides (Wagner). Talking Points for District Leaders and Principals From ISTE CT Website, Computational Leadership Toolkit (8/22/11), p 42 Tony Wagner, Innovation Education Fellow, Technology and Entrepreneurship Center, Harvard U 104

105 CT Statement #2 CT is a critical enabling skill that will raise the level of achievement for all students, especially those who are traditionally marginalized. Successful students must be able to connect and apply academic content to real-world situations, and CT provides a framework for that learning connection (Marzano). Talking Points for District Leaders and Principals From ISTE CT Website, Computational Leadership Toolkit (8/22/11), p 42 Robert J Marzano, Marzano Research Laboratory 105

106 CT Statement #3 CT is already a learning strategy in many classrooms and lessons today. However, we need to more closely examine the uses of CT and identify and expand student and teacher awareness about its impact and power. This means we probably do not have to expend large sums of money. We just need to recognize and align CT strategies to current practices. Talking Points for District Leaders and Principals From ISTE CT Website, Computational Leadership Toolkit (8/22/11), p 42 106

107 CT promotes 21st Century Learning
Consuming content and parroting procedures is 19th and 20th Century 21st Century Education is about process, about learning tools and skills to remake content, create new learning and solve problems (think creators, producers) Not about just formal education in school but also about informal education – 24 hour learning – the network As noted in MacArthur Foundation studies, 21st century is no longer focused on content (which can be looked up and doesn’t need to be memorized) or memorized procedures, but rather on the process of creating that content and then using mash-ups and other means to create new content and procedures to solve new problems Re-Imagining Learning in the 21st Century: MacArthur Foundation Rethinking Learning: The 21st Century Learner: MacArthur Foundation 107

108 CT Features Contextual Multidisciplinary
Project-based and inquiry based Looking deeply at a problem Using abstraction + algorithms + analysis + bringing to bear any number of tools + possibly automation/computing CT Features which promote new approaches to learning – project-based, inquiry-based, reality based, multidisciplinary, deep analysis, using concepts from CS preparing for the use of automation to help solve problems (most major scientific and even non-scientific research revolves around stating problems in such a way that computers can then harvest and help evaluate data) 108

109 CT Resources CT Teacher Resources and CT Leadership Toolkit
CT Teacher Resources include: •   An operational definition of CT for K-12 Education •   A CT vocabulary and progression chart •   Nine CT Learning Experiences •   CT classroom scenarios CT Leadership Toolkit includes: •   Making the Case for CT •   Resources for Creating Systemic Change •   Implementing Strategies Guide   CT Teacher Resources and CT Leadership Toolkit For free download at Coming Soon! CT database for links to research and other teacher resources. 109

110 Thank you! Resources: Computational Thinking:
This presentation: NCWIT (National Center for Women and Information Technology) and other CS&IT Resources: (JK modified slide to include my CT wiki)


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