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Henry Cowell and Classical Iranian Music By: Meghan Truax.

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Presentation on theme: "Henry Cowell and Classical Iranian Music By: Meghan Truax."— Presentation transcript:

1 Henry Cowell and Classical Iranian Music By: Meghan Truax

2 Iran Population 69,515,000 Capital Tehran; 7,352,000 Language Persian, Turkic, Kurdish, various local dialects Area 1,648,000 square kilometers (636,296 square miles) Religion Shiite and Sunni Muslim Region Mountains and deserts

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4 Islam 98% of the population is Muslim which is evident in culture and music 98% of the population is Muslim which is evident in culture and music Basics of Islam: Basics of Islam: Founded by Muhammad in 622 CE Founded by Muhammad in 622 CE Views based on the Quran Views based on the Quran 6 main beliefs which include belief in a single, invisible God as well as angels and the divine scriptures 6 main beliefs which include belief in a single, invisible God as well as angels and the divine scriptures Viewed as a lifestyle or faith rather then a religion Viewed as a lifestyle or faith rather then a religion

5 Musical Origins Music derived from the combination of ancient Iranian and Persian origins Music derived from the combination of ancient Iranian and Persian origins Musicians generally respected in ancient times Musicians generally respected in ancient times Barbad-inventor of the lute and the beginnings of the maqam system Barbad-inventor of the lute and the beginnings of the maqam system System of 7 modes, 30 derivations, and 360 melodies based on the calendar System of 7 modes, 30 derivations, and 360 melodies based on the calendar Similar to western Church modes-see next Similar to western Church modes-see next Originally two types of music: The persian Classical Tradition and the dastgah Originally two types of music: The persian Classical Tradition and the dastgah

6 Iranian Classical Music Today has diversified into many styles including pop Today has diversified into many styles including pop Classically utilizes unique key signatures based on a 24 note scale with 50 cents between tones Classically utilizes unique key signatures based on a 24 note scale with 50 cents between tones Uses the Radif, a collection of short, memorized melodies called gusheh in seven modes or dastgah Uses the Radif, a collection of short, memorized melodies called gusheh in seven modes or dastgah Instruments may include the tombak, the ney, the tar, and a western violin that may be tuned according to the gusheh Instruments may include the tombak, the ney, the tar, and a western violin that may be tuned according to the gusheh

7 Ney Reed Flute 3 Octave Range Main wind instrument Tar Played with bras embedded in beeswax Central Asian origin Tombak Goblet Drum Also known as Donbak or Dombak May be played with metal rings on fingers Solos may last 10 minutes

8 Iranian Music and other cultures Belongs to a group of musical cultures derived from the maqam system Belongs to a group of musical cultures derived from the maqam system Datsgah in Iran Datsgah in Iran Maqam in Arabian and Sephardic Jewish music Maqam in Arabian and Sephardic Jewish music Mugham in Iranian Azeribaijani (ethnic group of northern Iran) Mugham in Iranian Azeribaijani (ethnic group of northern Iran) Makam in Turkey Makam in Turkey

9 Henry Cowell Born in 1897 in Menlo Park California Began playing the violin at the age of five Received little formal education, but began to compose in his teens Attended the U of C Berkley as a protégé under Charles Seeger Experimented with tonalities and non-western rhythms, developed techniques of string piano and tone clusters Was the leader in avant-garde composition in the 20s and 30s Was arrested on a morals charge in 1936 and was imprisoned for 4 years Paroled in 1940 and pardoned in 1942, when his music became more conservative though he remained progressive Traveled to many places, including a 3 month visit to Iran where he was the guest of Radio Tehran Died in 1965 after a series of illness

10 Homage to Iran by Henry Cowell Composed after his visit, meant to convey the essence of the area Composed after his visit, meant to convey the essence of the area Did not attempt to stay true to Iranian music Did not attempt to stay true to Iranian music 4 parts 4 parts Part 1-Adante Rubato Part 1-Adante Rubato Tombak and Violin-traditional Iranian Instruments Tombak and Violin-traditional Iranian Instruments Both instruments played in a westernized manner Both instruments played in a westernized manner Long tones in the violin with some nonwestern embellishments Long tones in the violin with some nonwestern embellishments Duple time in the rhythm section Duple time in the rhythm section

11 Dozarbi & Sehzarbi By Hossein Tehrani Similar driving rhythmic patterns and tempo Similar driving rhythmic patterns and tempo Different techniques used Different techniques used Rings Rings Different feel of time Different feel of time Free form vs western duple Free form vs western duple Same instrument, different style Same instrument, different style Short rhythms and wavering notes versus long clear melodic notes Short rhythms and wavering notes versus long clear melodic notes Shootshtari By Siavosh Zendegani

12 Works Cited Information Information Developments/dp/B000QQUOYK Developments/dp/B000QQUOYK Developments/dp/B000QQUOYK Developments/dp/B000QQUOYK https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ir.html https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ir.html https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ir.html https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ir.html

13 Pictures Pictures album/faryad/en_US album/faryad/en_US album/faryad/en_US album/faryad/en_US t.country/iran_344 t.country/iran_344 t.country/iran_344 t.country/iran_344 nry_cowell_playing_string_piano.jpg nry_cowell_playing_string_piano.jpg nry_cowell_playing_string_piano.jpg nry_cowell_playing_string_piano.jpg oserId_2872=297 oserId_2872=297 oserId_2872=297 oserId_2872=


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