Presentation on theme: "Electrical Energy and Capacitance Chapter 16. Review What is potential energy? –Energy at rest or energy due to position."— Presentation transcript:
Electrical Energy and Capacitance Chapter 16
Review What is potential energy? –Energy at rest or energy due to position
What is a conservative force? –A conservative force is a force that does work in such a way that the work done depends only upon the initial and final positions.
Frictional force is dissipative. The Coulomb force is conservative.
What is meant by the conservation of energy? –Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed.
Gravitational force is conservative. Gravitational potential energy depends upon mass, gravity, and position.
Introduction New concepts –Electric potential energy –Electric potential –Voltage between two points –Electric potential difference –Capacitance
Work Done on a Charge Electrostatic force is conservative –Work may be done by a conservative force
The equation for work done on a charge: Since F = qE W = (F)d = (qE)d
Electric Potential Electric potential (V) is a scalar quantity –It is defined as the energy per unit charge (J/C) at a given point –The unit for electric potential is the volt (1 volt = 1 Joule/Coulomb)
Potential Difference Definition of the potential difference ( V) between points A and B V = V B - V A = PE/q = -E. d The units are Volts or Joules /Coulomb
Electrical PE and KE A positive charge gains electrical PE when it moves against the field. A positive charge gains KE when it moves in the same direction as the field. 166, 16.2
A negative charge gains electrical PE when it moves in the same direction as the field. A negative charge gains KE when it moves against the field. 167
Potential Difference And Electric Potential A 12-volt automobile battery –Maintains a potential difference across its terminals The positive terminal is at a higher potential. (+ 12 volts) The negative terminal is at a lower potential (0 volts) and is connected to the car frame. Charge moves around the circuit. 16.3
Zero Potential A point of zero potential is usually defined by grounding some point in the circuit.
A point at infinity may be considered to be at zero potential in relation to a positive charge.
Electric Potential at a Point The electric potential, at a particular location, created by a point charge can be found by using: V = k e (q/r)
Electric Potential The electric potential depends upon only two things:
The electric potential exists at every point surrounding a given charge. –A second charge is not needed.
Electric potential is a scalar quantity. –If there are two or more charges, the potentials add algebraically at a given point. –no vectors to worry about
Electric PE Electric potential energy is the energy that a charge has due to its position in the electric field produced by another charge. It is measured in Joules. 133
The electric potential (PE) energy of a pair of charges can be found by using: PE = q 2 V 1 = q 2 (k e q 1 /r) PE = k e (q 1 q 2 /r) 16.7
The electric potential energy is positive if the charges are identical and negative if they are different.
Equipotentials No work is required to move a charge between two points that are at the same potential. W = -q(V B – V A )
All points on the surface of a charged conductor which is in electrostatic equilibrium are at the same potential.
The electric potential is constant everywhere on the surface of a charged conductor in equilibrium.
The electric potential is constant everywhere inside a conductor and equal to its value at the surface.
The Electron-Volt The electron-volt is the energy of an electron after it has been accelerated across a potential difference of 1 volt. –It is a very small unit of energy. 1 eV = 1.6 x J
Equipotential Surfaces What is an equipotential surface? –An equipotential surface is one where all points are at the same potential. 169
No work is required to move a charge at a constant speed along an equipotential surface. 134
The electric field at every point of an equipotential surface is perpendicular to the surface. 16.7
Equipotential Lines Equipotential lines –Two-dimensional views –Equipotential lines are always perpendicular to electric field lines , 170, 16.6
Applications Electrostatic precipitator –Power company smokestacks Electrostatic air cleaners –Furnace filters –Smoke eaters at party halls
How does a copy machine work? –Corotron –Selenium drum –Heated pressure rollers 165
How does laser printer work? 16.12
QUESTIONS 1, 4 – 7, 11 Pg. 564
Capacitors What is a capacitor? –A capacitor is made up of two parallel metal plates with a surface area (A) separated by a dielectric with thickness (d) 171
How it works: –Each plate is connected to one side of a battery –Charge flows until the plates have the same potential difference as the battery One is positive while the other is negative (+ Q and –Q) 68
The Definition Of Capacitance What is capacitance? –Capacitance is the ratio of the magnitude of the charge on either conducting surface to the potential difference between the two conducting surfaces. C = Q/ V Therefore: Q = V. C
What is the unit of capacitance? –Farad (F) Named after Michael Faraday 1 farad = 1 Coulomb/volt Microfarads ( F) and picofarads (pF) are more commonly used
Capacitance Applications Tuning stations on radio and television receivers Storing charge in electronic flash units Computer keyboards
The Parallel Plate Capacitor Factors affecting capacitance: –Area (A) –Separation (d) –Permittivity of free space ( o ) C = o A/d (in air) Also: k e = 1/4 o
o = 8.85 x C 2 /N. m 2
How things work: –Flash attachment
How things work: –Computer keyboard 173
Circuit Symbols Symbols for circuit elements –Battery –Capacitor –Resistor –Wires