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The Cold War – Suez Crisis to the Berlin Wall Part V.

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1 The Cold War – Suez Crisis to the Berlin Wall Part V

2 Suez Crisis (1956) President Nasser of Egypt, an Arab nationalist, was seeking funds to build an immense dam on the upper Nile for urgently needed irrigation and power President Nasser of Egypt, an Arab nationalist, was seeking funds to build an immense dam on the upper Nile for urgently needed irrigation and power America and Britain offered financial help, but when Nasser began to negotiate with the Soviets, Secretary of State Dulles withdrew the offer America and Britain offered financial help, but when Nasser began to negotiate with the Soviets, Secretary of State Dulles withdrew the offer In response, Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal (took it from British and French stockholders). This action cut into Western Europes oil supply In response, Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal (took it from British and French stockholders). This action cut into Western Europes oil supply

3 Suez Crisis (1956) The French and British sent troops, along with Israel, to Egypt in October 1956 The French and British sent troops, along with Israel, to Egypt in October 1956 President Eisenhower refused to support Britain and France because he believed they were the aggressors President Eisenhower refused to support Britain and France because he believed they were the aggressors Khrushchev was preoccupied with the Hungarian revolt, but still threatened Britain and France with ICBMs Khrushchev was preoccupied with the Hungarian revolt, but still threatened Britain and France with ICBMs The allies withdrew their troops, and a U.N. police force was sent to maintain order The allies withdrew their troops, and a U.N. police force was sent to maintain order

4 Suez Crisis (1956) Results: Results: –The British and French had failed to topple Nasser, so his prestige was increased among Arabs –The Egyptians blocked the Canal with sunken ships, disrupting trade –The Arabs reduced oil exports to the West, causing oil rationing for a while –British and French influence in the Middle East waned –Nasser took Soviet money and became an opponent of the West

5 Eisenhower Doctrine (1957) The president pledged U.S. military and economic aid to Middle Eastern nations threatened by communist aggression The president pledged U.S. military and economic aid to Middle Eastern nations threatened by communist aggression The real threat to the U.S. in the Middle East wasnt communism, but nationalism. The poor countries in that area decided to reap as much of the benefits of oil wealth as possible The real threat to the U.S. in the Middle East wasnt communism, but nationalism. The poor countries in that area decided to reap as much of the benefits of oil wealth as possible In 1960, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, Iran, and Venezuela formed the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). This organizations stranglehold on Western economies would tighten to a degree that no one couldve imagined In 1960, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, Iran, and Venezuela formed the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). This organizations stranglehold on Western economies would tighten to a degree that no one couldve imagined

6 Testing of the Eisenhower Doctrine: Problems In Lebanon (1958) In July 1958, both Egyptian and communist plotting threatened to endanger Western- oriented Lebanon In July 1958, both Egyptian and communist plotting threatened to endanger Western- oriented Lebanon Under the Eisenhower Doctrine, the U.S. landed several thousands troops and helped to restore order without a single person dead Under the Eisenhower Doctrine, the U.S. landed several thousands troops and helped to restore order without a single person dead

7 Space Race Soviets sent up the first satellite on October 4, 1957, called Sputnik I (first unmanned spacecraft to escape Earths gravity) Soviets sent up the first satellite on October 4, 1957, called Sputnik I (first unmanned spacecraft to escape Earths gravity) A month later they sent up a bigger satellite, called Sputnik II A month later they sent up a bigger satellite, called Sputnik II Cast doubt on Americas scientific superiority and raise the question of whether the Soviets could fire intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) to America Cast doubt on Americas scientific superiority and raise the question of whether the Soviets could fire intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) to America

8 Results of the Space Race NASA was created for missile development; they put into orbit a small satellite in February 1958 NASA was created for missile development; they put into orbit a small satellite in February 1958 By the end of the decade, several small satellites had been launched and successfully tested its own ICBMs By the end of the decade, several small satellites had been launched and successfully tested its own ICBMs Led to a critical comparison of the American educational system to the Soviets Led to a critical comparison of the American educational system to the Soviets –Congress passed the National Defense and Education Act (NDEA) of 1958 which authorized $887 million in loans to needy college students and in grants for the improvement of teaching the sciences and languages

9 Eisenhower and Khrushchev Summit Conference I Summit Conference I –Eisenhower and Khrushchev met at a summit conference in New York before the UN General Assembly in They proposed complete disarmament Camp David Meeting Camp David Meeting –Also met at Camp David, Khrushchev extended his ultimatum for the evacuation of Berlin indefinitely

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11 Eisenhower and Khrushchev Summit Conference II Summit Conference II –The follow-up Paris summit conference, in 1960, proved to be a fiasco. Both the Soviets and U.S. took a firm stand on the Berlin issue –Furthermore, an American U-2 spy plane was shot down deep in the heart of Russia. The plane flew more than 15 miles high. At such altitudes, American officials had assumed that the spy planes were immune to attack. The U-2 incident shattered this confidence and fanned resentment in the Soviets –The pilot, Francis Gary Powers, survived and served 18 months in a Russian jail

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13 Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) When JFK took office in 1960, his Defense Secretary Robert McNamara came up with this policy When JFK took office in 1960, his Defense Secretary Robert McNamara came up with this policy The idea was to build up your nuclear arsenal to make the counter-strike so frightening that neither side would use their weapons The idea was to build up your nuclear arsenal to make the counter-strike so frightening that neither side would use their weapons

14 Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) New methods of delivery meant that both superpowers could easily devastate the other: New methods of delivery meant that both superpowers could easily devastate the other: –Minuteman Missile – US missile that stored its fuel in its engine, be stored underground, and could fire within a minute –Polaris Submarine – Could move close to the Soviet Union in the North Pole area; the nuclear missiles one could carry would do more destruction than all the bombs dropped in WWII

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16 Single Integrated Operational Plan (SIOP) (1960) The U.S. military had prepared a plan for the possible launching of a first strike against the Eastern bloc The U.S. military had prepared a plan for the possible launching of a first strike against the Eastern bloc –3,200 nuclear weapons to 1,060 targets –130 cities would have been destroyed –Estimates were 285 million dead and 40 million injured

17 The Berlin Wall (1961) The Berlin Wall, constructed in 1961, represented physically the deep divisions of Eastern and Western Europe The Berlin Wall, constructed in 1961, represented physically the deep divisions of Eastern and Western Europe It prevented free access between the East and West sections of the city It prevented free access between the East and West sections of the city

18 The Berlin Wall (1961) Why the Wall? Why the Wall? –Many East Germans worked in West Berlin and saw the freedoms and wealth of the West –The best trained and educated citizens could earn much better money in the West (Brain Drain) –By 1961, 3 million had fled to the west to Berlin, as many as 1,800 per day –This was an embarrassment to Russia, who proclaimed the superiority of the communist system

19 The Berlin Wall (1961) –The Russians claimed that the Americans used West Berlin for spying and sabotage. The wall would keep East Germany safe –Comparisons between the lifestyles of the East and West would cease due to lack of contact –The wall would stop the flow of East German citizens to West Germany

20 The Berlin Wall (1961) Consequences of the wall: Consequences of the wall: –Berlin was split into two –Hundreds of East Berliners died trying to cross it –America complained, but did not try to take it down for risk of a war –Tension grew as both sides started nuclear testing –The West became more anti-communist

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