CST-091 Click your left mouse button to continue... © Delta College CST Faculty Module 1 Introduction to Computer Systems.

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CST-091 Click your left mouse button to continue... © Delta College CST Faculty Module 1 Introduction to Computer Systems

Input / Process / Output Cycle InputOutputProcessStorage Data enters the computer. In a payroll example, you key in 40 hours and a rate of \$10.00 per hour. The data is processed by the computer. For example, the pay is 40 times 10.00 or \$400.00 We need to see the answer – it is output. For example, the \$400.00 could be displayed. We may want to store the results for end-of-year taxes. The \$400.00 could be stored on disk.

Hardware  Physical parts of the computer  The things you can “touch”  The Processor  Input devices  Output devices  Storage devices

Process  Using the data that is in memory  For example: Calculating  Processing Hardware oMain Memory oCentral Processing Unit –Arithmetic/Logic Unit –Control Unit

Main Memory  Also Known As... oPrimary Memory oRandom Access Memory (RAM)  Holds program being run  Holds data being processed

Bits  Memory made up of bits  Binary Digits  Small electronic components  Can be “On” or “Off”

Bits  On --- has a value of 1  Off --- has a value of 0

Bits  So memory is a bunch of one’s and zeros. 11111000 OnOff On

Byte  A group of eight bits is called a byte  So, this is a byte... 11111000

Byte  Look at these 40 bits 0100010001000101010011000101010001000001  Broken into groups of eights, they become 5 bytes 0100010001000101010011000101010001000001

The ASCII Code  Each character is made up of 8 bits in a byte  So each byte contains a character oA Number (0 1 2 3 4 5 … ) oA Letter –Upper Case (A B C … ) –Lower Case (a b c … ) oA Special Character (\$ #., & … )

The ASCII Code  Each character has its own pattern of bits – in a code  The code that is used is called ASCII oAmerican Standard Code for Information Interchange oPronounced: “Ask-ee”

The ASCII Code  Look at these 5 bytes oThey contain 5 characters in ASCII Code oThey happen to be upper-case letters 0100010001000101010011000101010001000001 DELTA

Memory  Measured in number of bytes  K = Kilobyte oA “Kay” oA Thousand Bytes (1,000)  M = Megabyte oA “Meg” oA Million Bytes (1,000,000)

Memory  So, if you have 16 “Meg” of RAM oYou have 16,000,000 bytes of main memory on your system!  And, if your diskette is 1.4 M oIt can contain 1,400,000 characters! –(1.4 times 1,000,000 is 1,400,000)

1. In the standard processing cycle of a computer, the step that happens first is __________. A short quiz: Click on the best answer. AStorage BInput COutput DProcess ?

1. In the standard processing cycle of a computer, the step that happens first is __________. AStorage BInput COutput DProcess Whoops that’s wrong – please click here to try again.

1. In the standard processing cycle of a computer, the step that happens first is __________. AStorage BInput COutput DProcess Good for you, you got that one right! Click FORWARD

2. Where does data have to be in order to be processed by the computer? A short quiz: Click on the best answer. AOn the screen BOn the printer CIn RAM DNext to the keyboard ?

2. Where does data have to be in order to be processed by the computer? AOn the screen BOn the printer CIn RAM DNext to the keyboard Whoops that’s wrong – please click here to try again.

2. Where does data have to be in order to be processed by the computer? AOn the screen BOn the printer CIn RAM DNext to the keyboard Yes, data has to be in main memory before it can be processed.

3. How many bits are in a byte? Click on the best answer. A1 B2 C4 D8 ?

3. How many bits are in a byte? A1 B2 C4 D8 Whoops that’s wrong – please click here to try again.

3. How many bits are in a byte? A1 B2 C4 D8 Yes, each byte has 8 bits.

4. If a bit is “ON,” it has the value __________. Click on the best answer. A0 B1 C8 D1K ?

4. If a bit is “ON,” it has the value __________. A0 B1 C8 D1K Whoops that’s wrong – please click here to try again.

4. If a bit is “ON,” it has the value __________. A0 B1 C8 D1K Yes, an “ON” bit has a value of 1 and an “OFF” bit has a value of 0.

5. What is the code used to represent characters in a PC’s memory? Click on the best answer. ABit-Byte BIBM CASCII DMega-K ?

5. What is the code used to represent characters in a PC’s memory? ABit-Byte BIBM CASCII DMega-K Whoops that’s wrong – please click here to try again.

5. What is the code used to represent characters in a PC’s memory? ABit-Byte BIBM CASCII DMega-K Yes, the American Standard Code for Information Interchange.

6. Which is larger? Click on the best answer. A1M B720K ?

6. Which is larger? A1M B720K Yes, 1M is 1,000,000 bytes and 720K is only 720,000 bytes

7. How many bytes are needed to hold this: CST-091 Click on the best answer. A1 B6 C7 D8 ?

7. How many bytes are needed to hold this: CST-091 A1 B6 C7 D8 Whoops that’s wrong – please click here to try again.

7. How many bytes are needed to hold this: CST-091 A1 B6 C7 D8 Yes, there are 7 characters so 7 bytes are needed.

Data  Raw facts you want to process and turn into meaningful information  Data can be: oNumbers1 2 3 4 5 … oLettersA B C … a b c … oSpecial Characters \$ & !, ( ) …

Input  Entering data into the computer’s main memory  Translating data into a form the computer can understand  Input devices oKeyboard oMouse

Input: The Keyboard  Alphabetic keys like typewriter  Number keys oAcross the Top oOn Special Keypad on Right Side  Special Characters oOften Upper Case of Other Keys

Input: The Mouse  A Pointing Device  Controls position of pointer on screen  Pointer appears as different objects depending on what you are doing oArrow (pointing or selecting) oHand (pointing or selecting) oHourglass (waiting) oetc.

Basic Mouse Techniques  1.CLICKING oMove pointer to item on screen & press/release left mouse button once

Basic Mouse Techniques  2.DOUBLE-CLICKING oPoint at item & press/release left mouse button twice

Basic Mouse Techniques  3.DRAGGING oPoint at item, hold left mouse button down while dragging to new location – let mouse button up

Basic Mouse Techniques  4.RIGHT-CLICKING oMove pointer to item on screen & press/release right mouse button once

Output  Presenting information  We see the data that is in the computer  Output devices oScreen oPrinter

Output: The Screen  Also Known As: oMonitor oDisplay oCRT (Cathode Ray Tube)  Displays: oData being keyed in oInfo from program processing

Output: The Printer  Prints info out on paper from computer  Called “Hard-Copy”  For Example: oNon-impact Printer: Ink Jet Printer –Does not strike the paper –Can be color oLaser Printer –Very High Quality

Storage  Main Storage oHolds program being run oHolds data being processed oIn the System Unit oIs Volatile –Needs steady supply of electricity to keep its contents –Pull the plug – start over!

Storage  Secondary Storage o“Auxiliary Storage” –Hard Disk –In System Unit –Diskette –Portable oHolds programs and data when not being used

Secondary Storage  Hard Disk o“Fixed Disk” oInside System Unit oLarge Capacity oHolds: –Operating System –Programs –Data

Secondary Storage  3.5 Inch Diskette o“Floppy” or “Floppy Disk” oPortable oRelatively Small Capacity –1.4 M (1,400,000 bytes) oUsually Holds Data –Can Transfer Data to Other Systems

Secondary Storage  3.5 Inch Diskette oWrite-Protect Switch –Protect Data From Erasure oLower-Right Corner of Back –Sliding Black Plastic Switch –UP (Closed) –Can Read or Write –DOWN (Open Square) –Can Read –CAN’T Write! ReadWrite Not Protected Read Only Protected!

 Suppose you are running a payroll program on your computer.  The program will ask you for John Doe’s data – how many hours he worked and what his rate of pay is.  Once the program has John’s data, it will calculate his pay. oFor example, if John worked 40 hours at a rate of \$10.00 per hour, he has \$400.00 coming to him – before all the deductions are taken out!  Once John’s pay is calculated the program needs to print his check.  Also, the program needs to store John’s pay information for later tax processing.

Another Short Quiz …  On the next few screens, you will be presented with several steps in the Input / Process / Output / Storage cycle.  Click in the diagram for the step you are in.

8. You are sitting at the computer with John Doe’s time ticket – and you need to get his data into the computer: his hours worked and his rate of pay. Click on the step you are in … Another short quiz: Click on the best answer. ? PROCESS STORAGE OUTPUTINPUT

8. You are sitting at the computer with John Doe’s time ticket – and you need to get his data into the computer: his hours worked and his rate of pay. Click on the step you are in … PROCESS STORAGE INPUTOUTPUT No – please click here to try again.

8. You are sitting at the computer with John Doe’s time ticket – and you need to get his data into the computer: his hours worked and his rate of pay. Click on the step you are in … PROCESS STORAGE INPUTOUTPUT YES! You are INPUTTING John’s data. Click FORWARD Probably on the keyboard

9.Once John’s data is input, it is processed in the CPU by the payroll program. Once John’s pay has been calculated, his pay check is printed. Click on the step you are in now… ? PROCESS STORAGE INPUT Click on the best answer. OUTPUT

9.Once John’s data is input, it is processed in the CPU by the payroll program. Once John’s pay has been calculated, his pay check is printed. Click on the step you are in now… PROCESS STORAGE INPUTOUTPUT No – please click here to try again.

9.Once John’s data is input, it is processed in the CPU by the payroll program. Once John’s pay has been calculated, his pay check is printed. Click on the step you are in now… PROCESS STORAGE INPUTOUTPUT YES! The check is OUTPUT on the printer. Pay Check

By the way, which step would you be in if there was a problem with John’s data – for example, we tried to input –10 hours or he owed more on his deductions than he made? See my hint in the bottom left corner … PROCESS STORAGE INPUTOUTPUT The OUTPUT step: An error message would be displayed on the screen. Error Message

10. Uncle Sam and the Governor want us to keep track of John’s pay – so he can pay the correct taxes at the end of the year. If we save John’s payroll data, which step are we in? Click on the best answer. ? PROCESSOUTPUTINPUT STORAGE

10. Uncle Sam and the Governor want us to keep track of John’s pay – so he can pay the correct taxes at the end of the year. If we save John’s payroll data, which step are we in? PROCESS STORAGE INPUTOUTPUT No – please click here to try again.

10. Uncle Sam and the Governor want us to keep track of John’s pay – so he can pay the correct taxes at the end of the year. If we save John’s payroll data, which step are we in? PROCESS STORAGE INPUTOUTPUT YES! You are STORING John’s data. Click FORWARD Probably on the hard disk

Software  Instructions that direct the operations of the computer  A “Computer Program”  Two Main Categories oApplication Software oSystem Software

Application Software  Performs specific tasks for you  Tasks are called “Applications” oWord Processing oSpreadsheet oDatabase oCommunications oGraphics

Systems Software  Programs that manage the computer and its devices  Perform chores for you  The “Operating System” oe.g. Windows

Systems Software  An Interface between you and the computer hardware  An Interface between your application software and the computer hardware

The Operating System  An Interface between you (or your application) and the computer hardware  Starts and Initializes the computer (“booting”)  Coordinates system’s access to various devices (keyboard, screen…)

11. What is another name for “Software?” Click on the best answer. ASystem BCPU CComputer Program DProcessor ?

11. What is another name for “Software?” ASystem BCPU CComputer Program DProcessor No – please click here to try again.

11. What is another name for “Software?” ASystem BCPU CComputer Program DProcessor Yes, Software is a Computer Program.

12. Which kind of software controls the hardware? Click on the best answer. ASystem Software BApplication Software ?

12. Which kind of software controls the hardware? ASystem Software BApplication Software No – please click here to try again.

12. Which kind of software controls the hardware? ASystem Software BApplication Software Yes, System Software controls the hardware for you.

13. Which kind of software does some work for you – that is, which kind performs tasks for you? Click on the best answer. ASystem Software BApplication Software ?

13. Which kind of software does some work for you – that is, which kind performs tasks for you? ASystem Software BApplication Software No – please click here to try again.

13. Which kind of software does some work for you – that is, which kind performs tasks for you? ASystem Software BApplication Software Yes, Applications like Word Processing to create a letter.