Impacts of EcoTourism likely to cause more harm than good Selective benefit Trojan horse to gain entry to areas otherwise denied Solution: Certification unclear standards, not well known greenwash for few companies- largely western owned
Established 2003 by World Travel Tourism Council (WTTC) Only a symbol of commitment, not of achievement High fees Affiliation fee: $220 Benchmark sticker: S $395, M $1610, L $7500 Certification fee: ??
Sustain Tourism Stewardship Council (STSC) Accreditation body by UNWTO, UNEP, TIES, Rainforest Alliance, etc only regional network setup High operational costs High fee for accreditation status
Criticism on Certification Until demand increases, efforts doomed flawed and self-serving concept…[only for] First World interests Awards given to hotels and tour operators that only super-rich can afford X role models Tourism is essentially egocentric, and escapist activity
Social impact of ecotourism : increase in local awareness of their env :eliticist construct=> patronizes local communities Imposing artificial zooified lifestyle Ignorance of local ppls aspirations for higher living standards form of voyeurism
Environmental Impact of EcoT : Evidence that animal activities are disturbed May result in destruction of the very thing ppl come to see Big hotels require large amount of resources and facilities Golf course, spa, swimming pool, etc
Solutions Need rules on density and capacity ethical code among companies on visitor limits Stop promoting mass tourism; need fewer tourists who pay more More caretakers Guidelines for building in sensitive areas Certification becoming mandatory from voluntary
Interesting Sites Successful Ecotourism in Costa Rica http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Me ynzQz4SXk http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Me ynzQz4SXk Ecotourism explained by Duke U profs http://www.biology.duke.edu/bio217/ 2005/cmp8/index.html http://www.biology.duke.edu/bio217/ 2005/cmp8/index.html